Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal immunoglobulin in buffer containing liquid 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Nanog Antibody, NT SDS
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 2446855||2446855|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 1976920||1976920|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 2153031||2153031|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 2322529||2322529|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 2494038||2494038|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 3162438||3162438|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 3313764||3313764|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 3704782||3704782|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - 3839137||3839137|
|Anti-Nanog, N-terminus - LV1616760||LV1616760|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Generation of Naïve Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using PiggyBac Transposition of Doxycycline-Inducible Transcription Factors.|
Kawaguchi, T; Tsukiyama, T; Kimura, K; Matsuyama, S; Minami, N; Yamada, M; Imai, H
PloS one 10 e0135403 2015
Generation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in large domestic animals has achieved only limited success; most of the PSCs obtained to date have been classified as primed PSCs, which possess very little capacity to produce chimeric offspring. By contrast, mouse PSCs have been classified as naïve PSCs that can contribute to most of the tissues of chimeras, including germ cells. Here, we describe the generation of two different types of bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs) from amnion cells, achieved through introduction of piggyBac vectors containing doxycycline-inducible transcription factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc). One type of biPSCs, cultured in medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement (KSR), FGF2, and bovine leukemia inhibitory factor (bLIF), had a flattened morphology like human PSCs; these were classified as primed-type. The other type biPSCs, cultured in KSR, bLIF, Mek/Erk inhibitor, GSK3 inhibitor and forskolin, had a compact morphology like mouse PSCs; these were classified as naïve-type. Cells could easily be switched between these two types of biPSCs by changing the culture conditions. Both types of biPSCs had strong alkaline phosphatase activity, expressed pluripotent markers (OCT3/4, NANOG, REX1, ESRRβ, STELLA, and SOCS3), and formed embryoid bodies that gave rise to differentiated cells from all three embryonic germ layers. However, only naïve-type biPSCs showed the hallmarks of naïve mouse PSCs, such as LIF-dependent proliferation, lack of FGF5 expression, and active XIST expression with two active X chromosomes. Furthermore, naïve-type biPSCs could contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) of host blastocysts and most tissues within chimeric embryos. This is the first report of generation of biPSCs with several characteristics similar to those of naïve mouse PSCs and a demonstrated potential to contribute to chimeras.
|Nanog1 in NTERA-2 and recombinant NanogP8 from somatic cancer cells adopt multiple protein conformations and migrate at multiple M.W species.|
Liu, B; Badeaux, MD; Choy, G; Chandra, D; Shen, I; Jeter, CR; Rycaj, K; Lee, CF; Person, MD; Liu, C; Chen, Y; Shen, J; Jung, SY; Qin, J; Tang, DG
PloS one 9 e90615 2014
Human Nanog1 is a 305-amino acid (aa) homeodomain-containing transcription factor critical for the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. Somatic cancer cells predominantly express a retrogene homolog of Nanog1 called NanogP8, which is ~99% similar to Nanog at the aa level. Although the predicted M.W of Nanog1/NanogP8 is ∼35 kD, both have been reported to migrate, on Western blotting (WB), at apparent molecular masses of 29-80 kD. Whether all these reported protein bands represent authentic Nanog proteins is unclear. Furthermore, detailed biochemical studies on Nanog1/NanogpP8 have been lacking. By combining WB using 8 anti-Nanog1 antibodies, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and studies using recombinant proteins, here we provide direct evidence that the Nanog1 protein in NTERA-2 EC cells exists as multiple M.W species from ~22 kD to 100 kD with a major 42 kD band detectable on WB. We then demonstrate that recombinant NanogP8 (rNanogP8) proteins made in bacteria using cDNAs from multiple cancer cells also migrate, on denaturing SDS-PAGE, at ~28 kD to 180 kD. Interestingly, different anti-Nanog1 antibodies exhibit differential reactivity towards rNanogP8 proteins, which can spontaneously form high M.W protein species. Finally, we show that most long-term cultured cancer cell lines seem to express very low levels of or different endogenous NanogP8 protein that cannot be readily detected by immunoprecipitation. Altogether, the current study reveals unique biochemical properties of Nanog1 in EC cells and NanogP8 in somatic cancer cells.
|Molecular and cellular features of murine craniofacial and trunk neural crest cells as stem cell-like cells.|
Hagiwara, K; Obayashi, T; Sakayori, N; Yamanishi, E; Hayashi, R; Osumi, N; Nakazawa, T; Nishida, K
PloS one 9 e84072 2014
The outstanding differentiation capacities and easier access from adult tissues, cells derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists in developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Differentiation potentials of NCCs are known to depend on their originating regions. Here, we report differential molecular features between craniofacial (cNCCs) and trunk (tNCCs) NCCs by analyzing transcription profiles and sphere forming assays of NCCs from P0-Cre/floxed-EGFP mouse embryos. We identified up-regulation of genes linked to carcinogenesis in cNCCs that were not previously reported to be related to NCCs, which was considered to be, an interesting feature in regard with carcinogenic potentials of NCCs such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. Wnt signal related genes were statistically up-regulated in cNCCs, also suggesting potential involvement of cNCCs in carcinogenesis. We also noticed intense expression of mesenchymal and neuronal markers in cNCCs and tNCCs, respectively. Consistent results were obtained from in vitro sphere-forming and differentiation assays. These results were in accordance with previous notion about differential potentials of cNCCs and tNCCs. We thus propose that sorting NCCs from P0-Cre/floxed-EGFP mice might be useful for the basic and translational research of NCCs. Furthermore, these newly-identified genes up-regulated in cNCC would provide helpful information on NC-originating tumors, developmental disorders in NCC derivatives, and potential applications of NCCs in regenerative medicine.
