Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit antiserum diluted in storage buffer (PBS, 0.035% sodium azide and 30% glycerol). Store at -20°C.|
|Application||Detect dimethyl-Arginine with Anti-dimethyl-Arginine Antibody, asymmetric (ASYM24) (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
Anti-dimethyl-Arginine Antibody, asymmetric (ASYM24) SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|LXR-Mediated ABCA1 Expression and Function Are Modulated by High Glucose and PRMT2.|
Hussein, MA; Shrestha, E; Ouimet, M; Barrett, TJ; Leone, S; Moore, KJ; Hérault, Y; Fisher, EA; Garabedian, MJ
PloS one 10 e0135218 2015
High cholesterol and diabetes are major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Regression of atherosclerosis is mediated in part by the Liver X Receptor (LXR) through the induction of genes involved in cholesterol transport and efflux. In the context of diabetes, regression of atherosclerosis is impaired. We proposed that changes in glucose levels modulate LXR-dependent gene expression. Using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) cultured in normal or diabetes relevant high glucose conditions we found that high glucose inhibits the LXR-dependent expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), but not ABCG1. To probe for this mechanism, we surveyed the expression of a host of chromatin-modifying enzymes and found that Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2) was reduced in high compared to normal glucose conditions. Importantly, ABCA1 expression and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux were reduced in Prmt2-/- compared to wild type BMDMs. Monocytes from diabetic mice also showed decreased expression of Prmt2 compared to non-diabetic counterparts. Thus, PRMT2 represents a glucose-sensitive factor that plays a role in LXR-mediated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux and lends insight to the presence of increased atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.
|5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Plays a Critical Role in Glioblastomagenesis by Recruiting the CHTOP-Methylosome Complex.|
Takai, H; Masuda, K; Sato, T; Sakaguchi, Y; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, T; Koyama-Nasu, R; Nasu-Nishimura, Y; Katou, Y; Ogawa, H; Morishita, Y; Kozuka-Hata, H; Oyama, M; Todo, T; Ino, Y; Mukasa, A; Saito, N; Toyoshima, C; Shirahige, K; Akiyama, T
Cell reports 9 48-60 2014
The development of cancer is driven not only by genetic mutations but also by epigenetic alterations. Here, we show that TET1-mediated production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chromatin target of PRMT1 (CHTOP) binds to 5hmC. We found that CHTOP is associated with an arginine methyltransferase complex, termed the methylosome, and that this promotes the PRMT1-mediated methylation of arginine 3 of histone H4 (H4R3) in genes involved in glioblastomagenesis, including EGFR, AKT3, CDK6, CCND2, and BRAF. Moreover, we found that CHTOP and PRMT1 are essential for the expression of these genes and that CHTOP is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that 5hmC plays a critical role in glioblastomagenesis by recruiting the CHTOP-methylosome complex to selective sites on the chromosome, where it methylates H4R3 and activates the transcription of cancer-related genes.
|JMJD6 regulates ERα methylation on arginine.|
Poulard, C; Rambaud, J; Hussein, N; Corbo, L; Le Romancer, M
PloS one 9 e87982 2014
ERα functions are tightly controlled by numerous post-translational modifications including arginine methylation, which is required to mediate the extranuclear functions of the receptor. We report that upon oestrogenic stimulation, JMJD6, the only arginine demethylase described so far, interacts with and regulates methylated ERα (metERα) function. Moreover, by combining the silencing of JMJD6 with demethylation assays, we show that metERα is a new substrate for JMJD6. We propose that the demethylase activity of JMJD6 is a decisive regulator of the rapid physiological responses to oestrogen.
|Myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity is uncoupled from troponin I phosphorylation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy due to abnormal troponin T.|
Bayliss, CR; Jacques, AM; Leung, MC; Ward, DG; Redwood, CS; Gallon, CE; Copeland, O; McKenna, WJ; Dos Remedios, C; Marston, SB; Messer, AE
Cardiovascular research 97 500-8 2013
We studied the relationship between myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation by protein kinase A at serines 22/23 in human heart troponin isolated from donor hearts and from myectomy samples from patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).We used a quantitative in vitro motility assay. With donor heart troponin, Ca(2+) sensitivity is two- to three-fold higher when TnI is unphosphorylated. In the myectomy samples from patients with HOCM, the mean level of TnI phosphorylation was low: 0.38 ± 0.19 mol Pi/mol TnI compared with 1.60 ± 0.19 mol Pi/mol TnI in donor hearts, but no difference in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity was observed. Thus, troponin regulation of thin filament Ca(2+) sensitivity is abnormal in HOCM hearts. HOCM troponin (0.29 mol Pi/mol TnI) was treated with protein kinase A to increase the level of phosphorylation to 1.56 mol Pi/mol TnI. No difference in EC(50) was found in thin filaments containing high and low TnI phosphorylation levels. This indicates that Ca(2+) sensitivity is uncoupled from TnI phosphorylation in HOCM heart troponin. Coupling could be restored by replacing endogenous troponin T (TnT) with the recombinant TnT T3 isoform. No difference in Ca(2+) sensitivity was observed if TnI was exchanged into HOCM heart troponin or if TnT was exchanged into the highly phosphorylated donor heart troponin. Comparison of donor and HOCM heart troponin by mass spectrometry and with adduct-specific antibodies did not show any differences in TnT isoform expression, phosphorylation or any post-translational modifications.An abnormality in TnT is responsible for uncoupling myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity from TnI phosphorylation in the septum of HOCM patients.
|Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and 8 interact with FUS to modify its sub-cellular distribution and toxicity in vitro and in vivo.|
Scaramuzzino, C; Monaghan, J; Milioto, C; Lanson, NA; Maltare, A; Aggarwal, T; Casci, I; Fackelmayer, FO; Pennuto, M; Pandey, UB
PloS one 8 e61576 2013
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late onset and progressive motor neuron disease. Mutations in the gene coding for fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS) are responsible for some cases of both familial and sporadic forms of ALS. The mechanism through which mutations of FUS result in motor neuron degeneration and loss is not known. FUS belongs to the family of TET proteins, which are regulated at the post-translational level by arginine methylation. Here, we investigated the impact of arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of FUS-related ALS. We found that wild type FUS (FUS-WT) specifically interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases 1 and 8 (PRMT1 and PRMT8) and undergoes asymmetric dimethylation in cultured cells. ALS-causing FUS mutants retained the ability to interact with both PRMT1 and PRMT8 and undergo asymmetric dimethylation similar to FUS-WT. Importantly, PRMT1 and PRMT8 localized to mutant FUS-positive inclusion bodies. Pharmacologic inhibition of PRMT1 and PRMT8 activity reduced both the nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of FUS-WT and ALS-associated FUS mutants in motor neuron-derived cells and in cells obtained from an ALS patient carrying the R518G mutation. Genetic ablation of the fly homologue of human PRMT1 (DART1) exacerbated the neurodegeneration induced by overexpression of FUS-WT and R521H FUS mutant in a Drosophila model of FUS-related ALS. These results support a role for arginine methylation in the pathogenesis of FUS-related ALS.
|FUS/TLS assembles into stress granules and is a prosurvival factor during hyperosmolar stress.|
Sama, RR; Ward, CL; Kaushansky, LJ; Lemay, N; Ishigaki, S; Urano, F; Bosco, DA
Journal of cellular physiology 228 2222-31 2013
FUsed in Sarcoma/Translocated in LipoSarcoma (FUS/TLS or FUS) has been linked to several biological processes involving DNA and RNA processing, and has been associated with multiple diseases, including myxoid liposarcoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS-associated mutations cause FUS to associate with stalled translational complexes called stress granules under conditions of stress. However, little is known regarding the normal role of endogenous (non-disease linked) FUS in cellular stress response. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous FUS exerts a robust response to hyperosmolar stress induced by sorbitol. Hyperosmolar stress causes an immediate re-distribution of nuclear FUS to the cytoplasm, where it incorporates into stress granules. The redistribution of FUS to the cytoplasm is modulated by methyltransferase activity, whereas the inhibition of methyltransferase activity does not affect the incorporation of FUS into stress granules. The response to hyperosmolar stress is specific, since endogenous FUS does not redistribute to the cytoplasm in response to sodium arsenite, hydrogen peroxide, thapsigargin, or heat shock, all of which induce stress granule assembly. Intriguingly, cells with reduced expression of FUS exhibit a loss of cell viability in response to sorbitol, indicating a prosurvival role for endogenous FUS in the cellular response to hyperosmolar stress.
|Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked FUS/TLS alters stress granule assembly and dynamics.|
Baron, DM; Kaushansky, LJ; Ward, CL; Sama, RR; Chian, RJ; Boggio, KJ; Quaresma, AJ; Nickerson, JA; Bosco, DA
Molecular neurodegeneration 8 30 2013
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS or FUS) is concentrated within cytoplasmic stress granules under conditions of induced stress. Since only the mutants, but not the endogenous wild-type FUS, are associated with stress granules under most of the stress conditions reported to date, the relationship between FUS and stress granules represents a mutant-specific phenotype and thus may be of significance in mutant-induced pathogenesis. While the association of mutant-FUS with stress granules is well established, the effect of the mutant protein on stress granules has not been examined. Here we investigated the effect of mutant-FUS on stress granule formation and dynamics under conditions of oxidative stress.We found that expression of mutant-FUS delays the assembly of stress granules. However, once stress granules containing mutant-FUS are formed, they are more dynamic, larger and more abundant compared to stress granules lacking FUS. Once stress is removed, stress granules disassemble more rapidly in cells expressing mutant-FUS. These effects directly correlate with the degree of mutant-FUS cytoplasmic localization, which is induced by mutations in the nuclear localization signal of the protein. We also determine that the RGG domains within FUS play a key role in its association to stress granules. While there has been speculation that arginine methylation within these RGG domains modulates the incorporation of FUS into stress granules, our results demonstrate that this post-translational modification is not involved.Our results indicate that mutant-FUS alters the dynamic properties of stress granules, which is consistent with a gain-of-toxic mechanism for mutant-FUS in stress granule assembly and cellular stress response.
|Five friends of methylated chromatin target of protein-arginine-methyltransferase[prmt]-1 (chtop), a complex linking arginine methylation to desumoylation.|
Fanis, P; Gillemans, N; Aghajanirefah, A; Pourfarzad, F; Demmers, J; Esteghamat, F; Vadlamudi, RK; Grosveld, F; Philipsen, S; van Dijk, TB
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 11 1263-73 2012
Chromatin target of Prmt1 (Chtop) is a vertebrate-specific chromatin-bound protein that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. As its mechanism of action remains unclear, we identified Chtop-interacting proteins using a biotinylation-proteomics approach. Here we describe the identification and initial characterization of Five Friends of Methylated Chtop (5FMC). 5FMC is a nuclear complex that can only be recruited by Chtop when the latter is arginine-methylated by Prmt1. It consists of the co-activator Pelp1, the Sumo-specific protease Senp3, Wdr18, Tex10, and Las1L. Pelp1 functions as the core of 5FMC, as the other components become unstable in the absence of Pelp1. We show that recruitment of 5FMC to Zbp-89, a zinc-finger transcription factor, affects its sumoylation status and transactivation potential. Collectively, our data provide a mechanistic link between arginine methylation and (de)sumoylation in the control of transcriptional activity.
|The effect of PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation on the subcellular localization, stress granules, and detergent-insoluble aggregates of FUS/TLS.|
Yamaguchi, A; Kitajo, K
PloS one 7 e49267 2012
Fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS) is one of causative genes for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to identify binding partners for FUS/TLS, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening and found that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is one of binding partners primarily in the nucleus. In vitro and in vivo methylation assays showed that FUS/TLS could be methylated by PRMT1. The modulation of arginine methylation levels by a general methyltransferase inhibitor or conditional over-expression of PRMT1 altered slightly the nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio of FUS/TLS in cell fractionation assays. Although co-localized primarily in the nucleus in normal condition, FUS/TLS and PRMT1 were partially recruited to the cytoplasmic granules under oxidative stress, which were merged with stress granules (SGs) markers in SH-SY5Y cell. C-terminal truncated form of FUS/TLS (FUS-dC), which lacks C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS), formed cytoplasmic inclusions like ALS-linked FUS mutants and was partially co-localized with PRMT1. Furthermore, conditional over-expression of PRMT1 reduced the FUS-dC-mediated SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble aggregates in HEK293 cells. These findings indicate that PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation could be implicated in the nucleus-cytoplasmic shuttling of FUS/TLS and in the SGs formation and the detergent-insoluble inclusions of ALS-linked FUS/TLS mutants.
|Suppression of PRMT6-mediated arginine methylation of p16 protein potentiates its ability to arrest A549 cell proliferation.|
Xiuli Wang,Ying Huang,Jing Zhao,Yu Zhang,Jun Lu,Baiqu Huang
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 44 2012
The tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) (p16) blocks the cell cycle progression by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. We describe here a novel aspect of the posttranslational control that has an important functional consequence on p16 protein. We first discovered that the p16 protein was methylated in various cell lineages. We then determined that the arginine 22, 131 and 138 of p16 were the main methylation sites. Western blotting and TUNEL analyses revealed that the p16 protein bearing these point mutations induced a higher apoptosis ratio than wild-type p16 in A549 cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assays suggested that decrease of p16 arginine methylation level promoted the association of p16 with CDK4. Additionally, we determined that the protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) was responsible for the p16 arginine methylation. Results from flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that PRMT6 overexpression counteracted the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase induced by wild-type p16 in A549 cells. We also provided evidence that PRMT6 was able to interact with p16, and that the intensity of p16-CDK4 association was reduced upon PRMT6 overexpression. Together, data presented in this report establish that methylation at specific arginine residues of p16 protein by PRMT6 may be critical for the activity of p16.