Millipore Sigma Vibrant Logo
Attention: We have moved. EMD Millipore products are no longer available for purchase on emdmillipore.com.Learn More
 

protein sample preparation


36 Results Advanced Search  
Showing
Products (0)
Documents (36)
Site Content (0)

Narrow Your Results Use the filters below to refine your search

Document Type

  • (35)
  • (1)
Can't Find What You're Looking For?
Contact Customer Service

 
  • A FRET-based method to study protein thiol oxidation in histological preparations. 18620047

    Cysteine residues in proteins have important biological roles. For example, disulfide bonds are important structural elements; additionally, reversible oxidation of thiols to disulfides functions as a molecular switch and constitutes an early response to oxidative damage. Because organs are heterogeneous structures composed of diverse cell types, there is a compelling need for a histological approach to investigate thiol oxidation in situ in order to address the role of specific cell types in oxidative imbalance. Here we describe a fluorescence technique-which can be used in association with standard immunological staining procedures-to detect variations in disulfides in histological preparations. Moreover, by monitoring the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a labeled specific primary antibody and the thiol probe described here, this method can detect thiol oxidation in candidate proteins of interest. When applied to an animal model of Parkinson's disease, our technique demonstrated that thiol oxidation occurs selectively in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, the same neurons that are lost selectively in the disease. In summary, this technique provides a new, powerful tool for providing further understanding of oxidative imbalance, a phenomenon common to many diseases.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB318
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, clone LNC1
  • Identification of membrane-bound variant of metalloendopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16) as the non-angiotensin type 1 (non-AT1), non-AT2 angiotensin binding site. 22039052

    Recently, we discovered a novel non-angiotensin type 1 (non-AT1), non-AT2 angiotensin binding site in rodent and human brain membranes, which is distinctly different from angiotensin receptors and key proteases processing angiotensins. It is hypothesized to be a new member of the renin-angiotensin system. This study was designed to isolate and identify this novel angiotensin binding site. An angiotensin analog, photoaffinity probe 125I-SBpa-Ang II, was used to specifically label the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site in mouse forebrain membranes, followed by a two-step purification procedure based on the molecular size and isoelectric point of the photoradiolabeled binding protein. Purified samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry identification of proteins in the two-dimensional gel sections containing radioactivity. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed eight protein candidates, of which the four most abundant were immunoprecipitated after photoradiolabeling. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that the angiotensin binding site might be the membrane-bound variant of metalloendopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16). To verify these observations, radioligand binding and photoradiolabeling experiments were conducted in membrane preparations of HEK293 cells overexpressing mouse neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15), a closely related metalloendopeptidase of the same family. These experiments also identified neurolysin as the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site. Finally, brain membranes of mice lacking neurolysin were nearly devoid of the non-AT1, non-AT2 angiotensin binding site, further establishing membrane-bound neurolysin as the binding site. Future studies will focus on the functional significance of this highly specific, high affinity interaction between neurolysin and angiotensins.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    AB9218
  • Transcription and protein expression of mb-1 and B29 genes in human hematopoietic malignancies and cell lines. 8255092

    The transmembrane forms of all immunoglobulin (Ig) classes are associated with two glycoproteins, mb-1 and B29, that are crucial for signal transduction following antigen binding to the Ig molecule. We have investigated the transcription and protein expression of mb-1 and B29 genes during B-cell development. Sixty human continuous cell lines (35 B-lineage, 11 T-lineage, 11 myeloid-lineage and three non-hematopoietic) and 75 hematopoietic malignancies (55 B-lineage, 12 T-lineage and eight myeloid-lineage), were tested for RNA expression by Northern blotting experiments with the mb-1 pRA3 cDNA probe, and a newly isolated B29 cDNA probe. Protein expression was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy of cytocentrifuge preparations, which were labeled with the anti-mb-1 HM57 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and an anti-B29 polyclonal antiserum, directed against intracellular epitopes of these polypeptides. Except for two early precursor B-cell lines, mb-1 and B29 transcripts and proteins were detected in all B-cell lines and B-cell malignancies, i.e. from immature to more mature B cells, irrespective of their Ig class expression. Transcription of mb-1 genes seems to be down-regulated at the plasma cell stage, because no mb-1 transcripts and mb-1 proteins could be detected in the four plasma cell lines and two plasma cell leukemias tested. B29 transcripts were detectable in these cell samples, but low levels of B29 proteins were only detected in one plasma cell line. The HM57 mAb gave strong labeling on fresh cytocentrifuge preparations of all B-cell samples, and this mb-1 protein expression appeared to be B-cell specific. We therefore conclude that the HM57 mAb is well suited for the detection of the mb-1 molecule as a pan-B-cell marker for the diagnosis of immature and mature B-cell malignancies. The expression pattern of the mb-1 protein is comparable to that of the CD19 and CD22 antigens, but has the advantage of being B-lineage specific. Although B29 protein expression was restricted to B-lineage cells, the anti-B29 antiserum is less suitable for diagnosis of B-cell malignancies, because of the variable and generally weak signals on cytocentrifuge preparations.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    IHCR2023-6
  • Microarray profiling of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins. 16938495

