Key Specifications Table
|Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||40 assays|
ApopTag® Fluorescein Direct In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Matrigel-based sprouting endothelial cell culture system from mouse corpus cavernosum is potentially useful for the study of endothelial and erectile dysfunction related to high-glucose exposure.|
Guo Nan Yin,Ji-Kan Ryu,Mi-Hye Kwon,Sun Hwa Shin,Hai-Rong Jin,Kang-Moon Song,Min Ji Choi,Dong-Yeon Kang,Woo Jean Kim,Jun-Kyu Suh
The journal of sexual medicine 9 2012
Introduction. A proper cavernous endothelial cell culture system would be advantageous for the study of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction (ED). Aim. To establish a nonenzymatic technique, which we termed the Matrigel-based sprouting endothelial cell culture system, for the isolation of mouse cavernous endothelial cells (MCECs) and an in vitro model that mimics in vivo situation for diabetes-induced ED. Methods. For primary MCEC culture, mouse cavernous tissue was implanted into Matrigel and sprouting cells from the tissue were subcultivated. To establish an in vitro model for diabetes-induced ED, the primary cultured MCECs were exposed to a normal-glucose (5 mmoL) or a high-glucose (30 mmoL) condition for 48 hours. Main Outcome Measures. The purity of isolated cells was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. MCECs incubated under the normal- or the high-glucose condition were used for Western blot, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) quantification, and in vitro angiogenesis assay. Results. We could consistently isolate high-purity MCECs (about 97%) with the Matrigel-based sprouting endothelial cell culture system. MCECs were subcultured up to the fifth passage and no significant changes were noted in endothelial cell morphology or purity. The phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS and the cGMP concentration were significantly lower in MCECs exposed to high glucose than in those exposed to normal glucose. MCECs exposed to the normal-glucose condition formed well-organized capillary-like structures, whereas derangements in tube formation were noted in MCECs exposed to high glucose. The protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and phospho-Smad2 was significantly increased by exposure to high glucose. Conclusion. The Matrigel-based sprouting endothelial cell culture system is a simple, technically feasible, and reproducible technique for isolating pure cavernous endothelial cells in mice. An in vitro model for diabetic ED will be a valuable tool for evaluating the angiogenic potential of novel endogenous or synthetic modulators. Yin GN, Ryu J-K, Kwon M-H, Shin SH, Jin HR, Song K-M, Choi MJ, Kang D-Y, Kim WJ, and Suh J-K. Matrigel-based sprouting endothelial cell culture system from mouse corpus cavernosum is potentially useful for the study of endothelial and erectile dysfunction related to high-glucose exposure. J Sex Med 2012;9:1777-1789.
|Intrinsic apoptotic pathway is subverted in mouse macrophages persistently infected by RSV.|
Nakamura-López Y, Villegas-Sepúlveda N, Sarmiento-Silva RE, Gómez B
Virus Res 2011
To persist, a virus must co-exist with the host that it infects, thus allowing the virus to survive and to subvert the programmed cell death of the host. In this study, we investigated whether the intrinsic pathway of the apoptotic process is suppressed in a previously reported macrophage cell line persistently infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). To this end, after using staurosporine to induce apoptosis, we determined cell viability and the degree of annexin staining and DNA fragmentation between infected and mock-infected cells. RSV persistence leads to a subversion of apoptosis; whereas in mock-infected macrophages, apoptosis was evident. The cellular apoptotic pathway involve was searched by determining the activities of caspases and the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Although caspases-3 and -9 were expressed, their activities were altered; the activity of caspase-3 was reduced and that of caspase-9 could not be detected. Expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-X, and XIAP was enhanced, with Bcl-X and XIAP being regulated post-transcriptionally; the induction of the anti-apoptotic factors and the reduced caspases activities might account for the subversion of apoptosis. The data implies that in our viral persistence model an anti-apoptotic program is induced relating alterations of caspases-3 and -9 activity and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, suggesting that the intrinsic pathway is suppressed. These findings are of importance for understanding the intracellular genes involved in subversion of apoptosis by RSV persistence in macrophages.Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
