Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ma||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Gt||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Neat goat Serum. Liquid containing 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||500 µL|
Anti-Vimentin Antibody SDS
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN||2465120|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2446720||2446720|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN - 3179947||3179947|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN - 3221985||3221985|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN - 3257091||3257091|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN - 3280417||3280417|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN - 3388476||3388476|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN -2528754||2528754|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN -2572982||2572982|
|GOAT ANTI-HUMAN VIMENTIN -2659165||2659165|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|DAPIT Over-Expression Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Cell Behaviour in HEK293T Cells.|
Kontro, H; Cannino, G; Rustin, P; Dufour, E; Kainulainen, H
PloS one 10 e0131990 2015
Diabetes Associated Protein in Insulin-sensitive Tissues (DAPIT) is a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase and has also been found to associate with the vacuolar H+-ATPase. Its expression is particularly high in cells with elevated aerobic metabolism and in epithelial cells that actively transport nutrients and ions. Deletion of DAPIT is known to induce loss of mitochondrial ATP synthase but the effects of its over-expression are obscure.In order to study the consequences of high expression of DAPIT, we constructed a transgenic cell line that constitutively expressed DAPIT in human embryonal kidney cells, HEK293T. Enhanced DAPIT expression decreased mtDNA content and mitochondrial mass, and saturated respiratory chain by decreasing H+-ATP synthase activity. DAPIT over-expression also increased mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide level, and translocated the transcription factors hypoxia inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) and β-catenin to the nucleus. Accordingly, cells over-expressing DAPIT used more glucose and generated a larger amount of lactate compared to control cells. Interestingly, these changes were associated with an epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT)-like transition by changing E-cadherin to N-cadherin and up-regulating several key junction/adhesion proteins. At physiological level, DAPIT over-expression slowed down cell growth by G1 arrest and migration, and enhanced cell detachment. Several cancers also showed an increase in genomic copy number of Usmg5 (gene encoding DAPIT), thereby providing strong correlative evidence for DAPIT possibly having oncogenic function in cancers.DAPIT over-expression thus appears to modulate mitochondrial functions and alter cellular regulations, promote anaerobic metabolism and induce EMT-like transition. We propose that DAPIT over-expression couples the changes in mitochondrial metabolism to physiological and pathophysiological regulations, and suggest it could play a critical role in H+-ATP synthase dysfunctions.
|Wnt pathway activation in long term remnant rat model.|
Banon-Maneus, E; Rovira, J; Ramirez-Bajo, MJ; Moya-Rull, D; Hierro-Garcia, N; Takenaka, S; Diekmann, F; Eickelberg, O; Königshoff, M; Campistol, JM
BioMed research international 2014 324713 2014
Progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by deposition of extracellular matrix. This is an irreversible process that leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and finally loss of kidney function. Wnt/ β-catenin pathway was reported to be aberrantly activated in the progressive damage associated with chronic organ failure. Extensive renal ablation is an experimental model widely used to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the development of CKD, but it was not evaluated for Wnt/ β-catenin pathway. This study aimed to elucidate if the rat 5/6 renal mass reduction model (RMR) is a good model for the Wnt/ β-catenin activation and possible next modulation. RMR model was evaluated at 12 and 18 weeks after the surgery, when CKD is close to end-stage kidney disease demonstrated by molecular and histological studies. Wnt pathway components were analyzed at mRNA and protein level. Our results demonstrate that Wnt pathway is active by increase of β-catenin at mRNA level and nuclear translocation in tubular epithelium as well as some target genes. These results validate the RMR model for future modulation of Wnt pathway, starting at shorter time after the surgery.
