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  • CENP-B cooperates with Set1 in bidirectional transcriptional silencing and genome organization of retrotransposons. 22907751

    Regulation of transposable elements (TEs) is critical to the integrity of the host genome. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologs of mammalian CENP-B perform a host genome surveillance role by controlling Tf2 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. However, the mechanisms by which CENP-Bs effect their functions are ill defined. Here, we show that the multifaceted roles of Abp1, the prominent member of fission yeast CENP-Bs, are mediated in part via recognition of a 10-bp AT-rich motif present in most LTRs and require the DNA-binding, transposase, and dimerization domains of Abp1 to maintain transcriptional repression and genome organization. Expression profiling analyses indicated that Abp1 recruits class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs) to repress Tf2 retrotransposons and genes activated in response to stresses. We demonstrate that class I/II HDACs and sirtuins mediate the clustering of dispersed Tf2 retrotransposons into Tf bodies. Intriguingly, we uncovered an unexpected cooperation between Abp1 and the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 in regulating sense and antisense transcriptional silencing of Tf2 retrotransposons and Tf body integrity. Moreover, Set1-mediated regulation of Tf2 expression and nuclear organization appears to be largely independent of H3K4 methylation. Our study illuminates a molecular pathway involving a transposase-containing transcription factor that cooperates with chromatin modifiers to regulate TE activities.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    Multiple
    Product Catalog Name:
    Multiple
  • Direct exposure of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma confers simultaneous oxidative and ultraviolet modifications in biomolecules. 25411528

    Thermal plasmas and lasers are used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, little research has been done into the use of this technique for conventional free radical biology. Recently, we developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping revealed (•)OH as a major product. To obtain evidence of NEAPP-induced oxidative modifications in biomolecules and standardize them, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and α-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also observed after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in saline produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    06-284
    Product Catalog Name:
    Anti-Nitrotyrosine Antibody
  • Metabolic adaptation to a disruption in oxygen supply during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion is underpinned by temporal and quantitative changes in the cardiac proteo ... 22352837

    Despite decades of intensive research, there is still no effective treatment for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, an important corollary in the treatment of ischemic disease. I/R injury is initiated when the altered biochemistry of cells after ischemia is no longer compatible with oxygenated microenvironment (or reperfusion). To better understand the molecular basis of this alteration and subsequent incompatibility, we assessed the temporal and quantitative alterations in the cardiac proteome of a mouse cardiac I/R model by an iTRAQ approach at 30 min of ischemia, and at 60 or 120 min reperfusion after the ischemia using sham-operated mouse heart as the baseline control. Of the 509 quantified proteins identified, 121 proteins exhibited significant changes (p-value<0.05) over time and were mostly clustered in eight functional groups: Fatty acid oxidation, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC (electron transport chain), Redox Homeostasis, Glutathione S-transferase, Apoptosis related, and Heat Shock proteins. The first four groups are intimately involved in ATP production and the last four groups are known to be important in cellular antioxidant activity. During ischemia and reperfusion, the short supply of oxygen precipitates a pivotal metabolic switch from aerobic metabolism involving fatty acid oxidation, TCA, and phosphorylation to anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and this, in turn, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Therefore the implication of these 8 functional groups suggested that ischemia-reperfusion injury is underpinned in part by proteomic alterations. Reversion of these alterations to preischemia levels took at least 60 min, suggesting a refractory period in which the ischemic cells cannot adjust to the presence of oxygen. Therefore, therapeutics that could compensate for these proteomic alterations during this interim refractory period could alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury to enhance cellular recovery from an ischemic to a normoxic microenvironment. Among the perturbed proteins, Park7 and Ppia were selected for further investigation of their functions under hypoxia. The results show that Park7 plays a key role in regulating antioxidative stress and cell survival, and Ppia may function in coping with the unfolded protein stress in the I/R condition.
    Document Type:
    Reference
    Product Catalog Number:
    05-505