Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, M, R||WB, ICC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Tubulin βIII Antibody, clone 2G10, neuronal|
|Presentation||PBS, pH 7.4, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-Tubulin βIII Antibody, clone 2G10, neuronal is an antibody against Tubulin βIII for use in WB & IC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-Tubulin βIII Antibody, clone 2G10, neuronal SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Expression and cellular localization of hepcidin mRNA and protein in normal rat brain.|
Raha-Chowdhury, R; Raha, AA; Forostyak, S; Zhao, JW; Stott, SR; Bomford, A
BMC neuroscience 16 24 2015
Hepcidin is a peptide hormone belonging to the defensin family of cationic antimicrobial molecules that has an essential role in systemic iron homeostasis. The peptide is synthesised by hepatocytes and transported in the circulation to target tissues where it regulates the iron export function of the ferrous iron permease, ferroportin. In the brain hepcidin protein has been identified using immuno-histochemistry and mRNA by real-time PCR but not by in situ hybridisation raising the question of whether there is measurable transcription of the hepcidin gene in the central nervous system. Alternatively hepcidin could be transported as a hormone to the brain via the circulation.By RT-PCR hepcidin mRNA was present at low level throughout normal rat brain while in situ hybridisation to detect low-abundant mRNA revealed that transcripts were restricted to endothelium of blood vessels and choroid plexus. In contrast, hepcidin protein analysed by immuno-histochemistry was highly expressed in blood vessels, in endothelium and in pericytes. Hepcidin was also present in glial cells and in the olfactory bulb, sub-ventricular zone and dentate gyrus, areas where neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity are maintained throughout adult life. The hepcidin species identified by Western blotting in sub-ventricular zone, cortex and hippocampus migrated as a ~2.8 kDa band, identical in size to hepcidin present in normal rat serum suggesting that hepcidin in brain was the full-length biologically active 25 amino acid peptide. Hepcidin co-localised with ferroportin in ependymal cells of the sub-ventricular zone and in the corpus callosum consistent with a regulatory role in iron metabolism at these sites.Hepcidin protein was widely expressed in brain parenchyma while levels of hepcidin gene transcription appeared to be below the limits of detection of the in situ hybridisation probes. This disparity suggests that not all hepcidin in the brain is transcribed in situ and may originate in part outside the brain. The properties of hepcidin as a cationic peptide hormone are reflected in the finding of hepcidin in the walls of blood vessels and in pericytes and glia, cells that may be involved in transporting the peptide into brain interstitium.
|The systemic iron-regulatory proteins hepcidin and ferroportin are reduced in the brain in Alzheimer's disease.|
Raha, AA; Vaishnav, RA; Friedland, RP; Bomford, A; Raha-Chowdhury, R
Acta neuropathologica communications 1 55 2013
The pathological features of the common neurodegenerative conditions, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis are all known to be associated with iron dysregulation in regions of the brain where the specific pathology is most highly expressed. Iron accumulates in cortical plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in AD where it participates in redox cycling and causes oxidative damage to neurons. To understand these abnormalities in the distribution of iron the expression of proteins that maintain systemic iron balance was investigated in human AD brains and in the APP-transgenic (APP-tg) mouse.Protein levels of hepcidin, the iron-homeostatic peptide, and ferroportin, the iron exporter, were significantly reduced in hippocampal lysates from AD brains. By histochemistry, hepcidin and ferroportin were widely distributed in the normal human brain and co-localised in neurons and astrocytes suggesting a role in regulating iron release. In AD brains, hepcidin expression was reduced and restricted to the neuropil, blood vessels and damaged neurons. In the APP-tg mouse immunoreactivity for ferritin light-chain, the iron storage isoform, was initially distributed throughout the brain and as the disease progressed accumulated in the core of amyloid plaques. In human and mouse tissues, extensive AD pathology with amyloid plaques and severe vascular damage with loss of pericytes and endothelial disruption was seen. In AD brains, hepcidin and ferroportin were associated with haem-positive granular deposits in the region of damaged blood vessels.Our results suggest that the reduction in ferroportin levels are likely associated with cerebral ischaemia, inflammation, the loss of neurons due to the well-characterised protein misfolding, senile plaque formation and possibly the ageing process itself. The reasons for the reduction in hepcidin levels are less clear but future investigation could examine circulating levels of the peptide in AD and a possible reduction in the passage of hepcidin across damaged vascular endothelium. Imbalance in the levels and distribution of ferritin light-chain further indicate a failure to utilize and release iron by damaged and degenerating neurons.