|Mesenchymal-endothelial transition contributes to cardiac neovascularization.|
Ubil, E; Duan, J; Pillai, IC; Rosa-Garrido, M; Wu, Y; Bargiacchi, F; Lu, Y; Stanbouly, S; Huang, J; Rojas, M; Vondriska, TM; Stefani, E; Deb, A
Nature 514 585-90 2014
Endothelial cells contribute to a subset of cardiac fibroblasts by undergoing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, but whether cardiac fibroblasts can adopt an endothelial cell fate and directly contribute to neovascularization after cardiac injury is not known. Here, using genetic fate map techniques, we demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts rapidly adopt an endothelial-cell-like phenotype after acute ischaemic cardiac injury. Fibroblast-derived endothelial cells exhibit anatomical and functional characteristics of native endothelial cells. We show that the transcription factor p53 regulates such a switch in cardiac fibroblast fate. Loss of p53 in cardiac fibroblasts severely decreases the formation of fibroblast-derived endothelial cells, reduces post-infarct vascular density and worsens cardiac function. Conversely, stimulation of the p53 pathway in cardiac fibroblasts augments mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition, enhances vascularity and improves cardiac function. These observations demonstrate that mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition contributes to neovascularization of the injured heart and represents a potential therapeutic target for enhancing cardiac repair.
|DNA-PK target identification reveals novel links between DNA repair signaling and cytoskeletal regulation.|
Kotula, E; Faigle, W; Berthault, N; Dingli, F; Loew, D; Sun, JS; Dutreix, M; Quanz, M
PloS one 8 e80313 2013
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) may function as a key signaling kinase in various cellular pathways other than DNA repair. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach and stable DNA double-strand break-mimicking molecules (Dbait32Hc) to activate DNA-PK in the nucleus and cytoplasm, we identified 26 proteins that were highly phosphorylated following DNA-PK activation. Most of these proteins are involved in protein stability and degradation, cell signaling and the cytoskeleton. We investigated the relationship between DNA-PK and the cytoskeleton and found that the intermediate filament (IF) vimentin was a target of DNA-PK in vitro and in cells. Vimentin was phosphorylated at Ser459, by DNA-PK, in cells transfected with Dbait32Hc. We produced specific antibodies and showed that Ser459-P-vimentin was mostly located at cell protrusions. In migratory cells, the vimentin phosphorylation induced by Dbait32Hc was associated with a lower cellular adhesion and migration capacity. Thus, this approach led to the identification of downstream cytoplasmic targets of DNA-PK and revealed a connection between DNA damage signaling and the cytoskeleton.
|Regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts from normal mice or mice exposed once to cigarette smoke.|
Preobrazhenska, O; Wright, JL; Churg, A
PloS one 7 e39761 2012
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is characterized by matrix deposition in the small airways but matrix loss from the parenchyma, phenomena which must depend on the ability of local fibroblasts to produce matrix after smoke exposure. To investigate this idea, we exposed C57Bl/6 mice once to cigarette smoke or to air (control) and prepared primary cultures of lung fibroblasts by microdissecting large airways (trachea, LAF), medium size airways (major bronchi, MAF) and parenchyma (PF). Control PF showed the lowest rate of wound closure and wound closure was depressed in all lines by a single in vivo smoke exposure. Gene expression of matrix proteins differed considerably among the sites; decorin, which may sequester TGFβ, was markedly higher in PF. PF showed higher intrinsic ratios of pSmad2/Smad2. Smoke caused much greater increases in secreted and matrix deposited collagens 1 and 3 in PF than in LAF or MAF. Expression of Thy-1, a gene that suppresses myofibroblast differentiation, was increased by smoke in PF. We conclude that there is considerable regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts in terms of matrix production, either basally or after in vivo smoke exposure; that PF have lower ability to repair wounds and higher intrinsic TGFβ signaling; and that a single exposure to smoke produces lasting changes in the pattern of matrix production and wound repair, changes that may be mediated in part by smoke-induced release of TGFβ. However, PF still retain the ability to repair by producing new matrix after a single in vivo smoke exposure.
