Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Mk, R||IHC||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody, clone 1E6|
|Presentation||Ascites fluid containing no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody, clone 1E6 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Glucocorticoid receptors in the locus coeruleus mediate sleep disorders caused by repeated corticosterone treatment.|
Wang, ZJ; Zhang, XQ; Cui, XY; Cui, SY; Yu, B; Sheng, ZF; Li, SJ; Cao, Q; Huang, YL; Xu, YP; Zhang, YH
Scientific reports 5 9442 2015
Stress induced constant increase of cortisol level may lead to sleep disorder, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here we described a novel model to investigate stress mimicked sleep disorders induced by repetitive administration of corticosterone (CORT). After 7 days treatment of CORT, rats showed significant sleep disturbance, meanwhile, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) level was notably lowered in locus coeruleus (LC). We further discovered the activation of noradrenergic neuron in LC, the suppression of GABAergic neuron in ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), the remarkable elevation of norepinephrine in LC, VLPO and hypothalamus, as well as increase of tyrosine hydroxylase in LC and decrease of glutamic acid decarboxylase in VLPO after CORT treatment. Microinjection of GR antagonist RU486 into LC reversed the CORT-induced sleep changes. These results suggest that GR in LC may play a key role in stress-related sleep disorders and support the hypothesis that repeated CORT treatment may decrease GR levels and induce the activation of noradrenergic neurons in LC, consequently inhibit GABAergic neurons in VLPO and result in sleep disorders. Our findings provide novel insights into the effect of stress-inducing agent CORT on sleep and GRs' role in sleep regulation.
|microRNA-125 distinguishes developmentally generated and adult-born olfactory bulb interneurons.|
Akerblom, M; Petri, R; Sachdeva, R; Klussendorf, T; Mattsson, B; Gentner, B; Jakobsson, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 1580-8 2014
New neurons, originating from the subventricular zone, are continuously integrating into neuronal circuitry in the olfactory bulb (OB). Using a transgenic sensor mouse, we found that adult-born OB interneurons express microRNA-125 (miR-125), whereas the pre-existing developmentally generated OB interneurons represent a unique population of cells in the adult brain, without miR-125 activity. Stable inhibition of miR-125 in newborn OB neurons resulted in enhanced dendritic morphogenesis, as well as in increased synaptic activation in response to odour sensory stimuli. These data demonstrate that miR-125 controls functional synaptic integration of adult-born OB interneurons. Our results also suggest that absence of an otherwise broadly expressed miRNA is a novel mechanism with which to achieve neuronal subtype specification.
|Wnts enhance neurotrophin-induced neuronal differentiation in adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways.|
Tsai, HL; Deng, WP; Lai, WF; Chiu, WT; Yang, CB; Tsai, YH; Hwang, SM; Renshaw, PF
PloS one 9 e104937 2014
Wnts were previously shown to regulate the neurogenesis of neural stem or progenitor cells. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms through which Wnt signaling regulates neurotrophins (NTs) in the NT-induced neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). NTs can increase the expression of Wnt1 and Wnt7a in hMSCs. However, only Wnt7a enables the expression of synapsin-1, a synaptic marker in mature neurons, to be induced and triggers the formation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Human recombinant (hr)Wnt7a and general neuron makers were positively correlated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of synaptic markers and neurites was induced by Wnt7a and lithium, a glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, in the NT-induced hMSCs via the canonical/β-catenin pathway, but was inhibited by Wnt inhibitors and frizzled-5 (Frz5) blocking antibodies. In addition, hrWnt7a triggered the formation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons via the non-canonical/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and the formation of these neurons was inhibited by a JNK inhibitor and Frz9 blocking antibodies. In conclusion, hrWnt7a enhances the synthesis of synapse and facilitates neuronal differentiation in hMSCS through various Frz receptors. These mechanisms may be employed widely in the transdifferentiation of other adult stem cells.
|Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.|
Hall, H; Jewett, M; Landeck, N; Nilsson, N; Schagerlöf, U; Leanza, G; Kirik, D
PloS one 8 e64844 2013
Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn) constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.