|SOX2 is required for adult human muller stem cell survival and maintenance of progenicity in vitro.|
Bhatia, B; Singhal, S; Tadman, DN; Khaw, PT; Limb, GA
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 52 136-45 2011
SOX2, a high-mobility group transcription factor, is expressed by retinal progenitors during development. It has been associated with the ability of progenitor cells to differentiate into retinal neurons and is highly expressed by human Müller stem cells (hMSCs) in culture. The authors investigated the role of this factor in the maintenance of progenicity and neural differentiation of hMSCs in vitro.SOX2 silencing was induced by transfection of hMSCs in culture with two pGSU6-GFP SOX2 silencing constructs and a scrambled control vector. Silencing was confirmed by examination of gene and protein expression coding for SOX2. Effects of SOX2 downregulation were investigated by expression of proliferation (Ki67) and apoptotic (TUNEL, caspase) cell markers and by the expression of markers of retinal neurons (HuD, βIII tubulin, rhodopsin, BRN3B, ISL1), glia (vimentin), and the progenitor marker PAX6.SOX2 silencing caused hMSCs to rapidly adopt a neural-like morphology and was accompanied by the upregulation of specific markers of retinal neurons, including βIII tubulin, rhodopsin, BRN3B, and ISL1, and by the downregulation of the neural progenitor marker PAX6 and the glial cell marker vimentin. Interestingly, SOX2 silencing induced apoptosis, suggesting a crucial role of this factor on hMSC survival in vitro.These in vitro results parallel that seen when Sox2 is silenced in neural stem cells of lower species during development, and they suggest that Sox2 may have an important role in adult hMSC differentiation into retinal neurons in vitro.
|Astrocytes are an early target in osmotic demyelination syndrome.|
Gankam Kengne, Fabrice, et al.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 22: 1834-45 (2011) 2011
Abrupt osmotic changes during rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia result in demyelinative brain lesions, but the sequence of events linking rapid osmotic changes to myelin loss is not yet understood. Here, in a rat model of osmotic demyelination syndrome, we found that massive astrocyte death occurred after rapid correction of hyponatremia, delineating the regions of future myelin loss. Astrocyte death caused a disruption of the astrocyte-oligodendrocyte network, rapidly upregulated inflammatory cytokines genes, and increased serum S100B, which predicted clinical manifestations and outcome of osmotic demyelination. These results support a model for the pathophysiology of osmotic brain injury in which rapid correction of hyponatremia triggers apoptosis in astrocytes followed by a loss of trophic communication between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, secondary inflammation, microglial activation, and finally demyelination.
|Intracavernous delivery of synthetic angiopoietin-1 protein as a novel therapeutic strategy for erectile dysfunction in the type II diabetic db/db mouse.|
Hai-Rong Jin,Woo Jean Kim,Jae Sook Song,Shuguang Piao,Munkhbayar Tumurbaatar,Sun Hwa Shin,Min Ji Choi,Buyankhuu Tuvshintur,Kang-Moon Song,Mi-Hye Kwon,Guo Nan Yin,Gou Young Koh,Ji-Kan Ryu,Jun-Kyu Suh
The journal of sexual medicine 7 2010
Patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type II diabetes often have impaired endothelial function and tend to respond poorly to oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Therefore, neovascularization is a promising strategy for curing diabetic ED.
|A mouse model of cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction: functional and morphological characterization of the corpus cavernosum.|
Hai-Rong Jin,Yeun Goo Chung,Woo Jean Kim,Lu Wei Zhang,Shuguang Piao,Buyankhuu Tuvshintur,Guo Nan Yin,Sun Hwa Shin,Munkhbayar Tumurbaatar,Jee-Young Han,Ji-Kan Ryu,Jun-Kyu Suh
The journal of sexual medicine 7 2010
With the advent of genetically engineered mice, it seems important to develop a mouse model of cavernous nerve injury (CNI).