|Hedgehog signaling in myofibroblasts directly promotes prostate tumor cell growth.|
Domenech, M; Bjerregaard, R; Bushman, W; Beebe, DJ
Integrative biology : quantitative biosciences from nano to macro 4 142-52 2012
Despite strong evidence for the involvement of the stroma in Hedgehog signaling, little is known about the identity of the stromal cells and the signaling mechanisms that mediate the growth promoting effect of Hh signaling. We developed an in vitro co-culture model using microchannel technology to examine the effect of paracrine Hh signaling on proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We show here that activation of Hh signaling in myofibroblasts is sufficient to accelerate tumor cell growth. This effect was independent of any direct effect of Hh ligand on tumor cells or other cellular components of the tumor stroma. Further, the trophic effect of Hh pathway activation in myofibroblasts does not require collaboration of other elements of the stroma or direct physical interaction with the cancer cells. By isolating the tropic effect of Hh pathway activation in prostate stroma, we have taken the first step toward identifying cell-specific mechanisms that mediate the effect of paracrine Hh signaling on tumor growth.
|The Cdk4-E2f1 pathway regulates early pancreas development by targeting Pdx1+ progenitors and Ngn3+ endocrine precursors.|
Kim, SY; Rane, SG
Development (Cambridge, England) 138 1903-12 2011
Cell division and cell differentiation are intricately regulated processes vital to organ development. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are master regulators of the cell cycle that orchestrate the cell division and differentiation programs. Cdk1 is essential to drive cell division and is required for the first embryonic divisions, whereas Cdks 2, 4 and 6 are dispensable for organogenesis but vital for tissue-specific cell development. Here, we illustrate an important role for Cdk4 in regulating early pancreas development. Pancreatic development involves extensive morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium to give rise to the distinct cell lineages of the adult pancreas. The cell cycle molecules that specify lineage commitment within the early pancreas are unknown. We show that Cdk4 and its downstream transcription factor E2f1 regulate mouse pancreas development prior to and during the secondary transition. Cdk4 deficiency reduces embryonic pancreas size owing to impaired mesenchyme development and fewer Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitor cells. Expression of activated Cdk4(R24C) kinase leads to increased Nkx2.2(+) and Nkx6.1(+) cells and a rise in the number and proliferation of Ngn3(+) endocrine precursors, resulting in expansion of the β cell lineage. We show that E2f1 binds and activates the Ngn3 promoter to modulate Ngn3 expression levels in the embryonic pancreas in a Cdk4-dependent manner. These results suggest that Cdk4 promotes β cell development by directing E2f1-mediated activation of Ngn3 and increasing the pool of endocrine precursors, and identify Cdk4 as an important regulator of early pancreas development that modulates the proliferation potential of pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors.
|Protein aggregation of SERCA2 mutants associated with Darier disease elicits ER stress and apoptosis in keratinocytes.|
Wang, Y; Bruce, AT; Tu, C; Ma, K; Zeng, L; Zheng, P; Liu, Y; Liu, Y
Journal of cell science 124 3568-80 2011
Mutations in sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2) underlie Darier disease (DD), a dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by loss of keratinocyte adhesion (acantholysis) and abnormal keratinization (dyskeratosis) resulting in characteristic mucocutaneous abnormalities. However, the molecular pathogenic mechanism by which these changes influence keratinocyte adhesion and viability remains unknown. We show here that SERCA2 protein is extremely sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which typically results in aggregation and insolubility of the protein. Depletion of ER calcium stores is not necessary for the aggregation but accelerates the progression. Systematic analysis of diverse mutants identical to those found in DD patients demonstrated that the ER stress initiator is the SERCA2 mutant protein itself. These SERCA2 proteins were found to be less soluble, to aggregate and to be more polyubiquitinylated. After transduction into primary human epidermal keratinocytes, mutant SERCA2 aggregates elicited ER stress, caused increased numbers of cells to round up and detach from the culture plate, and induced apoptosis. These mutant induced events were exaggerated by increased ER stress. Furthermore, knockdown SERCA2 in keratinocytes rendered the cells resistant to apoptosis induction. These features of SERCA2 and its mutants establish a mechanistic base to further elucidate the molecular pathogenesis underlying acantholysis and dyskeratosis in DD.
