Key Specifications Table
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||40 assays|
ApopTag® Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Stem Cell Research & Therapy in 2012.|
Philippa Locke,Rocky S Tuan,Timothy O'Brien
Stem cell research & therapy 3 2012
|Impact of hepatic arterial reconstruction on orthotopic liver transplantation in the rat.|
Tomohide Hori,Lindsay B Gardner,Florence Chen,Ann-Marie T Baine,Toshiyuki Hata,Shinji Uemoto,Justin H Nguyen
Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research 25 2012
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) models in rats have been investigated in many studies, but detailed information on the impact of hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction on postoperative factors remains to be investigated. HA reconstruction also requires advanced skills. The effect of the reconstruction of the HA by a hand-suture technique in rats with a whole-liver syngeneic graft was investigated. Long-term survival, histopathological assessment, immunohistological evaluation, and blood biochemistry were investigated until postoperative day (POD) 28. From the early postoperative period, significant differences between OLTs with or without HA reconstruction were found in graft parenchymal damage, induction of apoptosis, and transaminase levels, though survival curves and the coagulation profile showed no differences. In OLT without HA reconstruction, biliary proliferation was decreased at POD 5-14, and total bilirubin level was increased at PODs 10 and 14. The study indicates that HA reconstruction is required for reliable OLT in rats.
|Extract of white button mushroom affects skin healing and angiogenesis.|
W P Lam,C M Wang,T Y Tsui,M S Wai,H C Tang,Y W Wong,L H Lam,L K Hui,D T Yew
Microscopy research and technique 75 2012
White button mushroom extract was examined in this study on (1) its potential effect on angiogenesis in chorioallantoic culture and (2) its recovering effect on the skin after injury in the ICR mice. Methods used included TUNEL assay on apoptosis, immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and immune factor CD4 and western blotting. The results of chorioallantoic culture showed that the mushroom treatment led to significant increase in densities of VEGF sites. In the skin injury, ICR mice model increased EGF, PCNA, and collagen fibers, along with decrease of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells and limited reaction of TGF-β and CD4 indicated that white button mushroom extract appeared to have beneficial effects on skin in regeneration and after injury. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2012.
|Hepatic arterial reconstruction for orthotopic liver transplantation in the rat.|
Tomohide Hori,Lindsay B Gardner,Feng Chen,Ann-Marie T Baine,Toshiyuki Hata,Aimee R Herdt,Shinji Uemoto,Christopher B Eckman,Justin H Nguyen
The Journal of surgical research 178 2012
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) models in rats have been investigated in many studies. The reconstruction of hepatic artery is required for reliable OLT and also requires advanced skills.
|Hepatitis B virus alters the antioxidant system in transgenic mice and sensitizes hepatocytes to Fas signaling.|
Wang, Q; Na, B; Ou, JH; Pulliam, L; Yen, TS
PloS one 7 e36818 2012
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiological factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise pathogenetic mechanisms linking HBV infection and HCC remain uncertain. It has been reported that decreased antioxidant enzyme activities are associated with severe liver injury and hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse models. It is unclear if HBV can interfere with the activities of antioxidant enzymes. We established a HBV transgenic mouse line, which spontaneously developed HCC at 2 years of age. We studied the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of the HBV transgenic mice. Our results showed that the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase 2 were down-regulated in HBV transgenic mice and correlated with JNK activation. HBV enhanced the Fas-mediated activation of caspase 6, caspase 8 and JNK without enhancing the activation of caspase 3 and hepatocellular apoptosis. As a proper redox balance is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis, these effects of HBV on the host antioxidant system and Fas-signaling may play an important role in HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
|Nanoporous peptide particles for encapsulating and releasing neurotrophic factors in an animal model of neurodegeneration.|
Justin Tan,Yajun Wang,Xiaopei Yip,Fergal Glynn,Robert K Shepherd,Frank Caruso
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) 24 2012
Neurotrophin-BDNF can be effectively encapsulated in nanoporous poly(L-glutamic acid) particles prepared via mesoporous silica templating. The loaded BDNF can be released in a sustained manner with retained biological activity. Animal experiments demonstrate the released BDNF can efficiently rescue the auditory neurons (as indicated by the arrows) in the cochlea of guinea pigs with sensorineural hearing loss.
|Uncoupling of PI3K from ErbB3 impairs mammary gland development but does not impact on ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis.|
Hicham Lahlou,Thomas Müller,Virginie Sanguin-Gendreau,Carmen Birchmeier,William J Muller
Cancer research 72 2012
The formation of ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimers plays a critical role in ErbB2-mediated signaling in both normal mammary development and mammary tumor progression. Through 7 phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphotyrosine-binding sites, ErbB3 is able to recruit PI3K and initiate the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. To directly explore the importance of the ErbB3/PI3K pathway in mammary development and tumorigenesis, we generated a mouse model that carries a mutant ErbB3 allele lacking the seven known PI3K-binding sites (ErbB3(Δ85)). Mice homozygous for the ErbB3(Δ85) allele exhibited an initial early growth defect and a dramatic impairment of mammary epithelial outgrowth. Although homozygous adult mice eventually recovered from the growth defect, their mammary glands continued to manifest the mammary outgrowth and lactation defects throughout their adult life. Interestingly, despite the presence of a profound mammary gland defect, all of the female ErbB3Δ85 mice developed metastatic ErbB2-induced mammary tumors secondary to mammary epithelial expression of an activated ErbB2 oncogene capable of compensatory PI3K signaling from both EGF receptor and ErbB2. Our findings therefore indicate that, although ErbB3-associated PI3K activity is critical for mammary development, it is dispensable for ErbB2-induced mammary tumor progression.