    Microarrays were developed to profile the level of proteins associated with calcium regulation in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) isolated from porcine Longissimus muscle. The microarrays consisted of SR preparations printed onto to glass slides and probed with monoclonal antibodies to 7 target proteins. Proteins investigated included: ryanodine receptor, (RyR), dihydropyridine receptor, (DHPR), triadin (TRI), calsequestrin (CSQ), 90 kDa junctional protein (JSR90), and fast-twitch and slow-twitch SR calcium ATPases (SERCA1 and SERCA2). Signal from a fluorescently-labeled detection antibody was measured and quantitated using a slide reader. The microarray developed was also employed to profile Longissimus muscle SR proteins from halothane genotyped animals. Significant (P0.05) reductions in levels of several proteins were found including: RyR, CSQ, TRI, DHPR and SERCA2 in SR samples from halothane positive animals. The results illustrate the potential of microarrays as a tool for profiling SR proteins and aiding investigations of calcium regulation.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB3086
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Ryanodine Receptor Antibody, clone RYR.1
  • Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae initiates formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. 20956567

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is a leading cause of otitis media infections, which are often chronic and/or recurrent in nature. NTHI and other bacterial species persist in vivo within biofilms during otitis media and other persistent infections. These biofilms have a significant host component that includes neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These NETs do not mediate clearance of NTHI, which survives within NET structures by means of specific subpopulations of lipooligosaccharides on the bacterial surface that are determinants of biofilm formation in vitro. In this study, the ability of NTHI and NTHI components to initiate NET formation was examined using an in vitro model system. Both viable and nonviable NTHI strains were shown to promote NET formation, as did preparations of bacterial DNA, outer membrane proteins, and lipooligosaccharide (endotoxin). However, only endotoxin from a parental strain of NTHI exhibited equivalent potency in NET formation to that of NTHI. Additional studies showed that NTHI entrapped within NET structures is resistant to both extracellular killing within NETs and phagocytic killing by incoming neutrophils, due to oligosaccharide moieties within the lipooligosaccharides. Thus, we concluded that NTHI elicits NET formation by means of multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (most notably endotoxin) and is highly resistant to killing within NET structures. These data support the conclusion that, for NTHI, formation of NET structures may be a persistence determinant by providing a niche within the middle-ear chamber.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    MAB3422
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Histone Antibody, clone H11-4
  • Purification and characterization of phosphoinositide 3-kinase from rat liver. 2174051

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase was purified 27,000-fold from rat liver. The enzyme was purified by acid precipitation of the cytosol followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, S-Sepharose, hydroxylapatite, Mono-Q, and Mono-S columns. When analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified phosphoinositide 3-kinase preparation contained an 85-kDa protein and a protein doublet of approximately 110 kDa. The 85- and 110-kDa proteins focus together on native isoelectric focusing gels and are cross-linked by dithiobis(succinylamide propionate), showing that the 110- and 85-kDa proteins are a complex. The apparent size of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration, is 190 kDa. The 85-kDa subunit is the same protein previously shown to associate with polyoma virus middle T antigen and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (Kaplan, D. R., Whitman, M., Schaffhausen, B., Pallas, D. C., White, M., Cantley, L., and Roberts, T. M. (1987) Cell 50, 1021-1029). The two proteins co-migrate on two-dimensional gels; and, using a Western blotting procedure, 32P-labeled middle T antigen specifically blots the 85-kDa protein. The purified enzyme phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. The apparent Km values for ATP were found to be 60 microM with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate as the substrate. The apparent Km for phosphatidyinositol is 60 microM, for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate is 9 microM, and for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is 4 microM. The maximum specific activity using phosphatidylinositol as the substrate is 0.8 mumol/mg/min. The enzyme requires Mg2+ with an optimum of 5 mM. Substitution of Mn2+ for Mg2+ results in only approximately 10% of the Mg2(+)-dependent activity. Physiological calcium concentrations have no effect on the enzyme activity. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase has a broad pH optimum around 7.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple