Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Ch, Ft, H, M, Po, R, Sal||FC, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse immunoglobulin IgG1 liquid in buffer containing 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||500 µg|
Anti-NeuN Antibody, clone A60 SDS
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60||3075598|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2118033||2118033|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2375608||2375608|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2392283||2392283|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2424507||2424507|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2428671||2428671|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2453249||2453249|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 1991263||1991263|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2062313||2062313|
|Anti-NeuN, clone A60 - 2074765||2074765|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Effects of sleep and wake on astrocytes: clues from molecular and ultrastructural studies.|
Bellesi, M; de Vivo, L; Tononi, G; Cirelli, C
BMC biology 13 66 2015
Astrocytes can mediate neurovascular coupling, modulate neuronal excitability, and promote synaptic maturation and remodeling. All these functions are likely to be modulated by the sleep/wake cycle, because brain metabolism, neuronal activity and synaptic turnover change as a function of behavioral state. Yet, little is known about the effects of sleep and wake on astrocytes.Here we show that sleep and wake strongly affect both astrocytic gene expression and ultrastructure in the mouse brain. Using translating ribosome affinity purification technology and microarrays, we find that 1.4 % of all astrocytic transcripts in the forebrain are dependent on state (three groups, sleep, wake, short sleep deprivation; six mice per group). Sleep upregulates a few select genes, like Cirp and Uba1, whereas wake upregulates many genes related to metabolism, the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton, including Trio, Synj2 and Gem, which are involved in the elongation of peripheral astrocytic processes. Using serial block face scanning electron microscopy (three groups, sleep, short sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction; three mice per group, greater than 100 spines per mouse, 3D), we find that a few hours of wake are sufficient to bring astrocytic processes closer to the synaptic cleft, while chronic sleep restriction also extends the overall astrocytic coverage of the synapse, including at the axon-spine interface, and increases the available astrocytic surface in the neuropil.Wake-related changes likely reflect an increased need for glutamate clearance, and are consistent with an overall increase in synaptic strength when sleep is prevented. The reduced astrocytic coverage during sleep, instead, may favor glutamate spillover, thus promoting neuronal synchronization during non-rapid eye movement sleep.
|Subset of early radial glial progenitors that contribute to the development of callosal neurons is absent from avian brain.|
García-Moreno, F; Molnár, Z
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 E5058-67 2015
The classical view of mammalian cortical development suggests that pyramidal neurons are generated in a temporal sequence, with all radial glial cells (RGCs) contributing to both lower and upper neocortical layers. A recent opposing proposal suggests there is a subgroup of fate-restricted RGCs in the early neocortex, which generates only upper-layer neurons. Little is known about the existence of fate restriction of homologous progenitors in other vertebrate species. We investigated the lineage of selected Emx2+ [vertebrate homeobox gene related to Drosophila empty spiracles (ems)] RGCs in mouse neocortex and chick forebrain and found evidence for both sequential and fate-restricted programs only in mouse, indicating that these complementary populations coexist in the developing mammalian but not avian brain. Among a large population of sequentially programmed RGCs in the mouse brain, a subset of self-renewing progenitors lack neurogenic potential during the earliest phase of corticogenesis. After a considerable delay, these progenitors generate callosal upper-layer neurons and glia. On the other hand, we found no homologous delayed population in any sectors of the chick forebrain. This finding suggests that neurogenic delay of selected RGCs may be unique to mammals and possibly associated with the evolution of the corpus callosum.
|Attenuation of Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Smad1 Deficient Mice.|
Wong, JK; Chen, L; Huang, Y; Sehba, FA; Friedel, RH; Zou, H
PloS one 10 e0136967 2015
Stroke results in brain tissue damage from ischemia and oxidative stress. Molecular regulators of the protective versus deleterious cellular responses after cerebral ischemia remain to be identified. Here, we show that deletion of Smad1, a conserved transcription factor that mediates canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, results in neuroprotection in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) stroke model. Uninjured mice with conditional deletion of Smad1 in the CNS (Smad1 cKO) displayed upregulation of the reactive astrocyte marker GFAP and hypertrophic morphological changes in astrocytes compared to littermate controls. Additionally, cultured Smad1(-/-) astrocytes exhibited an enhanced antioxidant capacity. When subjected to I/R injury by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), Smad1 cKO mice showed enhanced neuronal survival and improved neurological recovery at 7 days post-stroke. This neuroprotective phenotype is associated with attenuated reactive astrocytosis and neuroinflammation, along with reductions in oxidative stress, p53 induction, and apoptosis. Our data suggest that Smad1-mediated signaling pathway is involved in stroke pathophysiology and may present a new potential target for stroke therapy.
|Effects of Mild Chronic Intermittent Cold Exposure on Rat Organs.|
Wang, X; Che, H; Zhang, W; Wang, J; Ke, T; Cao, R; Meng, S; Li, D; Weiming, O; Chen, J; Luo, W
International journal of biological sciences 11 1171-80 2015
Cold adaptation is a body's protective response to cold stress. Mild chronic intermittent cold (CIC) exposure has been used to generate animal models for cold adaptation studies. However, the effects of mild CIC exposure on vital organs are not completely characterized. In the present study, we exposed rats to mild CIC for two weeks, and then measured the body weights, the weights of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the levels of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brains, livers, hearts, muscles and BATs. Rats formed cold adaptation after exposure to CIC for two weeks. Compared to rats of the control group that were hosted under ambient temperature, rats exposed to mild CIC showed a lower average body weight, but a higher weight of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Rats exposed to CIC for two weeks also exhibited higher levels of ATP and ROS in all examined organs as compared to those of the control group. In addition, we determined the expression levels of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (Cirbp) and thioredoxin (TRX) in rat tissues after 2 weeks of CIC exposure. Both Cirbp and TRX were increased, suggesting a role of these two proteins for establishment of cold adaptation. Together, this study reveals the effects of mild CIC exposure on vital organs of rats during CIC exposure.
|Cytoplasmic mislocalization of RNA splicing factors and aberrant neuronal gene splicing in TDP-43 transgenic pig brain.|
Wang, G; Yang, H; Yan, S; Wang, CE; Liu, X; Zhao, B; Ouyang, Z; Yin, P; Liu, Z; Zhao, Y; Liu, T; Fan, N; Guo, L; Li, S; Li, XJ; Lai, L
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 42 2015
TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein, but it is redistributed in the neuronal cytoplasm in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Because small transgenic animal models often lack cytoplasmic TDP-43, how the cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 contributes to these diseases remains unclear. The current study is aimed at studying the mechanism of cytoplasmic pathology of TDP-43.We established transgenic pigs expressing mutant TDP-43 (M337V). This pig model shows severe phenotypes and early death. We found that transgenic TDP-43 is also distributed in the cytoplasm of neuronal cells in the spinal cord and brain. Transgenic TDP-43 interacts with PSF, an RNA splicing factor that associates with NeuN to regulate neuronal RNA splicing. The interaction of TDP-43, PSF and NeuN causes PSF and NeuN mislocalize into the neuronal cytoplasm in transgenic pigs. Consistently, abnormal PSF-related neuronal RNA splicing is seen in TDP-43 transgenic pigs. The cytoplasmic localization of PSF and NeuN as well as abnormal PSF-related neuronal RNA splicing was also found in ALS patient brains.Our findings from a large mammalian model suggest that cytoplasmic mutant TDP-43 could reduce the nuclear function of RNA splicing factors, contributing to neuropathology.
|Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells.|
Huckleberry, KA; Kane, GA; Mathis, RJ; Cook, SG; Clutton, JE; Drew, MR
Frontiers in systems neuroscience 9 118 2015
Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature granule cells but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born granule cells. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature neurons or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult-born neurons.
|Breadth of tuning in taste afferent neurons varies with stimulus strength.|
Wu, A; Dvoryanchikov, G; Pereira, E; Chaudhari, N; Roper, SD
Nature communications 6 8171 2015
Gustatory stimuli are detected by taste buds and transmitted to the hindbrain via sensory afferent neurons. Whether each taste quality (sweet, bitter and so on) is encoded by separate neurons ('labelled lines') remains controversial. We used mice expressing GCaMP3 in geniculate ganglion sensory neurons to investigate taste-evoked activity. Using confocal calcium imaging, we recorded responses to oral stimulation with prototypic taste stimuli. Up to 69% of neurons respond to multiple tastants. Moreover, neurons tuned to a single taste quality at low concentration become more broadly tuned when stimuli are presented at higher concentration. Responses to sucrose and monosodium glutamate are most related. Although mice prefer dilute NaCl solutions and avoid concentrated NaCl, we found no evidence for two separate populations of sensory neurons that encode this distinction. Altogether, our data suggest that taste is encoded by activity in patterns of peripheral sensory neurons and challenge the notion of strict labelled line coding.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum.|
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Vibrissa Self-Motion and Touch Are Reliably Encoded along the Same Somatosensory Pathway from Brainstem through Thalamus.|
Moore, JD; Mercer Lindsay, N; Deschênes, M; Kleinfeld, D
PLoS biology 13 e1002253 2015
Active sensing involves the fusion of internally generated motor events with external sensation. For rodents, active somatosensation includes scanning the immediate environment with the mystacial vibrissae. In doing so, the vibrissae may touch an object at any angle in the whisk cycle. The representation of touch and vibrissa self-motion may in principle be encoded along separate pathways, or share a single pathway, from the periphery to cortex. Past studies established that the spike rates in neurons along the lemniscal pathway from receptors to cortex, which includes the principal trigeminal and ventral-posterior-medial thalamic nuclei, are substantially modulated by touch. In contrast, spike rates along the paralemniscal pathway, which includes the rostral spinal trigeminal interpolaris, posteromedial thalamic, and ventral zona incerta nuclei, are only weakly modulated by touch. Here we find that neurons along the lemniscal pathway robustly encode rhythmic whisking on a cycle-by-cycle basis, while encoding along the paralemniscal pathway is relatively poor. Thus, the representations of both touch and self-motion share one pathway. In fact, some individual neurons carry both signals, so that upstream neurons with a supralinear gain function could, in principle, demodulate these signals to recover the known decoding of touch as a function of vibrissa position in the whisk cycle.
|Forebrain microglia from wild-type but not adult 5xFAD mice prevent amyloid-β plaque formation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.|
Hellwig, S; Masuch, A; Nestel, S; Katzmarski, N; Meyer-Luehmann, M; Biber, K
Scientific reports 5 14624 2015
The role of microglia in amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition is controversial. In the present study, an organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) system with an in vivo-like microglial-neuronal environment was used to investigate the potential contribution of microglia to Aβ plaque formation. We found that microglia ingested Aβ, thereby preventing plaque formation in OHSCs. Conversely, Aβ deposits formed rapidly in microglia-free wild-type slices. The capacity to prevent Aβ plaque formation was absent in forebrain microglia from young adult but not juvenile 5xFamilial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mice. Since no loss of Aβ clearance capacity was observed in both wild-type and cerebellar microglia from 5xFAD animals, the high Aβ1-42 burden in the forebrain of 5xFAD animals likely underlies the exhaustion of microglial Aβ clearance capacity. These data may therefore explain why Aβ plaque formation has never been described in wild-type mice, and point to a beneficial role of microglia in AD pathology. We also describe a new method to study Aβ plaque formation in a cell culture setting.