Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, Gp, R||IHC||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody|
|Presentation||Lyophilized. Reconstitute with 100 μL of sterile distilled water. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Long-term characterization of axon regeneration and matrix changes using multiple channel bridges for spinal cord regeneration.|
Tuinstra, HM; Margul, DJ; Goodman, AG; Boehler, RM; Holland, SJ; Zelivyanskaya, ML; Cummings, BJ; Anderson, AJ; Shea, LD
Tissue engineering. Part A 20 1027-37 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of sensory and motor function below the level of injury and has limited available therapies. The host response to SCI is typified by limited endogenous repair, and biomaterial bridges offer the potential to alter the microenvironment to promote regeneration. Porous multiple channel bridges implanted into the injury provide stability to limit secondary damage and support cell infiltration that limits cavity formation. At the same time, the channels provide a path that physically directs axon growth across the injury. Using a rat spinal cord hemisection injury model, we investigated the dynamics of axon growth, myelination, and scar formation within and around the bridge in vivo for 6 months, at which time the bridge has fully degraded. Axons grew into and through the channels, and the density increased overtime, resulting in the greatest axon density at 6 months postimplantation, despite complete degradation of the bridge by that time point. Furthermore, the persistence of these axons contrasts with reports of axonal dieback in other models and is consistent with axon stability resulting from some degree of connectivity. Immunostaining of axons revealed both motor and sensory origins of the axons found in the channels of the bridge. Extensive myelination was observed throughout the bridge at 6 months, with centrally located and peripheral channels seemingly myelinated by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan deposition was restricted to the edges of the bridge, was greatest at 1 week, and significantly decreased by 6 weeks. The dynamics of collagen I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin deposition varied with time. These studies demonstrate that the bridge structure can support substantial long-term axon growth and myelination with limited scar formation.
|Axotomy induced changes in neuronal plasticity of sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons supplying descending colon in the pig.|
Cezary Skobowiat,Jaroslaw Calka,Mariusz Majewski
Experimental and molecular pathology 90 2011
Sympathetic neurons are capable of extensive regeneration following axonal injury. To investigate the response to axotomy of colon-projecting neurons (CPN) localized in the porcine sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG), the retrograde Fast Blue (FB) tracer, axonal transection and double immunohistochemistry methods were applied. The CPN were localized exclusively in the lumbar SChG and displayed a predominantly catecholaminergic [i.e. Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)/Dopamine ? Hydroxylase (D?H)] and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) positive phenotype under physiological conditions. Axotomy led to a significant decrease in TH/D?H production and a simultaneous increase in the neuropeptides Galanin (GAL) and Somatostatin (SOM), but not NPY or Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) expression in retrogradely traced perikarya. Furthermore, the decrease in density of TH-/D?H-, VIP-, Leu(5)-Enkephalin (LENK)-, Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive (-IR) nerve fibers occurred after axotomy. These data suggest a species-specific response to axonal damage of the CPN localized in porcine SChG. Since the SChG neurons supervise the vasculature of gut both in physiological and pathological conditions, and since pig is a more accurate animal model of human gut than a rodent (Swindle et al., 1992), these data may contribute to the understanding of the pathology of several gut illnesses, like Crohn Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome which commonly affect western populations.