|Functional and morphologic characterizations of the diabetic mouse corpus cavernosum: comparison of a multiple low-dose and a single high-dose streptozotocin protocols.|
Hai-Rong Jin,Woo Jean Kim,Jae Sook Song,Min Ji Choi,Shuguang Piao,Sun Hwa Shin,Munkhbayar Tumurbaatar,Buyankhuu Tuvshintur,Moon-Suk Nam,Ji-Kan Ryu,Jun-Kyu Suh
The journal of sexual medicine 6 2009
With the advent of genetically modified mice, it seems particularly advantageous to develop a mouse model of diabetic erectile dysfunction.
|Regulation of mammary gland branching morphogenesis by EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase.|
Vaught, David, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 20: 2572-81 (2009) 2009
Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, including EphA2, are expressed in the mammary gland. However, their role in mammary gland development remains poorly understood. Using EphA2-deficient animals, we demonstrate for the first time that EphA2 receptor function is required for mammary epithelial growth and branching morphogenesis. Loss of EphA2 decreased penetration of mammary epithelium into fat pad, reduced epithelial proliferation, and inhibited epithelial branching. These defects appear to be intrinsic to loss of EphA2 in epithelium, as transplantation of EphA2-deficient mammary tissue into wild-type recipient stroma recapitulated these defects. In addition, HGF-induced mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis was significantly reduced in EphA2-deficient cells relative to wild-type cells, which correlated with elevated basal RhoA activity. Moreover, inhibition of ROCK kinase activity in EphA2-deficient mammary epithelium rescued branching defects in primary three-dimensional cultures. These results suggest that EphA2 receptor acts as a positive regulator in mammary gland development, functioning downstream of HGF to regulate branching through inhibition of RhoA. Together, these data demonstrate a positive role for EphA2 during normal mammary epithelial proliferation and branching morphogenesis.
|Inhibition of histone deacetylases prevents cytokine-induced toxicity in beta cells.|
L Larsen,M Tonnesen,S G Ronn,J Størling,S Jørgensen,P Mascagni,C A Dinarello,N Billestrup,T Mandrup-Poulsen
Diabetologia 50 2007
The immune-mediated elimination of pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes involves release of cytotoxic cytokines such as IL-1beta and IFNgamma, which induce beta cell death in vitro by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide (NO). Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) is a critical signalling molecule in inflammation and is required for expression of the gene encoding inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and of pro-apoptotic genes. NFkappaB has recently been shown to associate with chromatin-modifying enzymes histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDAC), and positive effects of HDAC inhibition have been obtained in several inflammatory diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HDAC inhibition protects beta cells against cytokine-induced toxicity.
|Mu-opioid receptors modulate the stability of dendritic spines.|
Dezhi Liao, Hang Lin, Ping Yee Law, Horace H Loh
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 1725-30 2005
Opioids classically regulate the excitability of neurons by suppressing synaptic GABA release from inhibitory neurons. Here, we report a role for opioids in modulating excitatory synaptic transmission. By activating ubiquitously clustered mu-opioid receptor (MOR) in excitatory synapses, morphine caused collapse of preexisting dendritic spines and decreased synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Meanwhile, the opioid antagonist naloxone increased the density of spines. Chronic treatment with morphine decreased the density of dendritic spines even in the presence of Tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, indicating that the morphine's effect was not caused by altered activity in neural network through suppression of GABA release. The effect of morphine on dendritic spines was absent in transgenic mice lacking MORs and was blocked by CTOP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-ThrNH2), a mu-receptor antagonist. These data together with others suggest that endogenous opioids and/or constitutive activity of MORs participate in maintaining normal morphology and function of spines, challenging the classical model of opioids. Abnormal alteration of spines may occur in drug addiction when opioid receptors are overactivated by exogenous opiates.Full Text Article
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|ApopTag® Fluorescein Direct In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit|