Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Choline Transporter Antibody, high affinity|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months after date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Choline Transporter Antibody, high affinity SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|B6eGFPChAT mice overexpressing the vesicular acetylcholine transporter exhibit spontaneous hypoactivity and enhanced exploration in novel environments.|
Nagy, PM; Aubert, I
Brain and behavior 3 367-83 2013
Cholinergic innervation is extensive throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among its many roles, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the regulation of motor function, locomotion, and exploration. Cholinergic deficits and replacement strategies have been investigated in neurodegenerative disorders, particularly in cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Focus has been on blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing ACh synthesis to improve cholinergic neurotransmission. As a first step in evaluating the physiological effects of enhanced cholinergic function through the upregulation of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we used the hypercholinergic B6eGFPChAT congenic mouse model that has been shown to contain multiple VAChT gene copies. Analysis of biochemical and behavioral paradigms suggest that modest increases in VAChT expression can have a significant effect on spontaneous locomotion, reaction to novel stimuli, and the adaptation to novel environments. These observations support the potential of VAChT as a therapeutic target to enhance cholinergic tone, thereby decreasing spontaneous hyperactivity and increasing exploration in novel environments.
|Functional neuromuscular junctions formed by embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.|
Umbach, JA; Adams, KL; Gundersen, CB; Novitch, BG
PloS one 7 e36049 2012
A key objective of stem cell biology is to create physiologically relevant cells suitable for modeling disease pathologies in vitro. Much progress towards this goal has been made in the area of motor neuron (MN) disease through the development of methods to direct spinal MN formation from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Previous studies have characterized these neurons with respect to their molecular and intrinsic functional properties. However, the synaptic activity of stem cell-derived MNs remains less well defined. In this study, we report the development of low-density co-culture conditions that encourage the formation of active neuromuscular synapses between stem cell-derived MNs and muscle cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy reveals the expression of numerous synaptic proteins at these contacts, while dual patch clamp recording detects both spontaneous and multi-quantal evoked synaptic responses similar to those observed in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that stem cell-derived MNs innervate muscle cells in a functionally relevant manner. This dual recording approach further offers a sensitive and quantitative assay platform to probe disorders of synaptic dysfunction associated with MN disease.
|Effect of choline-containing phospholipids on brain cholinergic transporters in the rat.|
Tayebati SK, Tomassoni D, Di Stefano A, Sozio P, Cerasa LS, Amenta F.
Journal of the neurological sciences 302 49-57 2011
The influence of one week treatment with the choline-containing phospholipids cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) and choline alphoscerate (L-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine) at choline-equivalent doses (CDP-choline: 325mg/kg/day; choline alphoscerate: 150mg/kg/day) on vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), on choline transporter (CHT) and on acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations was investigated in rat frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum. ACh was assayed by HPLC with electrochemical detection, VAChT by Western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry, CHT by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. After CDP-treatment, ACh levels were slightly increased in the frontal cortex, not substantially different in the striatum, and reduced significantly in the cerebellum compared to controls. Choline alphoscerate stimulated significantly the neurotransmitter concentration in the frontal cortex, however, the levels were similar to the controls in both the striatum and cerebellum. In comparison to the controls, VAChT expression following either CDP-choline or choline alphoscerate treatment, was enhanced greatly in the striatum and cerebellum. Also, ELISA measurements for VAChT showed significant increases in all choline alphoscerate treated brain areas. In contrast, in the CDP-choline treated rats the vesicular transporter amount was greater than the control only in the striatum. The cholinergic presynaptic transporters VAChT and CHT play a relevant role in sustaining new ACh synthesis and release. To sum up, CDP-choline and choline alphoscerate stimulated to a different extent the expression of VAChT and CHT primarily in a cognitive area such as frontal cortex. In the lack of novel therapeutic strategies, safe compounds developed since a long time such as the choline-containing phospholipids investigated would merit to be further investigated by new and adequate clinical studies. This for assessing their place if any in pharmacotherapy of dementia disorders characterized by diminished cholinergic tone.