|Chronic electrical neuronal stimulation increases cardiac parasympathetic tone by eliciting neurotrophic effects.|
Rana, OR; Saygili, E; Gemein, C; Zink, MD; Buhr, A; Saygili, E; Mischke, K; Nolte, KW; Weis, J; Weber, C; Marx, N; Schauerte, P
Circulation research 108 1209-19 2011
Recently, we provided a technique of chronic high-frequency electric stimulation (HFES) of the right inferior ganglionated plexus for ventricular rate control during atrial fibrillation in dogs and humans. In these experiments, we observed a decrease of the intrinsic ventricular rate during the first 4 to 5 months when HFES was intermittently shut off.We thus hypothesized that HFES might elicit trophic effects on cardiac neurons, which in turn increase baseline parasympathetic tone of the atrioventricular node.In mongrel dogs atrial fibrillation was induced by rapid atrial pacing. Endocardial HFES of the right inferior ganglionated plexus, which contains abundant fibers to the atrioventricular node, was performed for 2 years. Sham-operated nonstimulated dogs served as control. In chronic neurostimulated dogs, we found an increased neuronal cell size accompanied by an increase of choline acetyltransferase and unchanged tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression as compared with unstimulated dogs. Moreover, β-nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3 were upregulated in chronically neurostimulated dogs. In vitro, HFES of cultured neurons of interatrial ganglionated plexus from adult rats increased neuronal growth accompanied by upregulation of NGF, NT-3, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. NGF was identified as the main growth-inducing factor, whereas NT-3 did not affect HFES-induced growth. However, NT-3 could be identified as an important acetylcholine-upregulating factor.HFES of cardiac neurons in vivo and in vitro causes neuronal cellular hypertrophy, which is mediated by NGF and boosters cellular function by NT-3-mediated acetylcholine upregulation. This knowledge may contribute to develop HFES techniques to augment cardiac parasympathetic tone.
|Distribution pattern and chemical coding of neurons of the sympathetic chain ganglia supplying the descending colon in the pig.|
Cezary Skobowiat,Jarosław Calka,Krzysztof Wasowicz,Mariusz Majewski
Acta veterinaria Hungarica 58 2010
Sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the descending colon of the pig were studied by means of retrograde tracing (Fast Blue, FB) and double-labelling immunofluorescence methods. FB was injected into the gut wall and after three weeks survival time the animals were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde and the bilateral sympathetic trunks were collected. The FB-positive neurons were localised only in the lumbar (L(1)-L(5)) ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and appeared either as small (30-50 microm in diameter) round-shaped perikarya forming clusters localised in caudal-ventral area or, rarely, as bigger (50-80 microm) and dispersed solitary irregular perikarya. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-/dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive) character of the great majority of FB-positive neurons which preferentially co-expressed neuropeptide Y. In addition, none of the FB-positive perikarya was immunopositive to galanin, somatostatin, choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, leu(5)-enkephalin, nitric oxide synthase, substance P and calcitonin-generelated peptide.
|Acetylcholine as an age-dependent non-neuronal source in the heart.|
Obaida R Rana,Patrick Schauerte,Rahel Kluttig,Jörg W Schröder,Rory R Koenen,Christian Weber,Kay W Nolte,Joachim Weis,Rainer Hoffmann,Nikolaus Marx,Erol Saygili
Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical 156 2010
In the heart, acetylcholine (ACh) slows pacemaker activity, depresses contractility and slows conduction in the atrioventricular node. Beside these cardiovascular effects, ACh has also been associated with an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathway. There is no evidence for ACh synthesis and excretion in other cell types than neuronal cells in the heart. Therefore, this study investigates whether cardiomyocytes are able to synthesize, transport and excrete ACh in the heart. We chose a rat model of different aged rats (neonatal, 6-8 week = young, 20-24 month = old). By real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments we could demonstrate that adult, but not neonatal cardiomyocytes, express the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The expression level of ChAT is down-regulated in old cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we found that young and old cardiomyocytes express the ACh transport proteins choline transporter-1 (CHT-1) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). The amount of ACh excretion detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is significantly down-regulated in old cardiomyocytes. Bromo-acetylcholine (BrACh), a specific ChAT inhibitor, significantly decreased ACh concentrations in cardiomyocyte supernatants demonstrating that ChAT is the main ACh synthesizing enzyme in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, we could demonstrate that adult, but not neonatal, cardiomyocytes are able to synthesize, transport and excrete ACh in the rat heart. The expression level of ChAT and the ACh excretion amount are significantly down-regulated in old cardiomyocytes. This finding may provide new physiological/pathological aspects in the communication between cardiomyocytes and other cell types in the myocardium, e.g. fibrocytes, neurocytes or endothelial cells.
