Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC||M||AlexaFluor®488||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488. Liquid in Phosphate buffer with 15 mg/mL BSA as a stabilizer and 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||500 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Involvement of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 in rodent model of neuropathic pain.|
Huang, SY; Sung, CS; Chen, WF; Chen, CH; Feng, CW; Yang, SN; Hung, HC; Chen, NF; Lin, PR; Chen, SC; Wang, HM; Chu, TH; Tai, MH; Wen, ZH
Journal of neuroinflammation 12 59 2015
Many cancer research studies have extensively examined the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) pathway. There are only few reports that suggest that PTEN might affect pain; however, there is still a lack of evidence to show the role of PTEN for modulating pain. Here, we report a role for PTEN in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.We found that chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery in rats could elicit downregulation of spinal PTEN as well as upregulation of phosphorylated PTEN (phospho-PTEN) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). After examining such changes in endogenous PTEN in neuropathic rats, we explored the effects of modulating the spinal PTEN pathway on nociceptive behaviors. The normal rats exhibited mechanical allodynia after intrathecal (i.t.) injection of adenovirus-mediated PTEN antisense oligonucleotide (Ad-antisense PTEN). These data indicate the importance of downregulation of spinal PTEN for nociception. Moreover, upregulation of spinal PTEN by i.t. adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) significantly prevented CCI-induced development of nociceptive sensitization, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and weight-bearing deficits in neuropathic rats. Furthermore, upregulation of spinal PTEN by i.t. Ad-PTEN significantly attenuated CCI-induced microglia and astrocyte activation, upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and phospho-mTOR, and downregulation of PTEN in neuropathic rats 14 days post injury.These findings demonstrate that PTEN plays a key, beneficial role in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.
|CXCL12 in astrocytes contributes to bone cancer pain through CXCR4-mediated neuronal sensitization and glial activation in rat spinal cord.|
Shen, W; Hu, XM; Liu, YN; Han, Y; Chen, LP; Wang, CC; Song, C
Journal of neuroinflammation 11 75 2014
Previous studies have demonstrated that chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are critical for pain sensitization, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. In this study, we investigated the specific cellular mechanisms of CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine signaling in the development and maintenance of bone cancer pain after tumor cell implantation (TCI).TCI in the tibial cavity of rats was used to establish a bone cancer pain model. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were determined by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold and latency, respectively. The protein expression and cellular localization of CXCL12 and CXCR4 were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The sensitization of neurons, activation of astrocytes and microglia were examined by observing the immunofluorescence intensity of c-Fos, GFAP and IBA1.Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 was upregulated in a time-related manner, both in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord after TCI. Spinal CXCL12 was predominately expressed in astrocytes, and an intrathecal injection of astrocyte metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate or selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished TCI-induced CXCL12 production. A single intrathecal injection of a CXCL12 neutralizing antibody (10 μg/10 μl) at day 10 after TCI transiently reversed bone cancer pain in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas repetitive intrathecal administration of a CXCL12 neutralizing antibody (10 μg/10 μl, once a day from day 3 to 5 after TCI) significantly delayed the onset of TCI-induced pain behaviors for nearly five days. Spinal CXCR4 was also upregulated after TCI and colocalized with neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Blocking CXCR4 suppressed TCI-induced activation of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord at day 14. Repeated intrathecal administration of AMD3100 (5 μg/10 μl, once a day for three days) significantly delayed and suppressed the initiation and persistence of bone cancer pain in the early phase (at day 5, 6 and 7 after TCI) and in the late phase (at day 12, 13 and 14 after TCI) of bone cancer, respectively.Taken together, these results demonstrate that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling contributed to the development and maintenance of bone cancer pain via sensitizing neurons and activating astrocytes and microglia. Additionally, this chemokine signaling may be a potential target for treating bone cancer pain.
|Non-Gaussian diffusion imaging for enhanced contrast of brain tissue affected by ischemic stroke.|
Grinberg, F; Farrher, E; Ciobanu, L; Geffroy, F; Le Bihan, D; Shah, NJ
PloS one 9 e89225 2014
Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) considered so far as the "gold standard". The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI). As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF), the stretched exponential model (SEM), and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes.