|Alpha cells secrete acetylcholine as a non-neuronal paracrine signal priming beta cell function in humans.|
Rodriguez-Diaz, R; Dando, R; Jacques-Silva, MC; Fachado, A; Molina, J; Abdulreda, MH; Ricordi, C; Roper, SD; Berggren, PO; Caicedo, A
Nature medicine 17 888-92 2011
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that has a major role in the function of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell. Parasympathetic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, the islets of Langerhans, has been shown to provide cholinergic input to the beta cell in several species, but the role of autonomic innervation in human beta cell function is at present unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to the case in mouse islets, cholinergic innervation of human islets is sparse. Instead, we find that the alpha cells of human islets provide paracrine cholinergic input to surrounding endocrine cells. Human alpha cells express the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and release acetylcholine when stimulated with kainate or a lowering in glucose concentration. Acetylcholine secretion by alpha cells in turn sensitizes the beta cell response to increases in glucose concentration. Our results demonstrate that in human islets acetylcholine is a paracrine signal that primes the beta cell to respond optimally to subsequent increases in glucose concentration. Cholinergic signaling within islets represents a potential therapeutic target in diabetes, highlighting the relevance of this advance to future drug development.
|Nuclear choline acetyltransferase activates transcription of a high-affinity choline transporter.|
Matsuo, A; Bellier, JP; Nishimura, M; Yasuhara, O; Saito, N; Kimura, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 5836-45 2011
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at cholinergic nerve terminals. ChAT contains nuclear localization signals and is also localized in the nuclei of neural and non-neuronal cells. Nuclear ChAT might have an as yet unidentified function, such as transcriptional regulation. In this study, we investigated the alteration of candidate gene transcription by ChAT. We chose high affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VACHT) as candidate genes, which function together with ChAT in acetylcholine production. Using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells stably expressing wild-type human ChAT, we found that overexpressed ChAT enhanced transcription of the CHT1 gene but not the VACHT gene. In contrast, nuclear localization signal disrupted, and catalytically inactive mutant ChATs could not induce, CHT1 expression. Additionally, ChAT did not alter CHT1 expression in non-neuronal HEK293 cells. Our results suggest that ChAT activates the transcription of selected target genes in neuronal cells. Both enzymatic activity and nuclear translocation of ChAT are required for its transcriptional enhancement.
|Narcoleptic orexin receptor knockout mice express enhanced cholinergic properties in laterodorsal tegmental neurons.|
Kalogiannis, M; Grupke, SL; Potter, PE; Edwards, JG; Chemelli, RM; Kisanuki, YY; Yanagisawa, M; Leonard, CS
The European journal of neuroscience 32 130-42 2010
Pharmacological studies of narcoleptic canines indicate that exaggerated pontine cholinergic transmission promotes cataplexy. As disruption of orexin (hypocretin) signaling is a primary defect in narcolepsy with cataplexy, we investigated whether markers of cholinergic synaptic transmission might be altered in mice constitutively lacking orexin receptors (double receptor knockout; DKO). mRNA for Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) but not acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly higher in samples from DKO than wild-type (WT) mice. This was region-specific; levels were elevated in samples from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) and the fifth motor nucleus (Mo5) but not in whole brainstem samples. Consistent with region-specific changes, we were unable to detect significant differences in Western blots for ChAT and CHT1 in isolates from brainstem, thalamus and cortex or in ChAT enzymatic activity in the pons. However, using ChAT immunocytochemistry, we found that while the number of cholinergic neurons in the LDT and Mo5 were not different, the intensity of somatic ChAT immunostaining was significantly greater in the LDT, but not Mo5, from DKO than from WT mice. We also found that ChAT activity was significantly reduced in cortical samples from DKO compared with WT mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that the orexins can regulate neurotransmitter expression and that the constitutive absence of orexin signaling results in an up-regulation of the machinery necessary for cholinergic neurotransmission in a mesopontine population of neurons that have been associated with both normal rapid eye movement sleep and cataplexy.Full Text Article