|Neurotransmitter synthesis in poststroke cortical neurogenesis in adult rats.|
Gu, W; Gu, C; Jiang, W; Wester, P
Stem cell research 4 148-54 2010
Neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of adult rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Whether or not the newborn neurons could synthesize neurotransmitters is unknown. To elucidate such a possibility, a photothrombotic ring stroke model with spontaneous reperfusion was induced in adult male Wistar rats. The DNA duplication marker BrdU was repeatedly injected, and the rats were sacrificed at various times after stroke. To detect BrdU nuclear incorporation and various neurotransmitters, brain sections were processed for single/double immunocytochemistry and single/double/triple immunofluorescence. Stereological cell counting was performed to assess the final cell populations. At 48 h, 5 days, 7 days, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days after stroke, numerous cells were BrdU-immunolabeled in the penumbral cortex. Some of these were doubly immunopositive to the cholinergic neuron-specific marker ChAT or GABAergic neuron-specific marker GAD. As analyzed by 3-D confocal microscopy, the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and GABA were colocalized with BrdU in the same cortical cells. In addition, GABA was colocalized with the neuron-specific marker Neu N in the BrdU triple-immunolabeled cortical cells. This study suggests that the newborn neurons are capable of synthesizing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and GABA in the penumbral cortex, which is one of the fundamental requisites for these neurons to function in the poststroke recovery.
|Persistent west nile virus associated with a neurological sequela in hamsters identified by motor unit number estimation.|
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Hong Wang, Neil E Motter, Jeffery O Hall, Robert D Skinner, Ramona T Skirpstunas, John D Morrey, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Hong Wang, Neil E Motter, Jeffery O Hall, Robert D Skinner, Ramona T Skirpstunas, John D Morrey, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Hong Wang, Neil E Motter, Jeffery O Hall, Robert D Skinner, Ramona T Skirpstunas, John D Morrey
Journal of virology 83 4251-61 2009
To investigate the hypothesis that neurological sequelae are associated with persistent West Nile virus (WNV) and neuropathology, we developed an electrophysiological motor unit number estimation (MUNE) assay to measure the health of motor neurons temporally in hamsters. The MUNE assay was successful in identifying chronic neuropathology in the spinal cords of infected hamsters. MUNE was suppressed at days 9 to 92 in hamsters injected subcutaneously with WNV, thereby establishing that a long-term neurological sequela does occur in the hamster model. MUNE suppression at day 10 correlated with the loss of neuronal function as indicated by reduced choline acetyltransferase staining (R(2) = 0.91). Between days 10 and 26, some alpha-motor neurons had died, but further neuronal death was not detected beyond day 26. MUNE correlated with disease phenotype, because the lowest MUNE values were detected in paralyzed limbs. Persistent WNV RNA and foci of WNV envelope-positive cells were identified in the central nervous systems of all hamsters tested from 28 to 86 days. WNV-positive staining colocalized with the neuropathology, which suggested that persistent WNV or its products contributed to neuropathogenesis. These results established that persistent WNV product or its proteins cause dysfunction, that WNV is associated with chronic neuropathological lesions, and that this neurological sequela is effectively detected by MUNE. Inasmuch as WNV-infected humans can also experience a poliomyelitis-like disease where motor neurons are damaged, MUNE may also be a sensitive clinical or therapeutic marker for those patients.Full Text Article
|Distribution of cholinergic cells in guinea pig brainstem.|
S D Motts, A S Slusarczyk, C S Sowick, B R Schofield, S D Motts, A S Slusarczyk, C S Sowick, B R Schofield
Neuroscience 154 186-95 2008
