Two monoclonal antibodies (TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81) recognizing distinct cell surface antigens on human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells were produced and characterized. These antibodies reacted strongly with undifferentiated human EC cells in indirect radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunofluorescence (IF) assays, but only weakly or not at all with cells derived from pluripotent EC cells differentiating in vitro or in xenograft tumors, nor with other germ cell tumor cell lines that did not also express the typical features of human EC cells. They did not react with murine teratocarcinoma cell lines. A survey of other human tumor cell lines and normal human tissues disclosed that molecules recognized by these antibodies are not confined to human EC cells but that cross-reacting epitopes appear on several neoplastic and normal tissues, although in a different anatomical pattern for each antibody. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated a major polypeptide (apparent molecular weight approximately 240,000) and a minor polypeptide (apparent molecular weight approximately 415,000) from lysates of 125I surface-labeled human EC cells, in this respect resembling another monoclonal antibody, 8-7D, previously described by Blaineau et al. (1,2) However, sequential immunoprecipitation revealed that each of the three antibodies reacted with different molecules of slightly different molecular weights. The epitopes defined by the present antibodies differ from those recognized by the other human EC cell-specific monoclonal antibodies that have been described and provide new markers for studying the differentiation of pluripotent human EC cells.
Antibodies to P. falciparum apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1) may contribute to protective immunity against clinical malaria by inhibiting blood stage growth of P. falciparum, and AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the acquisition of strain-specific and cross-reactive antibodies to AMA1 in humans, or the acquisition of invasion-inhibitory antibodies to AMA1.We examined the acquisition of human antibodies to specific polymorphic invasion-inhibitory and non-inhibitory AMA1 epitopes, defined by the monoclonal antibodies 1F9 and 2C5, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies were measured in cohorts of Kenyan children and adults. Antibodies to the invasion-inhibitory 1F9 epitope and non-inhibitory 2C5 epitope were measured indirectly by competition ELISA. Antibodies to the 1F9 and 2C5 epitopes were acquired by children and correlated with exposure, and higher antibody levels and prevalence were observed with increasing age and with active P. falciparum infection. Of note, the prevalence of antibodies to the inhibitory 1F9 epitope was lower than antibodies to AMA1 or the 2C5 epitope. Antibodies to AMA1 ectodomain, the 1F9 or 2C5 epitopes, or a combination of responses, showed some association with protection from P. falciparum malaria in a prospective longitudinal study. Furthermore, antibodies to the invasion-inhibitory 1F9 epitope were positively correlated with parasite growth-inhibitory activity of serum antibodies.Individuals acquire antibodies to functional, polymorphic epitopes of AMA1 that may contribute to protective immunity, and these findings have implications for AMA1 vaccine development. Measuring antibodies to the 1F9 epitope by competition ELISA may be a valuable approach to assessing human antibodies with invasion-inhibitory activity in studies of acquired immunity and vaccine trials of AMA1.
Previously, we demonstrated that antibodies printed on a solid support were able to detect protein-protein interaction in mammalian cells. Here we further developed the antibody array system for detecting proteins with various post-translational modifications in mammalian cells. In this novel approach, immunoprecipitated proteins were labeled with fluorescent dye followed by incubation over antibody arrays. Targeted proteins, captured by the antibodies immobilized on PVDF membrane or glass slide, were detected by means of near infrared fluorescent scanner or fluorescent microscopy. To demonstrate the application of the antibody arrays in protein post-translational modifications, we profiled protein tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation in mammalian cells under different conditions. Our results indicate that antibody array technology can provide a powerful means of profiling a large number of proteins with different post-translational modifications in cells.
We determined the role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and antibodies (Abs) to self-antigens, collagen-V (Col-V), and K-α1-Tubulin (KAT) in pathogenesis of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after human heart transplantation (HTx).
Cellular transformation by oncogenic retroviruses encoding protein tyrosine kinases coincides with the tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of multiple protein substrates. Previous studies have shown that tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein of 120 kDa, p120, correlated with src transformation in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Additionally, we previously identified two phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins, p130 and p110, that formed stable complexes with activated variants of pp60src, the src-encoded tyrosine kinase. To study transformation-relevant tyrosine kinase substrates, we have generated monoclonal antibodies to individual tyrosine phosphoproteins, including p130, p120, p110, and five additional phosphoproteins (p210, p125, p118, p85, and p185/p64). These antibodies detected several of the same tyrosine phosphoproteins in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by avian retroviruses Y73 and CT10, encoding the yes and crk oncogenes, respectively. Protein substrates in mouse, rat, hamster, and human cells overexpressing activated variants of chicken pp60src were also detected by several of the monoclonal antibodies.
Heat-shock proteins have been shown to be critical antigens in a number of autoimmune diseases. In human arthritis and in experimentally induced arthritis in animals, disease development was seen to coincide with development of immune reactivity directed against not only bacterial hsp60, but also against its mammalian homologue. We have developed murine monoclonal antibodies after immunization with recombinant human hsp60. Antibodies with unique specificity for mammalian hsp60, not crossreactive with the bacterial counterpart (LK1), and antibodies recognizing both human and bacterial hsp60 (LK2) were selected. Both antibodies recognize epitopes located between amino acid positions 383 and 447 of human hsp60. In immunogold electron microscopy, the mitochondrial localization of hsp60 in HepG2 cells was shown. Furthermore, both LK1 and LK2 showed a raised level of staining in light microscopy immunohistochemistry of synovial membranes in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. The increased staining for LK1, with a unique specificity for mammalian hsp60, thus unequivocally demonstrates that this is due to a raised level of expression of endogenously produced host hsp60 and not to deposition of bacterial antigens.
Product Catalog Number:
Product Catalog Name:
Anti-Heat Shock Protein 60 Antibody, a.a. 383-447, clone LK1