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Stem Cell Exhaustion

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As we age, our stem cells eventually lose their ability to divide. Furthermore, we are unable to replace the stem cells that have migrated, differentiated, or died. As a result, we show outward symbols of aging, such as grey hair.

While the decrease in the renewal of stem cells certainly leads to age-related disorders, it is clear that this “stem cell exhaustion” is really a consequence of DNA damage, deregulated nutrient sensing, senescence, and other processes already mentioned—in other words, it might be argued that it is not a “true” hallmark. Nevertheless, because of their unique role in determining cell fate in a tissue-specific way, stem cells can reveal ways that tissues interact during the aging of a complex organism and possibly redirect the fate of aging tissues upon transplantation.

Aged Stem Cell
(Click image to enlarge.)

Hallmarks of aging affect aging stem cells. Adapted from Oh J, Lee YD, Wagers AJ. Stem cell aging: mechanisms, regulators and therapeutic opportunities. Nat Med. 2014 Aug;20(8):870-80.

Recent studies have asked how environmental, genetic and microenvironmental factors all work together to affect stem cell fate. “Youthful” signals (like microRNAs) can apparently be delivered to aging stem cells via extracellular vesicles — could these vesicles serve as anti-aging therapeutics?

It’s also clear that diet and metabolic signaling also affects stem cells, as do signals from the microbiome. The discovery of Toll-like receptors on intestinal stem cells points to a paradigm in which our aging is determined not only by what we eat and breathe, but also the bacteria we carry.
Did you know?
Grey hair are the result of depletion of stem cells in the hair follicles. Interestingly, it has been found that the loss of melanocyte stem cells from hair follicles also results from stress.

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Merck:/Freestyle/BI-Bioscience/LP-Hallmarks-of-Aging/stem-cell-exhaustion-simplicon-kit.jpgAdvantages of the Simplicon® RNA Reprogramming Kit:
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Merck:/Freestyle/BI-Bioscience/LP-Hallmarks-of-Aging/stem-cell-exhaustion-pluristem-bottle.jpgMilliporeSigma’s PluriSTEM® Human ES/iPS Medium is a specially formulated to maintains human pluripotent stem cells in feeder-free and serum-free conditions with less frequent feeding and cell culture time. The proprietary formulation uses Activin-A, TGFβ1 and b-FGF to promote stem cell self-renewal and potent small molecule combinations to inhibit unwanted spontaneous differentiation along with Human Serum Albumin (HSA) to aid in overall colony morphology.

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Suggested feeding regiment with Pluristem™ Human ES/iPS Medium

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Featured Solution: ReNcell® Human Neural Stem Cells
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ReNcell® VM and ReNcell® CX Cell Lines
ReNcell® VM and ReNcell® CX are two well-established neural stem cell lines derived from developing human brains. ReNcell® VM and CX cells are generated from the ventral mesencephalon (VM) and cortical (CX) regions of the brain, respectively, and transduced with the myc transcription factor. Both cell lines offer phenotype and genotype stability, in addition to the multipotential neuronal differentiation capacity, over long-term culture.
Breakthrough studies have recently rejected the longstanding belief that neuronal tissue is incapable of regeneration. Successful engraftment of NSCs following implantation into the brain of rodent models has demonstrated the potential of this cell type in the development of regenerative therapeutic strategies. However, neural stem cells have historically proven to be difficult to isolate and culture in vitro for an extended period of time. MilliporeSigma offers novel, ready-to-use, neural progenitor cells isolated from both human and rodent model systems, including serum-free cell culture expansion media, and kits for differentiation and characterization. ReNcell® immortalized human neural stem cells can readily differentiate into neurons and glial cells.

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Hallmarks of Aging

Find out how aging may play a role in your research. Learn more!

Visit Hallmarks of Aging Home Page.