Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is one of the major factors involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Because of the insolubility of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) and the heterogeneous nature of oxidative modification, modified structures of apoB-100 in oxLDL are poorly understood. We applied an on-Membrane samplepreparation procedure for LC-MS/MS analysis of apoB-100 proteins in native and modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) samples to eliminate lipid components in the LDLs followed by collection of tryptic digests of apoB-100. Compared with a commonly used in-gel digestion protocol, the samplepreparation procedure using PVDF membrane greatly increased the recovery of tryptic peptides and resulted in improved sequence coverage in the final analysis, which lead to the identification of modified amino acid residues in copper-induced oxLDL. A histidine residue modified by 4-hydroxynonenal, a major lipid peroxidation product, as well as oxidized histidine and tryptophan residues were detected. LC-MS/MS in combination with the on-Membrane samplepreparation procedure is a useful method to analyze highly hydrophobic proteins such as apoB-100.
Gamma-secretase is important for the development of Alzheimer's disease, since it is a crucial enzyme for the generation of the pathogenic amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). Most data on gamma-secretase is derived from studies in cell lines overexpressing gamma-secretase components or amyloid precursor protein (APP), and since gamma-secretase is a transmembrane protein complex, detergents have been frequently used to facilitate the studies. However, no extensive comparison of the influence of different detergents at different concentrations on gamma-secretase activity in preparations from brain has been made. Here, we establish the optimal conditions for gamma-secretase activity in rat brain, using an activity assay detecting endogenous production of the APP intracellular domain, which is generated when gamma-secretase cleaves the APP C-terminal fragments. We performed a subcellular fractionation and noted the highest gamma-secretase activity in the 100000g pellet and that the optimal pH was around 7. We found that gamma-secretase was active for at least 16 h at 37 degrees C and that the endogenous substrate levels were sufficient for activity measurements. The highest activity was obtained in 0.4% CHAPSO, which is slightly below the critical micelle concentration (0.5%) for this detergent, but the complex was not solubilized efficiently at this concentration. On the other hand, 1% CHAPSO solubilized a substantial amount of the gamma-secretase components, but the activity was low. The activity was fully restored by diluting the sample to 0.4% CHAPSO. Therefore, using 1% CHAPSO for solubilization and subsequently diluting the sample to 0.4% is an appropriate procedure for obtaining a soluble, highly active gamma-secretase from rat brain.
Protein microarrays combine aspects of DNA microarrays and ELISA for the parallel interrogation of a biological sample using a multiplex of protein biomarkers. Here we report the development of a protein microarray consisting of a subset of CD antibodies and CRP. Several preparations (culture supernatant, ascites fluid and purified Ig) of each antibody were used in a forward phase protein microarray. Microarrays were fabricated using a non-contact printer delivering 300 pL (+/-30 pL) to specific locations on polyacrylamide gel-based substrates. Following production, microarrays were blocked for non-specific binding and incubated with sera conjugated directly with Cy3. Using CRP as a control biomarker, 12 clinical samples (inflammatory conditions and controls) were interrogated using the protein microarray format and results compared to CRP measured by conventional immunoassay. The data obtained from the microarray correlated with CRP assessed by immunoassay. Subsequently CRP 'positive' samples were interrogated for CD antigen expression; which revealed CD25 and CD45RO expression in all samples. Whilst this study focussed on a subset of CD antibodies, it is anticipated that this array could be expanded to include a larger number of CD antibodies and allow screening of sera from multiple conditions in order to identify disease markers.