|Ifit2 deficiency results in uncontrolled neurotropic coronavirus replication and enhanced encephalitis via impaired alpha/beta interferon induction in macrophages.|
Butchi, NB; Hinton, DR; Stohlman, SA; Kapil, P; Fensterl, V; Sen, GC; Bergmann, CC
Journal of virology 88 1051-64 2014
Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) limit viral dissemination prior to the emergence of adaptive immune responses through the concerted action of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although IFN-α/β induction by coronaviruses is modest, it effectively limits viral spread within the central nervous system (CNS) and protects against mortality. The protective roles of specific ISGs against the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) members of the coronaviruses are largely unknown. This study demonstrates a protective role of the ISG Ifit2 in encephalitis induced by the dual hepato- and neurotropic MHV-A59. Contrasting the mild encephalitis and 100% survival of MHV-A59-infected wild-type (wt) mice, nearly 60% of infected Ifit2(-/-) mice exhibited severe encephalitis and succumbed between 6 and 8 days postinfection. Increased clinical disease in Ifit2(-/-) mice coincided with higher viral loads and enhanced viral spread throughout the CNS parenchyma. Ifit2(-/-) mice also expressed significantly reduced IFN-α/β and downstream ISG mRNAs Ifit1, Isg15, and Pkr, while expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was only modestly affected in the CNS. Impaired IFN-α/β induction in the absence of Ifit2 was confirmed by ex vivo mRNA analysis of microglia and macrophages, the prominent cell types producing IFN-α/β following MHV CNS infection. Furthermore, both IFN-α/β mRNA and protein production were significantly reduced in MHV-infected Ifit2(-/-) relative to wt bone marrow-derived macrophages. Collectively, the data implicate Ifit2 as a positive regulator of IFN-α/β expression, rather than direct antiviral mediator, during MHV-induced encephalitis.
|Synthesis, transport, and metabolism of serotonin formed from exogenously applied 5-HTP after spinal cord injury in rats.|
Li, Y; Li, L; Stephens, MJ; Zenner, D; Murray, KC; Winship, IR; Vavrek, R; Baker, GB; Fouad, K; Bennett, DJ
Journal of neurophysiology 111 145-63 2014
Spinal cord transection leads to elimination of brain stem-derived monoamine fibers that normally synthesize most of the monoamines in the spinal cord, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) synthesized from tryptophan by enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH, synthesizing 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-HTP) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, synthesizing 5-HT from 5-HTP). Here we examine whether spinal cord caudal to transection remains able to manufacture and metabolize 5-HT. Immunolabeling for AADC reveals that, while most AADC is confined to brain stem-derived monoamine fibers in spinal cords from normal rats, caudal to transection AADC is primarily found in blood vessel endothelial cells and pericytes as well as a novel group of neurons (NeuN positive and GFAP negative), all of which strongly upregulate AADC with injury. However, immunolabeling for 5-HT reveals that there is no detectable endogenous 5-HT synthesis in any structure in the spinal cord caudal to a chronic transection, including in AADC-containing vessels and neurons, consistent with a lack of TPH. In contrast, when we applied exogenous 5-HTP (in vitro or in vivo), AADC-containing vessels and neurons synthesized 5-HT, which contributed to increased motoneuron activity and muscle spasms (long-lasting reflexes, LLRs), by acting on 5-HT2 receptors (SB206553 sensitive) located on motoneurons (TTX resistant). Blocking monoamine oxidase (MAO) markedly increased the sensitivity of the motoneurons (LLR) to 5-HTP, more than it increased the sensitivity of motoneurons to 5-HT, suggesting that 5-HT synthesized from AADC is largely metabolized in AADC-containing neurons and vessels. In summary, after spinal cord injury AADC is upregulated in vessels, pericytes, and neurons but does not endogenously produce 5-HT, whereas when exogenous 5-HTP is provided AADC does produce functional amounts of 5-HT, some of which is able to escape metabolism by MAO, diffuse out of these AADC-containing cells, and ultimately act on 5-HT receptors on motoneurons.
|HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Promotes Neurological Recovery, Peri-Lesional Tissue Remodeling, and Contralesional Pyramidal Tract Plasticity after Focal Cerebral Ischemia.|
Kilic, E; Reitmeir, R; Kilic, Ü; Caglayan, AB; Beker, MC; Kelestemur, T; Ethemoglu, MS; Ozturk, G; Hermann, DM
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 422 2014
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are widely used for secondary stroke prevention. Besides their lipid-lowering activity, pleiotropic effects on neuronal survival, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis have been described. In view of these observations, we were interested whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in the post-acute stroke phase promotes neurological recovery, peri-lesional, and contralesional neuronal plasticity. We examined effects of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin (0.2 or 2.0 mg/kg/day i.c.v.), administered starting 3 days after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 days. Here, we show that rosuvastatin treatment significantly increased the grip strength and motor coordination of animals, promoted exploration behavior, and reduced anxiety. It was associated with structural remodeling of peri-lesional brain tissue, reflected by increased neuronal survival, enhanced capillary density, and reduced striatal and corpus callosum atrophy. Increased sprouting of contralesional pyramidal tract fibers crossing the midline in order to innervate the ipsilesional red nucleus was noticed in rosuvastatin compared with vehicle-treated mice, as shown by anterograde tract tracing experiments. Western blot analysis revealed that the abundance of HMG-CoA reductase was increased in the contralesional hemisphere at 14 and 28 days post-ischemia. Our data support the idea that HMG-CoA reductase inhibition promotes brain remodeling and plasticity far beyond the acute stroke phase, resulting in neurological recovery.
|Prevention of JNK phosphorylation as a mechanism for rosiglitazone in neuroprotection after transient cerebral ischemia: activation of dual specificity phosphatase.|
Okami, N; Narasimhan, P; Yoshioka, H; Sakata, H; Kim, GS; Jung, JE; Maier, CM; Chan, PH
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 33 106-14 2013
Rosiglitazone, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist, prevents cell death after cerebral ischemia in animal models, but the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. In this study, we examined how rosiglitazone protects neurons against ischemia. Mice treated with rosiglitazone were subjected to 60 minutes of focal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Rosiglitazone reduced infarct volume after ischemia and reperfusion. We show that this neuroprotective effect was reversed with a PPARγ antagonist. Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in expression of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38) in ischemic brain tissue. Rosiglitazone blocked this increase. Furthermore, we observed that rosiglitazone increased expression of the dual-specificity phosphatase 8 (DUSP8) protein and messenger RNA in ischemic brain tissue. Dual-specificity phosphatase 8 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase that can dephosphorylate JNK and p38. Another key finding of the present study was that knockdown of DUSP8 in primary cultured cortical neurons that were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation diminished rosiglitazone's effect on downregulation of JNK phosphorylation. Thus, rosiglitazone's neuroprotective effect after ischemia is mediated by blocking JNK phosphorylation induced by ischemia via DUSP8 upregulation.
|Alterations in sulfated chondroitin glycosaminoglycans following controlled cortical impact injury in mice.|
Yi, JH; Katagiri, Y; Susarla, B; Figge, D; Symes, AJ; Geller, HM
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 3295-313 2012
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) play a pivotal role in many neuronal growth mechanisms including axon guidance and the modulation of repair processes following injury to the spinal cord or brain. Many actions of CSPGs in the central nervous system (CNS) are governed by the specific sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains attached to CSPG core proteins. To elucidate the role of CSPGs and sulfated GAG chains following traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cortical impact injury of mild to moderate severity was performed over the left sensory motor cortex in mice. Using immunoblotting and immunostaining, we found that TBI resulted in an increase in the CSPGs neurocan and NG2 expression in a tight band surrounding the injury core, which overlapped with the presence of 4-sulfated CS GAGs but not with 6-sulfated GAGs. This increase was observed as early as 7 days post injury (dpi), and persisted for up to 28 dpi. Labeling with markers against microglia/macrophages, NG2+ cells, fibroblasts, and astrocytes showed that these cells were all localized in the area, suggesting multiple origins of chondroitin-4-sulfate increase. TBI also caused a decrease in the expression of aggrecan and phosphacan in the pericontusional cortex with a concomitant reduction in the number of perineuronal nets. In summary, we describe a dual response in CSPGs whereby they may be actively involved in complex repair processes following TBI.