We used an antibody to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) to label cholinergic cells in guinea pig brainstem. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) cells comprise several prominent groups, including the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and parabigeminal nucleus, as well as the cranial nerve somatic motor and parasympathetic nuclei. Additional concentrations are present in the parabrachial nuclei and superior colliculus. Among auditory nuclei, the majority of ChAT-IR cells are in the superior olive, particularly in and around the lateral superior olive, the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body and the superior paraolivary nucleus. A discrete group of ChAT-IR cells is located in the sagulum, and additional cells are scattered in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. A group of ChAT-IR cells lies dorsal to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. A few ChAT-IR cells are found in the cochlear nucleus and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The distribution of cholinergic cells in guinea pigs is largely similar to that of other species; differences occur mainly in cell groups that have few ChAT-IR cells. The results provide a basis for further studies to characterize the connections of these cholinergic groups.Full Text Article
|CXCR4 receptors in the dorsal medulla: implications for autonomic dysfunction.|
Hermann, GE; Van Meter, MJ; Rogers, RC
The European journal of neuroscience 27 855-64 2008
The chemokine receptor, CXCR4, plays an essential role in guiding neural development of the CNS. Its natural agonist, CXCL12 [or stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)], normally is derived from stromal cells, but is also produced by damaged and virus-infected neurons and glia. Pathologically, this receptor is critical to the proliferation of the HIV virus and initiation of metastatic cell growth in the brain. Anorexia, nausea and failed autonomic regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) function cause morbidity and contribute to the mortality associated with these disease states. Our previous work on the peripheral cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, demonstrated that similar morbidity factors involving GI dysfunction are attributable to agonist action on neural circuit elements of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the hindbrain. The DVC includes vagal afferent terminations in the solitary nucleus, neurons in the solitary nucleus (NST) and area postrema, and visceral efferent motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN) that are responsible for the neural regulation of digestive functions from the oral cavity to the transverse colon. Immunohistochemical techniques demonstrate a dense concentration of CXCR4 receptors on neurons throughout the DVC and the hypoglossal nucleus. CXCR4-immunoreactivity is also intense on microglia within the DVC, though not on the astrocytes. Physiological studies show that nanoinjection of SDF-1 into the DVC produces a significant reduction in gastric motility in parallel with an elevation in the numbers of cFOS-activated neurons in the NST and DMN. These results suggest that this chemokine receptor may contribute to autonomically mediated pathophysiological events associated with CNS metastasis and infection.
|West Nile virus-induced acute flaccid paralysis is prevented by monoclonal antibody treatment when administered after infection of spinal cord neurons.|
Morrey, JD; Siddharthan, V; Wang, H; Hall, JO; Skirpstunas, RT; Olsen, AL; Nordstrom, JL; Koenig, S; Johnson, S; Diamond, MS
Journal of neurovirology 14 152-63 2008
Acute flaccid polio-like paralysis occurs during natural West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a subset of cases in animals and humans. To evaluate the pathology and the possibility for therapeutic intervention, the authors developed a model of acute flaccid paralysis by injecting WNV directly into the sciatic nerve or spinal cord of hamsters. By directly injecting selected sites of the nervous system with WNV, the authors mapped the lesions responsible for hind limb paralysis to the lumbar spinal cord. Immunohistochemical analysis of spinal cord sections from paralyzed hamsters revealed that WNV-infected neurons localized primarily to the ventral motor horn of the gray matter, consistent with the polio-like clinical presentation. Neuronal apoptosis and diminished cell function were identified by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated BrdUTP nick end labeling) and choline acetyltransferase staining, respectively. Administration of hE16, a potently neutralizing humanized anti-WNV monoclonal antibody, 2 to 3 days after direct WNV infection of the spinal cord, significantly reduced paralysis and mortality. Additionally, a single injection of hE16 as late as 5 days after WNV inoculation of the sciatic nerve also prevented paralysis. Overall, these experiments establish that WNV-induced acute flaccid paralysis in hamsters is due to neuronal infection and injury in the lumbar spinal cord and that treatment with a therapeutic antibody prevents paralysis when administered after WNV infection of spinal cord neurons.