|The Sonic Hedgehog pathway stimulates prostate tumor growth by paracrine signaling and recapitulates embryonic gene expression in tumor myofibroblasts.|
Shaw, A; Gipp, J; Bushman, W
Oncogene 28 4480-90 2009
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway contributes to prostate cancer growth and progression. The presence of robust Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression in both normal prostate and localized cancer challenged us to explain the unique growth-promoting effect in cancer. We show here that paracrine Hh signaling exerts a non-cell autonomous effect on xenograft tumor growth and that Hh pathway activation in myofibroblasts alone is sufficient to stimulate tumor growth. Nine genes regulated by Hh in the mesenchyme of the developing prostate were found to be regulated in the stroma of Hh overexpressing xenograft tumors. Correlation analysis of gene expression in matched specimens of benign and malignant human prostate tissue revealed a partial five-gene fingerprint of Hh-regulated expression in stroma of all cancers and the complete nine-gene fingerprint in the subset of tumors exhibiting a reactive stroma. No expression fingerprint was observed in benign tissues. We conclude that changes in the prostate stroma due to association with cancer result in an altered transcriptional response to Hh that mimics the growth-promoting actions of the fetal mesenchyme. Patients with an abundance of myofibroblasts in biopsy tissue may comprise a subgroup that will exhibit a particularly good response to anti-Hh therapy.Full Text Article
|Validation of the cardiosphere method to culture cardiac progenitor cells from myocardial tissue.|
Davis, DR; Zhang, Y; Smith, RR; Cheng, K; Terrovitis, J; Malliaras, K; Li, TS; White, A; Makkar, R; Marbán, E
PloS one 4 e7195 2009
At least four laboratories have shown that endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) can be grown directly from adult heart tissue in primary culture, as cardiospheres or their progeny (cardiosphere-derived cells, CDCs). Indeed, CDCs are already being tested in a clinical trial for cardiac regeneration. Nevertheless, the validity of the cardiosphere strategy to generate CPCs has been called into question by reports based on variant methods. In those reports, cardiospheres are argued to be cardiomyogenic only because of retained cardiomyocytes, and stem cell activity has been proposed to reflect hematological contamination. We use a variety of approaches (including genetic lineage tracing) to show that neither artifact is applicable to cardiospheres and CDCs grown using established methods, and we further document the stem cell characteristics (namely, clonogenicity and multilineage potential) of CDCs.CPCs were expanded from human endomyocardial biopsies (n = 160), adult bi-transgenic MerCreMer-Z/EG mice (n = 6), adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 18), adult GFP(+) C57BL/6 transgenic mice (n = 3), Yucatan mini pigs (n = 67), adult SCID beige mice (n = 8), and adult Wistar-Kyoto rats (n = 80). Cellular yield was enhanced by collagenase digestion and process standardization; yield was reduced in altered media and in specific animal strains. Heparinization/retrograde organ perfusion did not alter the ability to generate outgrowth from myocardial sample. The initial outgrowth from myocardial samples was enriched for sub-populations of CPCs (c-Kit(+)), endothelial cells (CD31(+), CD34(+)), and mesenchymal cells (CD90(+)). Lineage tracing using MerCreMer-Z/EG transgenic mice revealed that the presence of cardiomyocytes in the cellular outgrowth is not required for the generation of CPCs. Rat CDCs are shown to be clonogenic, and cloned CDCs exhibit spontaneous multineage potential.This study demonstrates that direct culture and expansion of CPCs from myocardial tissue is simple, straightforward, and reproducible when appropriate techniques are used.Full Text Article
|Anti-Vimentin - Data Sheet|