|Osteocyte network; a negative regulatory system for bone mass augmented by the induction of rankl in osteoblasts and sost in osteocytes at unloading.|
Takeshi Moriishi,Ryo Fukuyama,Masako Ito,Toshihiro Miyazaki,Takafumi Maeno,Yosuke Kawai,Hisato Komori,Toshihisa Komori
PloS one 7 2012
Reduced mechanical stress is a major cause of osteoporosis in the elderly, and the osteocyte network, which comprises a communication system through processes and canaliculi throughout bone, is thought to be a mechanosensor and mechanotransduction system; however, the functions of osteocytes are still controversial and remain to be clarified. Unexpectedly, we found that overexpression of BCL2 in osteoblasts eventually caused osteocyte apoptosis. Osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation were unaffected by BCL2 transgene in vitro. However, the cortical bone mass increased due to enhanced osteoblast function and suppressed osteoclastogenesis at 4 months of age, when the frequency of TUNEL-positive lacunae reached 75%. In the unloaded condition, the trabecular bone mass decreased in both wild-type and BCL2 transgenic mice at 6 weeks of age, while it decreased due to impaired osteoblast function and enhanced osteoclastogenesis in wild-type mice but not in BCL2 transgenic mice at 4 months of age. Rankl and Opg were highly expressed in osteocytes, but Rankl expression in osteoblasts but not in osteocytes was increased at unloading in wild-type mice but not in BCL2 transgenic mice at 4 months of age. Sost was locally induced at unloading in wild-type mice but not in BCL2 transgenic mice, and the dissemination of Sost was severely interrupted in BCL2 transgenic mice, showing the severely impaired osteocyte network. These findings indicate that the osteocyte network is required for the upregulation of Rankl in osteoblasts and Sost in osteocytes in the unloaded condition. These findings suggest that the osteocyte network negatively regulate bone mass by inhibiting osteoblast function and activating osteoclastogenesis, and these functions are augmented in the unloaded condition at least partly through the upregulation of Rankl expression in osteoblasts and that of Sost in osteocytes, although it cannot be excluded that low BCL2 transgene expression in osteoblasts contributed to the enhanced osteoblast function.
|Reduced intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone.|
Jutta M Nagel,Brenda M Geiger,Apostolos K A Karagiannis,Beatriz Gras-Miralles,David Horst,Robert M Najarian,Dimitrios C Ziogas,Xinhua Chen,Efi Kokkotou
PloS one 7 2012
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an evolutionary conserved hypothalamic neuropeptide that in mammals primarily regulates appetite and energy balance. We have recently identified a novel role for MCH in intestinal inflammation by demonstrating attenuated experimental colitis in MCH deficient mice or wild type mice treated with an anti-MCH antibody. Therefore, targeting MCH has been proposed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the link between chronic intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer, in the present study we sought to investigate whether blocking MCH might have effects on intestinal tumorigenesis that are independent of inflammation.
|Pten deletion causes mTorc1-dependent ectopic neuroblast differentiation without causing uniform migration defects.|
Guo Zhu,Lionel M L Chow,Ildar T Bayazitov,Yiai Tong,Richard J Gilbertson,Stanislav S Zakharenko,David J Solecki,Suzanne J Baker
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2012
Neuronal precursors, generated throughout life in the subventricular zone, migrate through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons. We found that the PI3K-Akt-mTorc1 pathway is selectively inactivated in migrating neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream, and activated when these cells reach the olfactory bulb. Postnatal deletion of Pten caused aberrant activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTorc1 pathway and an enlarged subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. This expansion was caused by premature termination of migration and differentiation of neuroblasts and was rescued by inhibition of mTorc1. This phenotype is reminiscent of lamination defects caused by Pten deletion in developing brain that were previously described as defective migration. However, live imaging in acute slices showed that Pten deletion did not cause a uniform defect in the mechanics of directional neuroblast migration. Instead, a subpopulation of Pten-null neuroblasts showed minimal movement and altered morphology associated with differentiation, whereas the remainder showed unimpeded directional migration towards the olfactory bulb. Therefore, migration defects of Pten-null neurons might be secondary to ectopic differentiation.
|Comprehensive solutions for studying cell health - Life, death, and everything in between.|
|A Comparative Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured in a Variety of Media Conditions|
|ApopTag® Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit|