|Human liver stem cell-derived microvesicles inhibit hepatoma growth in SCID mice by delivering antitumor microRNAs.|
Fonsato, V; Collino, F; Herrera, MB; Cavallari, C; Deregibus, MC; Cisterna, B; Bruno, S; Romagnoli, R; Salizzoni, M; Tetta, C; Camussi, G
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
Microvesicles (MVs) play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. Recent studies demonstrated that MVs may transfer genetic information between cells. Here, we show that MVs derived from human adult liver stem cells (HLSC) may reprogram in vitro HepG2 hepatoma and primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting their growth and survival. In vivo intratumor administration of MVs induced regression of ectopic tumors developed in SCID mice. We suggest that the mechanism of action is related to the delivery of microRNAs (miRNAs) from HLSC-derived MVs (MV-HLSC) to tumor cells on the basis of the following evidence: (a) the rapid, CD29-mediated internalization of MV-HLSC in HepG2 and the inhibition of tumor cell growth after MV uptake; (b) the transfer by MV-HLSC of miRNAs with potential antitumor activity that was downregulated in HepG2 cells with respect to normal hepatocytes; (c) the abrogation of the MV-HLSC antitumor effect after MV pretreatment with RNase or generation of MVs depleted of miRNAs; (d) the relevance of selected miRNAs was proven by transfecting HepG2 with miRNA mimics. The antitumor effect of MV-HLSC was also observed in tumors other than liver such as lymphoblastoma and glioblastoma. These results suggest that the delivery of selected miRNAs by MVs derived from stem cells may inhibit tumor growth and stimulate apoptosis.
|Validation of the cardiosphere method to culture cardiac progenitor cells from myocardial tissue.|
Davis, DR; Zhang, Y; Smith, RR; Cheng, K; Terrovitis, J; Malliaras, K; Li, TS; White, A; Makkar, R; Marbán, E
At least four laboratories have shown that endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) can be grown directly from adult heart tissue in primary culture, as cardiospheres or their progeny (cardiosphere-derived cells, CDCs). Indeed, CDCs are already being tested in a clinical trial for cardiac regeneration. Nevertheless, the validity of the cardiosphere strategy to generate CPCs has been called into question by reports based on variant methods. In those reports, cardiospheres are argued to be cardiomyogenic only because of retained cardiomyocytes, and stem cell activity has been proposed to reflect hematological contamination. We use a variety of approaches (including genetic lineage tracing) to show that neither artifact is applicable to cardiospheres and CDCs grown using established methods, and we further document the stem cell characteristics (namely, clonogenicity and multilineage potential) of CDCs.CPCs were expanded from human endomyocardial biopsies (n = 160), adult bi-transgenic MerCreMer-Z/EG mice (n = 6), adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 18), adult GFP(+) C57BL/6 transgenic mice (n = 3), Yucatan mini pigs (n = 67), adult SCID beige mice (n = 8), and adult Wistar-Kyoto rats (n = 80). Cellular yield was enhanced by collagenase digestion and process standardization; yield was reduced in altered media and in specific animal strains. Heparinization/retrograde organ perfusion did not alter the ability to generate outgrowth from myocardial sample. The initial outgrowth from myocardial samples was enriched for sub-populations of CPCs (c-Kit(+)), endothelial cells (CD31(+), CD34(+)), and mesenchymal cells (CD90(+)). Lineage tracing using MerCreMer-Z/EG transgenic mice revealed that the presence of cardiomyocytes in the cellular outgrowth is not required for the generation of CPCs. Rat CDCs are shown to be clonogenic, and cloned CDCs exhibit spontaneous multineage potential.This study demonstrates that direct culture and expansion of CPCs from myocardial tissue is simple, straightforward, and reproducible when appropriate techniques are used.Full Text Article
|Activity of the Bcl-2 family inhibitor ABT-263 in a panel of small cell lung cancer xenograft models.|
Shoemaker, AR; Mitten, MJ; Adickes, J; Ackler, S; Refici, M; Ferguson, D; Oleksijew, A; O'Connor, JM; Wang, B; Frost, DJ; Bauch, J; Marsh, K; Tahir, SK; Yang, X; Tse, C; Fesik, SW; Rosenberg, SH; Elmore, SW
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
The purpose of this study was to characterize the activity of the Bcl-2 protein family inhibitor ABT-263 in a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft models.A panel of 11 SCLC xenograft models was established to evaluate the efficacy of ABT-263. Single agent activity was examined on a continuous dosing schedule in each of these models. The H146 model was used to further evaluate dose and schedule, comparison to standard cytotoxic agents, and induction of apoptosis.ABT-263 exhibited a range of antitumor activity, leading to complete tumor regression in several models. Significant regressions of tumors as large as 1 cc were also observed. The efficacy of ABT-263 was also quite durable; in several cases, minimal tumor regrowth was noted several weeks after the cessation of treatment. Antitumor effects were equal or superior to that of several clinically approved cytotoxic agents. Regression of large established tumors was observed through several cycles of therapy and efficacy was retained in a Pgp-1 overexpressing line. Significant efficacy was observed on several dose and therapeutic schedules and was associated with significant induction of apoptosis.ABT-263 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins that has recently entered clinical trials. The efficacy data reported here suggest that SCLC is a promising area of clinical investigation with this agent.
|Levels of multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein expression by human breast cancer correlate with in vitro resistance to taxol and doxorubicin.|
Mechetner, E, et al.
Clin. Cancer Res., 4: 389-98 (1998)
To determine whether multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression correlated with clinical MDR1-related drug resistance, we established a protocol for quantitative measurement of Pgp expression and in vitro drug resistance in doxorubicin resistant MCF7 breast cancer cell lines and 359 freshly resected specimens of breast carcinoma. Pgp expression was detected with 4E3, UIC2, and JSB-1 monoclonal antibodies using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pgp function was determined using PSC833 in a drug resistance-reversal assay and with a three-dimensional agarose-based extreme drug resistance assay. MCF7 calibrator cell lines expressed Pgp, which was functional and in proportion to the degree of drug resistance. Flow cytometry, UIC2 shift assays, IHC scores, and determination of absorbance products by image analysis were all highly correlated (r > 0.9). Overall Pgp expression increased from 11% in untreated patients to 30% in patients who had previously received chemotherapy. Compared with Pgp-negative tumors, a significant increase in doxorubicin and Taxol resistance was seen for breast cancers that expressed Pgp, regardless of prior treatment. A strong correlation between the degree of Pgp expression and in vitro resistance to Taxol and doxorubicin (but not to 5-fluorouracil) was found when either IHC scores or image analysis-based methods were used to quantify Pgp expression (n = 185, P < 0.0001). The degree of Pgp expression strongly correlated with the degree of drug resistance in the clinical specimens studied. These data suggest that (a) Pgp contributes to clinical MDR1-related drug resistance, and (b) both intrinsic and acquired expression of Pgp in breast cancer may contribute in part to therapeutic failure and relapse.