|Enhanced aggregation of androgen receptor in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.|
Nihei, Y; Ito, D; Okada, Y; Akamatsu, W; Yagi, T; Yoshizaki, T; Okano, H; Suzuki, N
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 8043-52 2013
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Ligand-dependent nuclear accumulation of mutant AR protein is a critical characteristic of the pathogenesis of SBMA. SBMA has been modeled in AR-overexpressing animals, but precisely how the polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion leads to neurodegeneration is unclear. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a new technology that can be used to model human diseases, study pathogenic mechanisms, and develop novel drugs. We established SBMA patient-derived iPSCs, investigated their cellular biochemical characteristics, and found that SBMA-iPSCs can differentiate into motor neurons. The CAG repeat numbers in the AR gene of SBMA-iPSCs and also in the atrophin-1 gene of iPSCs derived from another polyQ disease, dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA), remain unchanged during reprogramming, long term passage, and differentiation, indicating that polyQ disease-associated CAG repeats are stable during maintenance of iPSCs. The level of AR expression is up-regulated by neuronal differentiation and treatment with the AR ligand dihydrotestosterone. Filter retardation assays indicated that aggregation of ARs following dihydrotestosterone treatment in neurons derived from SBMA-iPSCs increases significantly compared with neurological control iPSCs, easily recapitulating the pathological feature of mutant ARs in SBMA-iPSCs. This phenomenon was not observed in iPSCs and fibroblasts, thereby showing the neuron-dominant phenotype of this disease. Furthermore, the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylaminogeldanamycin sharply decreased the level of aggregated AR in neurons derived from SBMA-iPSCs, indicating a potential for discovery and validation of candidate drugs. We found that SBMA-iPSCs possess disease-specific biochemical features and could thus open new avenues of research into not only SBMA, but also other polyglutamine diseases.
|Altered phosphorylation and distribution status of vimentin in rat seminiferous epithelium following 17β-estradiol treatment.|
Upadhyay, Rahul, et al.
Histochem. Cell Biol., 136: 543-55 (2011) 2011
Vimentin, type III intermediate filament, has stage-specific localization in the Sertoli cell. In the rat, during stages I-V and XI-XIV of the seminiferous epithelium, vimentin is localized in the perinuclear area with filaments projecting into the apical region toward the developing germ cells. These filaments decrease in length at stages VI-VII with perinuclear staining in stages VIII-IX, when spermiation occurs. Our earlier studies following 17β-estradiol treatment to adult male rats demonstrated an increase in germ cell apoptosis, spermiation failure and disruption of Sertoli cell microfilaments and microtubules. The present study was undertaken to determine the stage-specific distribution of vimentin and its involvement in spermiation failure and germ cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that in contrast to the perinuclear localization with small extensions in control stages VII-IX, long extensions radiating apically to the spermatids in deep recess were observed in the treated group. Immunoprecipitation studies showed marked absence of phosphorylated vimentin in stages VII-VIII in the treated group. Further, localization of plectin, cytoskeletal linker protein, showed decrease in all the stages of spermatogenesis following estradiol treatment. Interestingly, for the first time the localization of plectin in the tubulobulbar complex was observed. In conclusion, the study suggests that estradiol treatment leads to an effect on vimentin phosphorylation, which could have inhibited the disassembly of vimentin leading to retention of apical projection in stages VII-VIII. These effects could be presumably due to a decrease in plectin, affecting the reorganization of vimentin and therefore the apical movement of spermatids, leading to spermiation failure.