|Infrared optical imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) up regulation following ischemia reperfusion is ameliorated by hypothermia.|
Barber, PA; Rushforth, D; Agrawal, S; Tuor, UI
BMC neuroscience 13 76 2012
We investigated the use of a new MMP activatable probe MMPSense™ 750 FAST (MMPSense750) for in-vivo visualization of early MMP activity in ischemic stroke. Following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) optical imaging was performed. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent images of MMPSense activation were acquired using an Olympus fluorescent microscope, 1.25 x objective, a CCD camera and an appropriate filter cube for detecting the activated probe with peak excitation and emission at 749 and 775 nm, respectively. Images were acquired starting at 2 or 24 hours after reperfusion over the ipsilateral and contralateral cortex before and for 3 hours after, MMPSense750 was injected.Increased intensities ipsilaterally were observed following MMPSense750 injection with ischemic injury but not in sham animals. There were significant ipsilateral and contralateral differences at 15 minutes (P less than 0.05) in early ischemic reperfusion and at time 0 in 24 hours post ischemia (P less than 0.05) which persisted at 180 minutes in both these groups (P less than 0.01), but not following sham surgery. The increase in ipsilateral signal intensity was attenuated by hypothermia. These observations corresponded with a significant increase in the total MMP-9 protein levels, 5 and 24 hours following ischemia reperfusion (P less than 0.05) and their reduction by hypothermia.Matrix-metalloproteinase upregulation in ischemia reperfusion can be imaged acutely in-vivo with NIRF using MMPSense750. Hypothermia attenuated both the optical increase in intensity after MMPSense750 and the increase in MMP-9 protein expression supporting the proof of concept that NIRF imaging using MMPSense can be used to assess potential therapeutic strategies for stroke treatment.
|Salubrinal, an endoplasmic reticulum stress blocker, modulates sleep homeostasis and activation of sleep- and wake-regulatory neurons.|
Methippara, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 209: 108-18 (2012) 2012
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the regulation of sleep and wake. We have previously shown that i.c.v. administration of a specific ER stress modulator, Salubrinal (SALUB), which inhibits global protein translation by blocking the dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Here we report on the relationship between ER stress response and sleep homeostasis by measuring the amount and intensity of homeostatic recovery sleep in response to the i.c.v. administration of SALUB in adult freely behaving rats. We have also tested the hypothesis that SALUB induces sleep by activating sleep-promoting neurons and inhibiting wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) and hypothalamus by quantifying the effects of SALUB treatment on c-Fos expression in those neuronal groups. The present study found that i.c.v. administration of SALUB significantly modified the homeostatic sleep response. SALUB administered during sleep deprivation increased sleep intensity, indicated by slow-wave activity (SWA), during recovery sleep, whereas its administration during recovery sleep increased the amount of recovery sleep. We also found that SALUB induced c-Fos activation of GABAergic neurons in the sleep-promoting rostral median preoptic nucleus while simultaneously reducing c-Fos activation of wake-promoting lateral hypothalamic orexin-expressing neurons and magnocellular BF cholinergic neurons. The current findings suggest that ER stress pathway plays a role in the homeostatic control of NREM sleep in response to sleep deprivation and provides a mechanistic explanation for the sleep modulation by molecules signaling the need for brain protein synthesis.
|Increased numbers of motor activity peaks during light cycle are associated with reductions in adrenergic alpha(2)-receptor levels in a transgenic Huntington's disease rat model.|
Bode FJ, Stephan M, Wiehager S, Nguyen HP, Bjorkqvist M, von Horsten S, Bauer A, Petersen A
Behavioural brain research 205 175-182 2009
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene. Besides psychiatric, motor and cognitive symptoms, HD patients suffer from sleep disturbances. In order to screen a rat model transgenic for HD (tgHD rats) for sleep-wake cycle dysregulation, we monitored their circadian activity peaks in the present study. TgHD rats of both sexes showed hyperactivity during the dark cycle and more frequent light cycle activity peaks indicative for a disturbed sleep-wake cycle. Focusing on males at the age of 4 and 14 months, analyses of receptor levels in the hypothalamus and the basal forebrain revealed that 5-HT(2A)- and adrenergic alpha(2)-receptor densities in these regions were significantly altered in tgHD rats compared to their wild-type littermates. Adrenergic receptor densities correlated negatively with the light cycle hyperactivity peaks at later stages of the disease in male tgHD rats. Furthermore, reduced leptin levels, a feature associated with circadian misalignment, were present. Our study demonstrates that the male tgHD rat is a suitable model to investigate HD associated sleep alterations. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of adrenergic- and 5-HT(2A)-receptors as therapeutic targets for dysregulation of the circadian activity in HD.