|Cholinergic neurons of mouse intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic enzymes, norepinephrine transporters, and the neurotrophin receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A and p75.|
Hoard, JL; Hoover, DB; Mabe, AM; Blakely, RD; Feng, N; Paolocci, N
Neuroscience 156 129-42 2008
Half of the cholinergic neurons of human and primate intrinsic cardiac ganglia (ICG) have a dual cholinergic/noradrenergic phenotype. Likewise, a large subpopulation of cholinergic neurons of the mouse heart expresses enzymes needed for synthesis of norepinephrine (NE), but they lack the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) required for catecholamine storage. In the present study, we determined the full scope of noradrenergic properties (i.e. synthetic enzymes and transporters) expressed by cholinergic neurons of mouse ICG, estimated the relative abundance of neurons expressing different elements of the noradrenergic phenotype, and evaluated the colocalization of cholinergic and noradrenergic markers in atrial nerve fibers. Stellate ganglia were used as a positive control for noradrenergic markers. Using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we found that about 30% of cholinergic cell bodies contained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), including the activated form that is phosphorylated at Ser-40 (pSer40 TH). Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) were present in all cholinergic somata, indicating a wider capability for dopamine metabolism and catecholamine uptake. Yet, cholinergic somata lacked VMAT2, precluding the potential for NE storage and vesicular release. In contrast to cholinergic somata, cardiac nerve fibers rarely showed colocalization of cholinergic and noradrenergic markers. Instead, these labels were closely apposed but clearly distinct from each other. Since cholinergic somata expressed several noradrenergic proteins, we questioned whether these neurons might also contain trophic factor receptors typical of noradrenergic neurons. Indeed, we found that all cholinergic cell bodies of mouse ICG, like noradrenergic cell bodies of the stellate ganglia, contained both tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) and p75 neurotrophin receptors. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that mouse intrinsic cardiac neurons (ICNs), like those of humans, have a complex neurochemical phenotype that goes beyond the classical view of cardiac parasympathetic neurons. They also suggest that neurotrophins and local NE synthesis might have important effects on neurons of the mouse ICG.Full Text Article
|High affinity choline transporter immunoreactivity in rat ileum myenteric nerves.|
Andrea M Harrington, J M Hutson, Bridget R Southwell
Cell and tissue research 327 421-31 2007
Recently, an antibody against the choline transporter (CHT), an essential molecule involved in ACh uptake, was used to label cholinergic nerves in the central nervous system; however, the enteric nervous system (ENS) was not examined. The present study localised CHT immunoreactivity (CHT-IR) within the rat ileum ENS and determined whether it colocalised with immunoreactivity for markers of cholinergic, tachykinergic and nitrergic circuitry. Segments of rat ileum were fixed, prepared for sectioning or whole-mounts and incubated with anti-CHT antisera followed by a fluorescent secondary antibody. Samples were double-labelled with antibodies to nitric oxide synthase, substance P (SP), common choline acetyltransferase (cChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). CHT-IR was present in varicosities of nerve fibres in the myenteric plexus and muscle layers of rat ileum. In the myenteric ganglia, CHT-IR was found in nerve fibres and the cytoplasm of some nerve cell bodies. In the myenteric ganglia, no CHT/cChAT-immunoreactive neurons were present. A small number of CHT/SP-immunoreactive neurons and CHT/SP-immunoreactive nerve fibres clustered around unlabelled neurons. CHT-IR colocalised with VAChT-IR in the myenteric plexus but only half of the CHT-immunoreactive myenteric nerve fibres were VAChT-immunoreactive and half of VAChT-immunoreactive fibres were CHT-immunoreactive. In the circular muscle, 75% of CHT-immunoreactive fibres were VAChT-immunoreactive. Thus, the anti-CHT antiserum labels neurons and nerve fibres in the rat ENS. It does not label cholinergic cChAT-immunoreactive neurons, although it does immunostain cholinergic VAChT-immunoreactive nerve fibres and a population of nerves that are not VAChT-immunoreactive.