|FGF-2 deficiency does not influence FGF ligand and receptor expression during development of the nigrostriatal system.|
Ratzka, A; Baron, O; Grothe, C
PloS one 6 e23564 2011
Secreted proteins of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play important roles during development of various organ systems. A detailed knowledge of their temporal and spatial expression profiles, especially of closely related FGF family members, are essential to further identification of specific functions in distinct tissues. In the central nervous system dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and their axonal projections into the striatum progressively degenerate in Parkinson's disease. In contrast, FGF-2 deficient mice display increased numbers of dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we determined the expression profiles of all 22 FGF-ligands and 10 FGF-receptor isoforms, in order to clarify, if FGF-2 deficiency leads to compensatory up-regulation of other FGFs in the nigrostriatal system. Three tissues, ventral mesencephalon (VM), striatum (STR) and as reference tissue spinal cord (SC) of wild-type and FGF-2 deficient mice at four developmental stages E14.5, P0, P28, and adult were comparatively analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. As no differences between the genotypes were observed, a compensatory up-regulation can be excluded. Moreover, this analysis revealed that the majority of FGF-ligands (18/22) and FGF-receptors (9/10) are expressed during normal development of the nigrostriatal system and identified dynamic changes for some family members. By comparing relative expression level changes to SC reference tissue, general alterations in all 3 tissues, such as increased expression of FGF-1, -2, -22, FgfR-2c, -3c and decreased expression of FGF-13 during postnatal development were identified. Further, specific changes affecting only one tissue, such as increased FGF-16 (STR) or decreased FGF-17 (VM) expression, or two tissues, such as decreased expression of FGF-8 (VM, STR) and FGF-15 (SC, VM) were found. Moreover, 3 developmentally down-regulated FGFs (FGF-8b, FGF-15, FGF-17a) were functionally characterized by plasmid-based over-expression in dissociated E11.5 VM cell cultures, however, such a continuous exposure had no influence on the yield of dopaminergic neurons in vitro.
|Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons.|
Gina V Rinetti,Felix E Schweizer
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 2010
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in modulating synaptic physiology both presynaptically and postsynaptically, but the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure. To determine acute effects of proteasome inhibition on neurotransmission, we performed whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from cultured rodent hippocampal neurons. We find that proteasome inhibitors induce a strikingly fast, severalfold increase in the frequency of both miniature (mini) and spontaneous synaptic currents at excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The lack of change in mini amplitude and kinetics indicates a presynaptic site of action. This effect does not depend on increased levels of presynaptic proteins, previously suggested as proteasomal targets. Furthermore, blockade of the UPS using E1-activating enzyme inhibitors also increases mini frequency, demonstrating that accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins is not required. Overall, these data suggest that the UPS not only orchestrates protein turnover, but also dynamically regulates the activity state of presynaptic proteins, thus crucially shaping synaptic transmission.Full Text Article
|Disruption of tubulobulbar complex by high intratesticular estrogens leading to failed spermiation.|
D'Souza, Ryan, et al.
Endocrinology, 150: 1861-9 (2009) 2009
Spermiation is the final phase of spermatogenesis leading to release of mature spermatids into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Morphologically, it involves a series of events, namely removal of excess spermatid cytoplasm, removal of ectoplasmic specialization, formation of tubulobulbar complex, and final disengagement of the spermatid from the Sertoli cell. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that administration of 17beta-estradiol at a dose of 100 microg/kg body weight for 10 d resulted in failure of spermiation. This was accompanied by a suppression of FSH and intratesticular testosterone with a concomitant rise in intratesticular 17beta-estradiol. The present study was undertaken to determine the cause of failure and subsequently the molecular events in spermiation. Electron microscopic and confocal studies revealed an absence of tubulobulbar complex in step 19 spermatids after estradiol treatment, highlighting the significance of these structures in spermiation. It was further observed that treatment affected the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton and Arp2/3 complex that is critical for de novo polymerization of actin during tubulobulbar complex formation. In conclusion, the present study reports the role of 17beta-estradiol in inhibiting the formation of tubulobulbar complex, which could be one of the mechanism by which environmental estrogens influence male fertility.
