Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, Pm, R, Ca, Xn, Eq, Ch||WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal containing 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl and 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) Antibody SDS
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 2121780||2121780|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 2377421||2377421|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 2452524||2452524|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 2181279||2181279|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 2290259||2290259|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 2476996||2476996|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 3194632||3194632|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 3383154||3383154|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 3610571||3610571|
|Anti-phospho-MYPT1 (Thr696) - 3733837||3733837|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Defining the phospho-adhesome through the phosphoproteomic analysis of integrin signalling.|
Robertson, J; Jacquemet, G; Byron, A; Jones, MC; Warwood, S; Selley, JN; Knight, D; Humphries, JD; Humphries, MJ
Nature communications 6 6265 2015
Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is a fundamental requirement for multicellular existence due to roles in positioning, proliferation and differentiation. Phosphorylation plays a major role in adhesion signalling; however, a full understanding of the phosphorylation events that occur at sites of adhesion is lacking. Here we report a proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of adhesion complexes isolated from cells spread on fibronectin. We identify 1,174 proteins, 499 of which are phosphorylated (1,109 phosphorylation sites), including both well-characterized and novel adhesion-regulated phosphorylation events. Immunoblotting suggests that two classes of phosphorylated residues are found at adhesion sites-those induced by adhesion and those constitutively phosphorylated but recruited in response to adhesion. Kinase prediction analysis identifies novel kinases with putative roles in adhesion signalling including CDK1, inhibition of which reduces adhesion complex formation. This phospho-adhesome data set constitutes a valuable resource to improve our understanding of the signalling mechanisms through which cell-ECM interactions control cell behaviour.
|Inactivation of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway by integrin-linked kinase.|
Serrano, I; McDonald, PC; Lock, F; Muller, WJ; Dedhar, S
Nature communications 4 2976 2013
One of the hallmarks of cancers is the silencing of tumour suppressor genes and pathways. The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway is inactivated in many types of cancers, leading to tumour progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms of pathway inactivation in tumours remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) plays a critical role in the suppression of the Hippo pathway via phospho-inhibition of MYPT1-PP1, leading to inactivation of Merlin. Inhibition of ILK in breast, prostate and colon tumour cells results in the activation of the Hippo pathway components MST1 and LATS1 with concomitant inactivation of YAP/TAZ (Yes-associated protein/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) transcriptional co-activators and TEAD-mediated transcription. Genetic deletion of ILK suppresses ErbB2-driven YAP/TAZ activation in mammary tumours, and its pharmacological inhibition suppresses YAP activation and tumour growth in vivo. Our data demonstrate a role for ILK as a multiple receptor proximal regulator of Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and as a cancer therapeutic target.
|MRP4-mediated regulation of intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels in trabecular meshwork cells and homeostasis of intraocular pressure.|
Pattabiraman, PP; Pecen, PE; Rao, PV
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 1636-49 2013
Multidrug, resistance-associated protein-4 (MRP4) is a membrane transporter that regulates the cellular efflux of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) involved in various physiologic responses. This study examined the expression and distribution of MRP4 in the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and its role in homeostasis of IOP.Expression and distribution of MRP4 in human TM (HTM) cells and aqueous humor (AH) outflow pathway was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. Effects of inhibiting MRP4 activity and suppression of MRP4 expression on cAMP and cGMP levels, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, actin filament organization and activity of protein kinase G (PKG), protein kinase A (PKA), Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), and MLC phosphatase was monitored in HTM cells using ELISA, siRNA, biochemical, and immunofluorescence analyses. Topical application of the MRP4 inhibitor MK571 was tested to assess changes in IOP in rabbits.RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses confirmed the expression of MRP4 in HTM cells and distribution in human AH outflow pathway. Inhibition of MRP4 in HTM cells by MK571 or probenecid resulted in cell shape changes and decreases in actin stress fibers and MLC phosphorylation. Levels of intracellular cAMP and cGMP in HTM cells were increased significantly under these conditions. MK571-induced HTM cell relaxation appeared to be mediated predominantly via activation of the cGMP-dependent PKG signaling pathway. Topical application of MK571 significantly decreased IOP in Dutch-Belted rabbits.These observations reveal that cyclic nucleotide efflux controlling transporter-MRP4 plays a significant role in IOP homeostasis potentially by regulating the relaxation characteristics of AH outflow pathway cells.
|Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of cell detachment.|
Shi, J; Wu, X; Surma, M; Vemula, S; Zhang, L; Yang, Y; Kapur, R; Wei, L
Cell death & disease 4 e483 2013
This study, using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, is designed to dissect roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. ROCK1(-/-) MEFs exhibited improved actin cytoskeleton stability characterized by attenuated periphery actomyosin ring formation and preserved central stress fibers, associated with decreased myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) phosphorylation but preserved cofilin phosphorylation. These effects resulted in a significant reduction in cell shrinkage, detachment, and predetachment apoptosis. In contrast, ROCK2(-/-) MEFs showed increased periphery membrane folding and impaired cell adhesion, associated with reduced phosphorylation of both MLC2 and cofilin. Treatment with inhibitor of myosin (blebbistatin), inhibitor of actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), and ROCK pan-inhibitor (Y27632) confirmed the contributions of actomyosin contraction and stress fiber instability to stress-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization. These results support a novel concept that ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing actin cytoskeleton through regulating MLC2 phosphorylation and peripheral actomyosin contraction, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing actin cytoskeleton through regulating cofilin phosphorylation. Consequently, ROCK1 and ROCK2 can be functional different in regulating stress-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment.
|The role of calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ in modulation of aqueous humor drainage and Ca2+ sensitization of trabecular meshwork contraction.|
Pattabiraman, PP; Lih, FB; Tomer, KB; Rao, PV
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 302 C979-91 2012
The contractile and relaxation characteristics of trabecular meshwork (TM) are presumed to influence aqueous humor (AH) drainage and intraocular pressure. The mechanisms underlying regulation of TM cell contractile properties, however, are not well understood. This study investigates the role of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)), which controls eicosanoid synthesis, in regulation of TM cell contraction and AH outflow using mechanism-based isoform specific inhibitors (R)-bromoenol lactone (R-BEL, iPLA(2)γ specific) and (S)-bromoenol lactone (S-BEL, iPLA(2)β specific). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense staining for both iPLA(2)β and γ isoforms throughout the TM, juxtacanalicular tissue, and Schlemm's canal of human eye. Inhibition of iPLA(2)γ by R-BEL or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of iPLA(2)γ expression induced dramatic changes in TM cell morphology, and decreased actin stress fibers, focal adhesions, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. AH outflow facility increased progressively and significantly in enucleated porcine eyes perfused with R-BEL. This response was associated with a significant decrease in TM tissue MLC phosphorylation and alterations in the morphology of aqueous plexi in R-BEL-perfused eyes. In contrast, S-BEL did not affect either of these parameters. Additionally, R-BEL-induced cellular relaxation of the TM was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of active Rho GTPase, phospho-MLC phosphatase, phospho-CPI-17, and arachidonic acid. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that iPLA(2)γ plays a significant and isoform-specific role in regulation of AH outflow facility by altering the contractile characteristics of the TM. The effects of iPLA(2)γ on TM contractile status appear to involve arachidonic acid and Rho GTPase signaling pathways.
|RKI-1447 is a potent inhibitor of the Rho-associated ROCK kinases with anti-invasive and antitumor activities in breast cancer.|
Patel, RA; Forinash, KD; Pireddu, R; Sun, Y; Sun, N; Martin, MP; Schönbrunn, E; Lawrence, NJ; Sebti, SM
Cancer research 72 5025-34 2012
The Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are critical for cancer cell migration and invasion, suggesting they may be useful therapeutic targets. In this study, we describe the discovery and development of RKI-1447, a potent small molecule inhibitor of ROCK1 and ROCK2. Crystal structures of the RKI-1447/ROCK1 complex revealed that RKI-1447 is a Type I kinase inhibitor that binds the ATP binding site through interactions with the hinge region and the DFG motif. RKI-1447 suppressed phosphorylation of the ROCK substrates MLC-2 and MYPT-1 in human cancer cells, but had no effect on the phosphorylation levels of the AKT, MEK, and S6 kinase at concentrations as high as 10 μmol/L. RKI-1447 was also highly selective at inhibiting ROCK-mediated cytoskeleton re-organization (actin stress fiber formation) following LPA stimulation, but does not affect PAK-meditated lamellipodia and filopodia formation following PDGF and Bradykinin stimulation, respectively. RKI-1447 inhibited migration, invasion and anchorage-independent tumor growth of breast cancer cells. In contrast, RKI-1313, a much weaker analog in vitro, had little effect on the phosphorylation levels of ROCK substrates, migration, invasion or anchorage-independent growth. Finally, RKI-1447 was highly effective at inhibiting the outgrowth of mammary tumors in a transgenic mouse model. In summary, our findings establish RKI-1447 as a potent and selective ROCK inhibitor with significant anti-invasive and antitumor activities and offer a preclinical proof-of-concept that justify further examination of RKI-1447 suitability as a potential clinical candidate.
|Mechanisms underlying potentiation of endothelin-1-induced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitization after subarachnoid hemorrhage.|
Kikkawa, Y; Matsuo, S; Kameda, K; Hirano, M; Nakamizo, A; Sasaki, T; Hirano, K
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 32 341-52 2012
Increased vascular smooth muscle contractility has an important role in the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity is a major determinant of smooth muscle contractility. We investigated changes in the Ca(2+)-sensitizing effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced Ca(2+) sensitization after SAH using a rabbit SAH model. After SAH, the contractile response to ET-1 was enhanced, and the ET(A) receptor expression was upregulated in the basilar artery. In α-toxin-permeabilized preparations, ET-1 induced enhanced and prolonged contraction after SAH, suggesting that ET-1-induced Ca(2+) sensitization is potentiated after SAH. Endothelin-1-induced Ca(2+) sensitization became less sensitive to inhibitors of Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC) after SAH. The expression of PKCα, ROCK2, PKC-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) was upregulated, and the level of phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MYPT1 was elevated after SAH. This study demonstrated for the first time that the Ca(2+)-sensitizing effect of ET-1 on myofilaments is potentiated after SAH. The increased expression and activity of PKCα, ROCK2, CPI-17, and MYPT1, as well as the upregulation of ET(A) receptor expression are suggested to underlie the enhanced and prolonged Ca(2+) sensitization induced by ET-1.
|Rho-kinase inhibition alleviates pulmonary hypertension in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor gene.|
Yasuda, T; Tada, Y; Tanabe, N; Tatsumi, K; West, J
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 301 L667-74 2011
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sustained elevation in the pulmonary artery pressure and subsequent right heart failure. The activation of Rho/Rho-kinase activity and the beneficial effect of Rho-kinase inhibition have been demonstrated in several experimental models of pulmonary hypertension. However, it remains unclear whether Rho-kinase inhibitors can also be used against pulmonary hypertension associated with mutations in the type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPRII) gene. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative BMPRII gene (with an arginine to termination mutation at amino acid 899) in smooth muscle by a tetracycline-gene switch system (SM22-tet-BMPR2(R899X) mice) were examined. They developed an elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, muscularization of small pulmonary arteries, and an associated disturbed blood flow in their lungs. The Rho/Rho-kinase activity and Smad activity were determined by a Western blot analysis by detecting GTP-RhoA and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, Smad1, and Smad2. In the lungs of SM22-tet-BMPR2(R899X) mice, the Rho/Rho-kinase activity was elevated significantly, whereas the Smad activity was almost unchanged. Fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, significantly decreased RVSP, alleviated RV hypertrophy and muscularization of small pulmonary arteries, and improved blood flow in SM22-tet-BMPR2(R899X) mice, although it did not alter Smad signaling. Our study demonstrates that Rho/Rho-kinase signaling is activated via a Smad-independent pathway in an animal model of pulmonary hypertension with a BMPRII mutation in the cytoplasmic tail domain. Rho-kinase inhibition is therefore a possible therapeutic approach for the treatment of PAH associated with genetic mutation.
|Protein Blotting Handbook: 6th Edition|