Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IHC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein G Purified immunoglobulin in Protein G Purified immunoglobulin in 0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||250 µg|
Anti-Rac1 Antibody, clone 23A8 SDS
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8||3074333|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8||2476975|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2116619||2116619|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2382127||2382127|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2397127||2397127|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 2452510||2452510|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 15254||15254|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 16999||16999|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 18070||18070|
|Anti-Rac1, clone 23A8 - 18423||18423|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Immunohistochemical analysis of the natural killer cell cytotoxicity pathway in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.|
Hinterseher, I; Schworer, CM; Lillvis, JH; Stahl, E; Erdman, R; Gatalica, Z; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H
International journal of molecular sciences 16 11196-212 2015
Our previous analysis using genome-wide microarray expression data revealed extreme overrepresentation of immune related genes belonging the Natural Killer (NK) Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity pathway (hsa04650) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We followed up the microarray studies by immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies against nine members of the NK pathway (VAV1, VAV3, PLCG1, PLCG2, HCST, TYROBP, PTK2B, TNFA, and GZMB) and aortic tissue samples from AAA repair operations (n = 6) and control aortae (n = 8) from age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched donors from autopsies. The results confirmed the microarray results. Two different members of the NK pathway, HCST and GRZB, which act at different steps in the NK-pathway, were actively transcribed and translated into proteins in the same cells in the AAA tissue demonstrated by double staining. Furthermore, double staining with antibodies against CD68 or CD8 together with HCST, TYROBP, PTK2B or PLCG2 revealed that CD68 and CD8 positive cells expressed proteins of the NK-pathway but were not the only inflammatory cells involved in the NK-pathway in the AAA tissue. The results provide strong evidence that the NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity Pathway is activated in human AAA and valuable insight for future studies to dissect the pathogenesis of human AAA.
|The proto-oncogene c-Src and its downstream signaling pathways are inhibited by the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1.|
Liu, W; Yue, F; Zheng, M; Merlot, A; Bae, DH; Huang, M; Lane, D; Jansson, P; Lui, GY; Richardson, V; Sahni, S; Kalinowski, D; Kovacevic, Z; Richardson, DR
Oncotarget 6 8851-74 2015
N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that plays a key role in regulating signaling pathways involved in mediating cancer cell invasion and migration, including those derived from prostate, colon, etc. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets through which NDRG1 reduces cancer cell invasion and migration, leading to inhibition of cancer metastasis, are not fully elucidated. In this investigation, using NDRG1 over-expression models in three tumor cell-types (namely, DU145, PC3MM and HT29) and also NDRG1 silencing in DU145 and HT29 cells, we reveal that NDRG1 decreases phosphorylation of a key proto-oncogene, cellular Src (c-Src), at a well-characterized activating site (Tyr416). NDRG1-mediated down-regulation of EGFR expression and activation were responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of c-Src (Tyr416). Indeed, NDRG1 prevented recruitment of c-Src to EGFR and c-Src activation. Moreover, NDRG1 suppressed Rac1 activity by modulating phosphorylation of a c-Src downstream effector, p130Cas, and its association with CrkII, which acts as a "molecular switch" to activate Rac1. NDRG1 also affected another signaling molecule involved in modulating Rac1 signaling, c-Abl, which then inhibited CrkII phosphorylation. Silencing NDRG1 increased cell migration relative to the control and inhibition of c-Src signaling using siRNA, or a pharmacological inhibitor (SU6656), prevented this increase. Hence, the role of NDRG1 in decreasing cell migration is, in part, due to its inhibition of c-Src activation. In addition, novel pharmacological agents, which induce NDRG1 expression and are currently under development as anti-metastatic agents, markedly increase NDRG1 and decrease c-Src activation. This study leads to important insights into the mechanism involved in inhibiting metastasis by NDRG1 and how to target these pathways with novel therapeutics.
|Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.|
Yang, Y; Park, SY; Nguyen, TT; Yu, YH; Nguyen, TV; Sun, EG; Udeni, J; Jeong, MH; Pereira, I; Moon, C; Ha, HH; Kim, KK; Hur, JS; Kim, H
PloS one 10 e0137889 2015
Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action.
|Spatial mapping of juxtacrine axo-glial interactions identifies novel molecules in peripheral myelination.|
Poitelon, Y; Bogni, S; Matafora, V; Della-Flora Nunes, G; Hurley, E; Ghidinelli, M; Katzenellenbogen, BS; Taveggia, C; Silvestri, N; Bachi, A; Sannino, A; Wrabetz, L; Feltri, ML
Nature communications 6 8303 2015
Cell-cell interactions promote juxtacrine signals in specific subcellular domains, which are difficult to capture in the complexity of the nervous system. For example, contact between axons and Schwann cells triggers signals required for radial sorting and myelination. Failure in this interaction causes dysmyelination and axonal degeneration. Despite its importance, few molecules at the axo-glial surface are known. To identify novel molecules in axo-glial interactions, we modified the 'pseudopodia' sub-fractionation system and isolated the projections that glia extend when they receive juxtacrine signals from axons. By proteomics we identified the signalling networks present at the glial-leading edge, and novel proteins, including members of the Prohibitin family. Glial-specific deletion of Prohibitin-2 in mice impairs axo-glial interactions and myelination. We thus validate a novel method to model morphogenesis and juxtacrine signalling, provide insights into the molecular organization of the axo-glial contact, and identify a novel class of molecules in myelination.
|ROCK1 deficiency enhances protective effects of antioxidants against apoptosis and cell detachment.|
Surma, M; Handy, C; Chang, J; Kapur, R; Wei, L; Shi, J
PloS one 9 e90758 2014
We have recently reported that the homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, play different roles in regulating stress-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment, and the ROCK1 deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) has remarkable anti-apoptotic, anti-detachment and pro-survival effects against doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug. This study investigated the roles of ROCK isoforms in doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which is believed to be the major mechanism underlying its cytotoxicity to normal cells, and especially to cardiomyocytes. Different antioxidants have been shown to provide a protective role reported in numerous experimental studies, but clinical trials of antioxidant therapy showed insufficient benefit against the cardiac side effect. We found that both ROCK1-/- and ROCK2-/- MEFs exhibited reduced ROS production in response to doxorubicin treatment. Interestingly, only ROCK1 deficiency, but not ROCK2 deficiency, significantly enhanced the protective effects of antioxidants against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. First, ROCK1 deficiency and N-acetylcysteine (an anti-oxidant) treatment synergistically reduced ROS levels, caspase activation and cell detachment. In addition, the reduction of ROS generation in ROCK1-/- MEFs in response to doxorubicin treatment was in part through inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, ROCK1 deficiency enhanced the inhibitory effects of diphenyleneiodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) on ROS generation and caspase 3 activation induced by doxorubicin. Finally, ROCK1 deficiency had greater protective effects than antioxidant treatment, especially on reducing actin cytoskeleton remodeling. ROCK1 deficiency not only reduced actomyosin contraction but also preserved central stress fiber stability, whereas antioxidant treatment only reduced actomyosin contraction without preserving central stress fibers. These results reveal a novel strategy to enhance the protective effect of antioxidant therapy by targeting the ROCK1 pathway to stabilize the actin cytoskeleton and boost the inhibitory effects on ROS production, apoptosis and cell detachment.
|Impaired cell death and mammary gland involution in the absence of Dock1 and Rac1 signaling.|
Bagci, H; Laurin, M; Huber, J; Muller, WJ; Côté, JF
Cell death & disease 5 e1375 2014
Throughout life, the tight equilibrium between cell death and the prompt clearance of dead corpses is required to maintain a proper tissue homeostasis and prevent inflammation. Following lactation, mammary gland involution is triggered and results in the death of excessive epithelial cells that are rapidly cleared by phagocytes to ensure that the gland returns to its prepregnant state. Orthologs of Dock1 (dedicator of cytokinesis 1), Elmo and Rac1 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) in Caenorhabditis elegans are part of a signaling module in phagocytes that is linking apoptotic cell recognition to cytoskeletal reorganization required for engulfment. In mammals, Elmo1 was shown to interact with the phosphatidylserine receptor Bai1 and relay signals to promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Still, the role of the RacGEF Dock1 in the clearance of dying cells in mammals was never directly addressed. We generated two mouse models with conditional inactivation of Dock1 and Rac1 and revealed that the expression of these genes is not essential in the mammary gland during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. We induced mammary gland involution in these mice to investigate the role of Dock1/Rac1 signaling in the engulfment of cell corpses. Unpredictably, activation of Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), a key regulator of mammary gland involution, was impaired in the absence of Rac1 and Dock1 expression. Likewise, failure to activate properly Stat3 was coinciding with a significant delay in the initiation and progression of mammary gland involution in mutant animals. By using an in vitro phagocytosis assay, we observed that Dock1 and Rac1 are essential to mediate engulfment in epithelial phagocytes. In vivo, cell corpses accumulated at late time points of involution in Dock1 and Rac1 mutant mammary glands. Overall, our study demonstrated an unsuspected role for Dock1/Rac1 signaling in the initiation of mammary gland involution, and also suggested a role for this pathway in the clearance of dead cells by epithelial phagocytes.
|Downregulation of microRNA-100 enhances the ICMT-Rac1 signaling and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.|
Zhou, HC; Fang, JH; Luo, X; Zhang, L; Yang, J; Zhang, C; Zhuang, SM
Oncotarget 5 12177-88 2014
Metastasis is responsible for rapid recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and poor survival of HCC patients. Here we showed that miR-100 downregulation in HCC tissues was significantly associated with venous invasion, advanced TNM stage, tumor nodule without complete capsule, poorer cell differentiation, and shorter recurrence-free survival. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-100 dramatically suppressed the ability of HCC cells to migrate and to invade through Matrigel in vitro. Analyses using mouse orthotopic xenograft model further revealed that xenografts of miR-100-stable-expressing HCC cells displayed a significant reduction in pulmonary metastasis, compared with control group. Subsequent investigations revealed that miR-100 directly inhibited the expression of isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) by binding to their 3'-UTRs, and in turn suppressed lamellipodia formation and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) activation. Furthermore, knockdown of ICMT and Rac1 phenocopied the anti-metastasis effect of miR-100, whereas overexpression of the constitutively active Rac1 (Q61L) antagonized the function of miR-100. Taken together, miR-100 represses metastasis of HCC cells by abrogating the ICMT-Rac1 signaling. Downregulation of miR-100 contributes to HCC metastasis and the restoration of miR-100 is a potential strategy for cancer therapy.
|Interactome analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α1 and -β1 in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells by affinity purification-mass spectrometry.|
Moon, S; Han, D; Kim, Y; Jin, J; Ho, WK; Kim, Y
Scientific reports 4 4376 2014
The heterotrimeric enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major metabolic factor that regulates the homeostasis of cellular energy. In particular, AMPK mediates the insulin resistance that is associated with type 2 diabetes. Generally, cellular processes require tight regulation of protein kinases, which is effected through their formation of complex with other proteins and substrates. Despite their critical function in regulation and pathogenesis, there are limited data on the interaction of protein kinases. To identify proteins that interact with AMPK, we performed large-scale affinity purification (AP)-mass spectrometry (MS) of the AMPK-α1 and -β1 subunits. Through a comprehensive analysis, using a combination of immunoprecipitaion and ion trap mass spectrometry, we identified 381 unique proteins in the AMPKα/β interactomes: 325 partners of AMPK-α1 and 243 for AMPK-β1. Further, we identified 196 novel protein-protein interactions with AMPK-α1 and AMPK-β1. Notably, in our bioinformatics analysis, the novel interaction partners mediated functions that are related to the regulation of actin organization. Specifically, several such proteins were linked to pancreatic beta-cell functions, including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell development, beta-cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication.
|Epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 (ESRP1) and 2 (ESRP2) suppress cancer cell motility via different mechanisms.|
Ishii, H; Saitoh, M; Sakamoto, K; Kondo, T; Katoh, R; Tanaka, S; Motizuki, M; Masuyama, K; Miyazawa, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 27386-99 2014
ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1) and ESRP2 regulate alternative splicing events associated with epithelial phenotypes of cells, and both are down-regulated during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, little is known about their expression and functions during carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that expression of both ESRP1 and ESRP2 is plastic: during oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, these proteins are up-regulated relative to their levels in normal epithelium but down-regulated in invasive fronts. Importantly, ESRP1 and ESRP2 are re-expressed in the lymph nodes, where carcinoma cells metastasize and colonize. In head and neck carcinoma cell lines, ESRP1 and ESRP2 suppress cancer cell motility through distinct mechanisms: knockdown of ESRP1 affects the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton through induction of Rac1b, whereas knockdown of ESRP2 attenuates cell-cell adhesion through increased expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated transcription factors. Down-regulation of ESRP1 and ESRP2 is thus closely associated with a motile phenotype of cancer cells.
|VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy.|
Aguilar, H; Urruticoechea, A; Halonen, P; Kiyotani, K; Mushiroda, T; Barril, X; Serra-Musach, J; Islam, A; Caizzi, L; Di Croce, L; Nevedomskaya, E; Zwart, W; Bostner, J; Karlsson, E; Pérez Tenorio, G; Fornander, T; Sgroi, DC; Garcia-Mata, R; Jansen, MP; García, N; Bonifaci, N; Climent, F; Soler, MT; Rodríguez-Vida, A; Gil, M; Brunet, J; Martrat, G; Gómez-Baldó, L; Extremera, AI; Figueras, A; Balart, J; Clarke, R; Burnstein, KL; Carlson, KE; Katzenellenbogen, JA; Vizoso, M; Esteller, M; Villanueva, A; Rodríguez-Peña, AB; Bustelo, XR; Nakamura, Y; Zembutsu, H; Stål, O; Beijersbergen, RL; Pujana, MA
Breast cancer research : BCR 16 R53 2014
Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through mechanisms that involve ERα transcriptional regulatory plasticity. Herein we identify VAV3 as a critical component in this process.A cell-based chemical compound screen was carried out to identify therapeutic strategies against resistance to endocrine therapy. Binding to ERα was evaluated by molecular docking analyses, an agonist fluoligand assay and short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated protein depletion. Microarray analyses were performed to identify altered gene expression. Western blot analysis of signaling and proliferation markers, and shRNA-mediated protein depletion in viability and clonogenic assays, were performed to delineate the role of VAV3. Genetic variation in VAV3 was assessed for association with the response to tamoxifen. Immunohistochemical analyses of VAV3 were carried out to determine its association with therapeutic response and different tumor markers. An analysis of gene expression association with drug sensitivity was carried out to identify a potential therapeutic approach based on differential VAV3 expression.The compound YC-1 was found to comparatively reduce the viability of cell models of acquired resistance. This effect was probably not due to activation of its canonical target (soluble guanylyl cyclase), but instead was likely a result of binding to ERα. VAV3 was selectively reduced upon exposure to YC-1 or ERα depletion, and, accordingly, VAV3 depletion comparatively reduced the viability of cell models of acquired resistance. In the clinical scenario, germline variation in VAV3 was associated with the response to tamoxifen in Japanese breast cancer patients (rs10494071 combined P value = 8.4 × 10-4). The allele association combined with gene expression analyses indicated that low VAV3 expression predicts better clinical outcome. Conversely, high nuclear VAV3 expression in tumor cells was associated with poorer endocrine therapy response. Based on VAV3 expression levels and the response to erlotinib in cancer cell lines, targeting EGFR signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy.This study proposes VAV3 as a biomarker and a rationale for its use as a signaling target to prevent and/or overcome resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.