|Increased cortical expression of two synaptogenic thrombospondins in human brain evolution.|
Cáceres, M; Suwyn, C; Maddox, M; Thomas, JW; Preuss, TM
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 17 2312-21 2007
Thrombospondins are extracellular-matrix glycoproteins implicated in the control of synaptogenesis and neurite growth. Previous microarray studies suggested that one gene of this family, thrombospondin 4 (THBS4), was upregulated during human brain evolution. Using independent techniques to examine thrombospondin expression patterns in adult brain samples, we report approximately 6-fold and approximately 2-fold greater expression of THBS4 and THBS2 messenger RNA (mRNA), respectively, in human cerebral cortex compared with chimpanzees and macaques, with corresponding differences in protein levels. In humans and chimpanzees, thrombospondin expression differences were observed in the forebrain (cortex and caudate), whereas the cerebellum and most nonbrain tissues exhibited similar levels of the 2 mRNAs. Histological examination revealed THBS4 mRNA and protein expression in numerous pyramidal and glial cells in the 3 species but humans also exhibited very prominent immunostaining of the synapse-rich cortical neuropil. In humans, additionally, THBS4 antibodies labeled beta-amyloid containing plaques in Alzheimer's cases and some control cases. This is the first detailed characterization of gene-expression changes in human evolution that involve specific brain regions, including portions of cerebral cortex. Increased expression of thrombospondins in human brain evolution could result in changes in synaptic organization and plasticity, and contribute to the distinctive cognitive abilities of humans, as well as to our unique vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease.
|Spatially and temporally specific expression in mouse hippocampus of Usp9x, a ubiquitin-specific protease involved in synaptic development.|
Jun Xu, Shinichiro Taya, Kozo Kaibuchi, Arthur P Arnold
Journal of neuroscience research 80 47-55 2005
We studied the distribution of the ubiquitin-specific protease Usp9x in mouse brain as it relates to the potential role of ubiquitin proteasome system in synaptic plasticity. Usp9x is the mouse homolog of faf, known for its function in synaptic development in Drosophila. In adults, high levels of expression of Usp9x protein were found in layer V of neocortex, Purkinje cells in cerebellum, and specific hippocampal subfields. In hippocampal pyramidal cells, Usp9x expression was higher in CA3 than in CA1. This regional specificity was detected at postnatal day 22 but not at postnatal day 15. In adult mice, the CA1-CA3 difference was partially accounted for by a difference in the level of Usp9x mRNA, suggesting that transcription of Usp9x was differentially regulated between hippocampal subfields. Two synaptic marker proteins, synaptotagmin and spinophilin, were both more abundant in the striatum oriens of CA3 than in the similar region of CA1, correlating with the distribution of Usp9x, a result compatible with a role for Usp9x in synaptic development in mouse hippocampus. Ube1x, the enzyme responsible for the initial step in ubiquitin conjugation, was preferentially concentrated in the dendrites of the CA1 neurons instead of the CA3 neurons, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between ubiquitin conjugation and deubiquitination in CA3 and CA1. This spatial and temporal specificity in expression of Usp9x and Ube1x protein raises interesting questions about the roles of these ubiquitin enzymes in the differential functions of CA1 and CA3.
|Sexually dimorphic expression of Usp9x is related to sex chromosome complement in adult mouse brain.|
J Xu, S Taya, K Kaibuchi, A P Arnold
The European journal of neuroscience 21 3017-22 2005
We found the expression of Usp9x, an X-linked gene which encodes a ubiquitin protease implicated in synaptic development, to be significantly higher in the adult female mouse brains than in male brains. The sex difference in expression of Usp9x was localized to specific brain regions such as neocortex. Furthermore, in gonadally intact and gonadectomized mice, XX mice expressed Usp9x mRNA and protein more highly than XY mice irrespective of their gonadal type. No sex difference was found in the neonatal brain or peripheral tissues such as the adult kidney. This finding implies that the difference in sex chromosome complement between XY males and XX females could potentially contribute to sexual differentiation of brain structure and function. The relation of genomic dose and Usp9x expression could help explain the neural and behavioural phenotype of women with XO Turner syndrome.