|Alterations of epigenetic signatures in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α deficient mouse liver determined by improved ChIP-qPCR and (h)MeDIP-qPCR assays.|
Zhang, Q; Lei, X; Lu, H
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a liver-enriched transcription factor essential for liver development and function. In hepatocytes, HNF4α regulates a large number of genes important for nutrient/xenobiotic metabolism and cell differentiation and proliferation. Currently, little is known about the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation by HNF4α. In this study, the global and specific alterations at the selected gene loci of representative histone modifications and DNA methylations were investigated in Hnf4a-deficient female mouse livers using the improved MeDIP-, hMeDIP- and ChIP-qPCR assay. Hnf4a deficiency significantly increased hepatic total IPed DNA fragments for histone H3 lysine-4 dimethylation (H3K4me2), H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3 and H3K4 acetylation, but not for H3K9me3, 5-methylcytosine,or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. At specific gene loci, the relative enrichments of histone and DNA modifications were changed to different degree in Hnf4a-deficient mouse liver. Among the epigenetic signatures investigated, changes in H3K4me3 correlated the best with mRNA expression. Additionally, Hnf4a-deficient livers had increased mRNA expression of histone H1.2 and H3.3 as well as epigenetic modifiers Dnmt1, Tet3, Setd7, Kmt2c, Ehmt2, and Ezh2. In conclusion, the present study provides convenient improved (h)MeDIP- and ChIP-qPCR assays for epigenetic study. Hnf4a deficiency in young-adult mouse liver markedly alters histone methylation and acetylation, with fewer effects on DNA methylation and 5-hydroxymethylation. The underlying mechanism may be the induction of epigenetic enzymes responsible for the addition/removal of the epigenetic signatures, and/or the loss of HNF4α per se as a key coordinator for epigenetic modifiers.
|Dynamic reprogramming of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine during early porcine embryogenesis.|
Cao, Zubing, et al.
DNA active demethylation is an important epigenetic phenomenon observed in porcine zygotes, yet its molecular origins are unknown. Our results show that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) converts into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) during the first cell cycle in porcine in vivo fertilization (IVV), IVF, and SCNT embryos, but not in parthenogenetically activated embryos. Expression of Ten-Eleven Translocation 1 (TET1) correlates with this conversion. Expression of 5mC gradually decreases until the morula stage; it is only expressed in the inner cell mass, but not trophectoderm regions of IVV and IVF blastocysts. Expression of 5mC in SCNT embryos is ectopically distinct from that observed in IVV and IVF embryos. In addition, 5hmC expression was similar to that of 5mC in IVV cleavage-stage embryos. Expression of 5hmC remained constant in IVF and SCNT embryos, and was evenly distributed among the inner cell mass and trophectoderm regions derived from IVV, IVF, and SCNT blastocysts. Ten-Eleven Translocation 3 was highly expressed in two-cell embryos, whereas TET1 and TET2 were highly expressed in blastocysts. These data suggest that TET1-catalyzed 5hmC may be involved in active DNA demethylation in porcine early embryos. In addition, 5mC, but not 5hmC, participates in the initial cell lineage specification in porcine IVV and IVF blastocysts. Last, SCNT embryos show aberrant 5mC and 5hmC expression during early porcine embryonic development.
|5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in the mammalian zygote is linked with epigenetic reprogramming.|
Wossidlo, Mark, et al.
Nat Commun, 2: 241 (2011)
The epigenomes of early mammalian embryos are extensively reprogrammed to acquire a totipotent developmental potential. A major initial event in this reprogramming is the active loss/demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the zygote. Here, we report on findings that link this active demethylation to molecular mechanisms. We detect 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as a novel modification in mouse, bovine and rabbit zygotes. On zygotic development 5hmC accumulates in the paternal pronucleus along with a reduction of 5mC. A knockdown of the 5hmC generating dioxygenase Tet3 simultaneously affects the patterns of 5hmC and 5mC in the paternal pronucleus. This finding links the loss of 5mC to its conversion into 5hmC. The maternal pronucleus seems to be largely protected against this mechanism by PGC7/Dppa3/Stella, as in PGC7 knockout zygotes 5mC also becomes accessible to oxidation into 5hmC. In summary, our data suggest an important role of 5hmC and Tet3 for DNA methylation reprogramming processes in the mammalian zygote.