|Characterization of inducible models of Tay-Sachs and related disease.|
Sargeant, TJ; Drage, DJ; Wang, S; Apostolakis, AA; Cox, TM; Cachón-González, MB
PLoS genetics 8 e1002943 2012
Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases are lethal inborn errors of acid β-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity, characterized by lysosomal storage of GM2 ganglioside and related glycoconjugates in the nervous system. The molecular events that lead to irreversible neuronal injury accompanied by gliosis are unknown; but gene transfer, when undertaken before neurological signs are manifest, effectively rescues the acute neurodegenerative illness in Hexb-/- (Sandhoff) mice that lack β-hexosaminidases A and B. To define determinants of therapeutic efficacy and establish a dynamic experimental platform to systematically investigate cellular pathogenesis of GM2 gangliosidosis, we generated two inducible experimental models. Reversible transgenic expression of β-hexosaminidase directed by two promoters, mouse Hexb and human Synapsin 1 promoters, permitted progression of GM2 gangliosidosis in Sandhoff mice to be modified at pre-defined ages. A single auto-regulatory tetracycline-sensitive expression cassette controlled expression of transgenic Hexb in the brain of Hexb-/- mice and provided long-term rescue from the acute neuronopathic disorder, as well as the accompanying pathological storage of glycoconjugates and gliosis in most parts of the brain. Ultimately, late-onset brainstem and ventral spinal cord pathology occurred and was associated with increased tone in the limbs. Silencing transgenic Hexb expression in five-week-old mice induced stereotypic signs and progression of Sandhoff disease, including tremor, bradykinesia, and hind-limb paralysis. As in germline Hexb-/- mice, these neurodegenerative manifestations advanced rapidly, indicating that the pathogenesis and progression of GM2 gangliosidosis is not influenced by developmental events in the maturing nervous system.
|Impairment of retrograde neuronal transport in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy demonstrated by molecular imaging.|
Schellingerhout, D; LeRoux, LG; Hobbs, BP; Bredow, S
PloS one 7 e45776 2012
The purpose of our study was to utilize a molecular imaging technology based on the retrograde axonal transport mechanism (neurography), to determine if oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity affects retrograde axonal transport in an animal model.Mice (n = 8/group) were injected with a cumulative dose of 30 mg/kg oxaliplatin (sufficient to induce neurotoxicity) or dextrose control injections. Intramuscular injections of Tetanus Toxin C-fragment (TTc) labeled with Alexa 790 fluorescent dye were done (15 ug/20 uL) in the left calf muscles, and in vivo fluorescent imaging performed (0-60 min) at baseline, and then weekly for 5 weeks, followed by 2-weekly imaging out to 9 weeks. Tissues were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis.With sham treatment, TTc transport causes fluorescent signal intensity over the thoracic spine to increase from 0 to 60 minutes after injection. On average, fluorescence signal increased 722%+/-117% (Mean+/-SD) from 0 to 60 minutes. Oxaliplatin treated animals had comparable transport at baseline (787%+/-140%), but transport rapidly decreased through the course of the study, falling to 363%+/-88%, 269%+/-96%, 191%+/-58%, 121%+/-39%, 75%+/-21% with each successive week and stabilizing around 57% (+/-15%) at 7 weeks. Statistically significant divergence occurred at approximately 3 weeks (p≤0.05, linear mixed-effects regression model). Quantitative immuno-fluorescence histology with a constant cutoff threshold showed reduced TTc in the spinal cord at 7 weeks for treated animals versus controls (5.2 Arbitrary Units +/-0.52 vs 7.1 AU +/-1.38, pless than 0.0004, T-test). There was no significant difference in neural cell mass between the two groups as shown with NeuN staining (10.2+/-1.21 vs 10.5 AU +/-1.53, pgreater than 0.56, T-test).We show-for the first time to our knowledge-that neurographic in vivo molecular imaging can demonstrate imaging changes in a model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Impaired retrograde neural transport is suggested to be an important part of the pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.