|Brain injury does not alter the intrinsic differentiation potential of adult neuroblasts.|
Liu, F; You, Y; Li, X; Ma, T; Nie, Y; Wei, B; Li, T; Lin, H; Yang, Z
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 5075-87 2009
Neuroblasts produced by the neural stem cells of the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate into damaged brain areas after stroke or other brain injuries, and previous data have suggested that they generate regionally appropriate new neurons. To classify the types of neurons produced subsequent to ischemic injury, we combined BrdU or virus labeling with multiple neuronal markers to characterize new cells at different times after the induction of stroke. We show that SVZ neuroblasts give rise almost exclusively to calretinin-expressing cells in the damaged striatum, resulting in the accumulation of these cells during long term recovery after stroke. The vast majority of SVZ neuroblasts as well as newly born young and mature neurons in the damaged striatum constitutively express the transcription factor Sp8, but do not express transcription factors characteristic of medium-sized spiny neurons, the primary striatal projection neurons lost after stroke. Our results suggest that adult neuroblasts do not alter their intrinsic differentiation potential after brain injury.
|Activated cholinergic signaling provides a target in squamous cell lung carcinoma.|
Song, P; Sekhon, HS; Fu, XW; Maier, M; Jia, Y; Duan, J; Proskosil, BJ; Gravett, C; Lindstrom, J; Mark, GP; Saha, S; Spindel, ER
Cancer research 68 4693-700 2008
The binding of exogenous nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChR) and the binding of endogenous ACh to both nAChR and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR) stimulate growth of both small cell and non-small cell lung carcinomas. Understanding how cholinergic signaling is up-regulated in lung cancer may suggest new therapeutic approaches. Analysis of 28 squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCC) showed increased levels of alpha5 and beta3 nAChR mRNA and increased levels of ACh associated with increased levels of choline acetyltransferase mRNA and decreased cholinesterase mRNAs. Lynx1, an allosteric inhibitor of nAChR activity, was also decreased in SCC. Thus, cholinergic signaling is broadly increased in SCC caused by increased levels of receptors, increased levels of ligands, and decreased levels of receptor inhibitors. Partially explaining the cholinergic up-regulation seen in SCC, incubation of the H520 SCC cell line with nicotine increased levels of ACh secretion, increased expression of nAChR, and, as measured by electrophysiologic recording, increased activity of the expressed nAChR. Consistent with these effects, nicotine stimulated proliferation of H520 cells. One approach to blocking proliferative effects of nicotine and ACh on growth of lung cancers may be through M3 mAChR antagonists, which can limit the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase that is caused by both nicotinic and muscarinic signaling. This was tested with the M3-selective muscarinic antagonist darifenacin. Darifenacin blocked nicotine-stimulated H520 growth in vitro and also blocked H520 growth in nude mice in vivo. Thus, cholinergic signaling is broadly up-regulated in SCC and blocking cholinergic signaling can limit basal and nicotine-stimulated growth of SCC.Full Text Article
|Neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury induces production of calretinin-expressing interneurons in the striatum.|
Zhengang Yang,Yan You,Steven W Levison
The Journal of comparative neurology 511 2008
Ischemia-induced striatal neurogenesis from progenitors in the adjacent subventricular zone (SVZ) in young and adult rodents has been reported. However, it has not been established whether the precursors that reside in the SVZ retain the capacity to produce the full range of striatal neurons that has been destroyed. By using a neonatal rat model of hypoxic/ischemic brain damage, we show here that virtually all of the newly produced striatal neurons are calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive (+), but not DARPP-32(+), calbindin-D-28K(+), parvalbumin(+), somatostatin(+), or choline acetyltransferase(+). Retroviral fate-mapping studies confirm that these newly born CR(+) neurons are indeed descendants of the SVZ. Our studies indicate that, although the postnatal SVZ has the capacity to produce a range of neurons, only a subset of this repertoire is manifested in the brain after injury.Full Text Article
|MOUSE ANTI-CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE (ChAT) MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|