|Phenotypic properties of adult mouse intrinsic cardiac neurons maintained in culture.|
Hoard, JL; Hoover, DB; Wondergem, R
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 293 C1875-83 2007
Intrinsic cardiac neurons are core elements of a complex neural network that serves as an important integrative center for regulation of cardiac function. Although mouse models are used frequently in cardiovascular research, very little is known about mouse intrinsic cardiac neurons. Accordingly, we have dissociated neurons from adult mouse heart, maintained these cells in culture, and defined their basic phenotypic properties. Neurons in culture were primarily unipolar, and 89% had prominent neurite outgrowth after 3 days (longest neurite length of 258 +/- 20 microm, n = 140). Many neurites formed close appositions with other neurons and nonneuronal cells. Neurite outgrowth was drastically reduced when neurons were kept in culture with a majority of nonneural cells eliminated. This finding suggests that nonneuronal cells release molecules that support neurite outgrowth. All neurons in coculture showed immunoreactivity for a full complement of cholinergic markers, but about 21% also stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, as observed previously in sections of intrinsic cardiac ganglia from mice and humans. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that these neurons have voltage-activated sodium current that is blocked by tetrodotoxin and that neurons exhibit phasic or accommodating patterns of action potential firing during a depolarizing current pulse. Several neurons exhibited a fast inward current mediated by nicotinic ACh receptors. Collectively, this work shows that neurons from adult mouse heart can be maintained in culture and exhibit appropriate phenotypic properties. Accordingly, these cultures provide a viable model for evaluating the physiology, pharmacology, and trophic factor sensitivity of adult mouse cardiac parasympathetic neurons.
|Prenatal choline deficiency increases choline transporter expression in the septum and hippocampus during postnatal development and in adulthood in rats.|
Mellott, TJ; Kowall, NW; Lopez-Coviella, I; Blusztajn, JK
Brain research 1151 1-11 2007
Supplementation of maternal diet with the essential nutrient, choline, during the second half of pregnancy in rats causes long-lasting improvements in spatial memory in the offspring and protects them from the memory decline characteristic of old age. In contrast, prenatal choline deficiency is associated with poor performance in certain cognitive tasks. The mechanism by which choline influences learning and memory remains unclear; however, it may involve changes to the hippocampal cholinergic system. Previously, we showed that the hippocampi of prenatally [embryonic days (E) 11-17] choline-deficient animals have increased synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from choline transported by the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) and reduced ACh content relative to the control and to the E11-17 choline-supplemented rats. In the current study, we found that, during postnatal period [postnatal days (P) 18-480], prenatal choline deficiency increased the expression of CHT mRNA in the septum and CHT mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus and altered the pattern of CHT immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. CHT immunoreactivity was more prominent in the inner molecular layer in prenatally choline-deficient rats compared to controls and prenatally choline-supplemented animals. In addition, in all groups, we observed a population of hilar interneurons that were CHT-immunoreactive. These neurons are the likely source of the hippocampal CHT mRNA as their number correlated with the levels of this mRNA. The abundance of hippocampal CHT mRNA rose between P1 and P24 and then declined reaching 60% of the P1 value by P90. These data show that prenatal availability of choline alters its own metabolism (i.e., CHT expression). While the upregulated CHT expression during the period of prenatal choline deficiency may be considered as a compensatory mechanism that could enhance ACh synthesis when choline supply is low, the persistent upregulation of CHT expression subsequent to the brief period of prenatal deprivation of choline in utero might be beneficial during choline deficiency in adulthood.