|Somatostatin receptor type 2 contributes to the self-renewal of murine embryonic stem cells.|
Xu, XX; Zhang, LH; Xie, X
Acta pharmacologica Sinica 35 1023-30 2014
The roles of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in stem cell biology remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify GPCRs that might contribute to the self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs).The expression levels of pluripotent genes and GPCR gene were detected in E14 mESCs using PCR array and RT-PCR. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine the expression of pluripotent markers and the receptor translocation. Western blot analysis was used to detect phosphorylation of signal proteins. Knock-down of receptor was conducted to confirm its role in pluripotency maintenance.In leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-free medium, mESCs lost the typical morphology of pluripotency, accompanied by markedly decreases in expression of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2), as well as the pluripotency biomarkers Oct4, Sox2, Rex1 and Nanog. Addition of the SSTR2 agonist octreotide or seglitide (0.1-30 μmol/L) in LIF-free medium dose-dependently promoted the self-renewal of mESCs, whereas the SSTR2 antagonist S4 (0.03-3 μmol/L) dose-dependently blocked octreotide-induced self-renewal. Knock-down of SSTR2 significantly decreased the self-renewal of mESCs even in the presence of LIF. Addition of LIF (1000 U/mL) or octreotide (1 μmol/L) in LIF-free medium significantly increased both phosphorylation and nuclear ocalization of STAT3.The activation of SSTR2 contributes to the self-renewal of mESCs via activation of the STAT3 pathway.
|Role of distinct surfaces of the G9a ankyrin repeat domain in histone and DNA methylation during embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.|
Bittencourt, D; Lee, BH; Gao, L; Gerke, DS; Stallcup, MR
Epigenetics & chromatin 7 27 2014
Epigenetic modifications such as histone and DNA methylation are essential for silencing pluripotency genes during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. G9a is the major histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) methyltransferase in euchromatin and is required for the de novo DNA methylation of the key regulator of pluripotency Oct3/4 during ESC differentiation. Surprisingly, the catalytic activity of G9a is not required for its role in de novo DNA methylation and the precise molecular mechanisms of G9a in this process are poorly understood. It has been suggested that the G9a ankyrin repeat domain, which can interact with both H3K9me2 and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A, could facilitate de novo DNA methylation by bridging the interaction between DNMT3A and H3K9me2-marked chromatin.Here, we demonstrate that the G9a ankyrin domain H3K9me2-binding function is not required for the de novo DNA methylation of Oct3/4 during ESC differentiation. Moreover, we show that the interaction between the G9a ankyrin domain and DNMT3A is not sufficient to ensure efficient de novo DNA methylation. More importantly, we characterize a specific residue of the G9a ankyrin domain (Asp905) that is critical for both maintaining cellular H3K9me2 levels in undifferentiated ESCs and for the establishment of de novo DNA methylation during differentiation.These results represent an exciting breakthrough, which reveals 1) an unexpected critical biological function of the G9a ankyrin domain in global histone H3K9 methylation and 2) valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms and interaction surfaces through which G9a regulates de novo DNA methylation of Oct3/4 during ESC differentiation.
|Sphingosine Phosphate Lyase Regulates Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Pluripotency through an S1P2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway.|
Smith, GS; Kumar, A; Saba, JD
Biomolecules 3 351-368 2013
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that activates a family of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) implicated in mammalian development, angiogenesis, immunity and tissue regeneration. S1P functions as a trophic factor for many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P. We found SPL to be highly expressed in murine ESCs (mESCs). To investigate the role of SPL in mESC biology, we silenced SPL in mESCs via stable transfection with a lentiviral SPL-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct. SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) mESCs showed a 5-fold increase in cellular S1P levels, increased proliferation rates and high expression of cell surface pluripotency markers SSEA1 and OCT4 compared to vector control cells. Compared to control mESCs, SPL-KD cells showed robust activation of STAT3 and a 10-fold increase in S1P2 expression. Inhibition of S1P2 or STAT3 reversed the proliferation and pluripotency phenotypes of SPL-KD mESCs. Further, inhibition of S1P2 attenuated, in a dose-dependent fashion, the high levels of OCT4 and STAT3 activation observed in SPL-KD mESCs. Finally, we showed that SPL-KD cells are capable of generating embryoid bodies from which muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, can be isolated. These findings demonstrate an important role for SPL in ESC homeostasis and suggest that SPL inhibition could facilitate ex vivo ESC expansion for therapeutic purposes.
|Proliferation rate of somatic cells affects reprogramming efficiency.|
Xu, Y; Wei, X; Wang, M; Zhang, R; Fu, Y; Xing, M; Hua, Q; Xie, X
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 9767-78 2013
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides not only new approaches for cell replacement therapy, but also new ways for drug screening. However, the undefined mechanism and relatively low efficiency of reprogramming have limited the application of iPS cells. In an attempt to further optimize the reprogramming condition, we unexpectedly observed that removing c-Myc from the Oct-4, Sox-2, Klf-4, and c-Myc (OSKM) combination greatly enhanced the generation of iPS cells. The iPS cells generated without c-Myc attained salient pluripotent characteristics and were capable of producing full-term mice through tetraploid complementation. We observed that forced expression of c-Myc induced the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle control and a hyperproliferation state of the mouse embryonic fibroblasts during the early stage of reprogramming. This enhanced proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts correlated negatively to the overall reprogramming efficiency. By applying small molecule inhibitors of cell proliferation at the early stage of reprogramming, we were able to improve the efficiency of iPS cell generation mediated by OSKM. Our data demonstrated that the proliferation rate of the somatic cell plays critical roles in reprogramming. Slowing down the proliferation of the original cells might be beneficial to the induction of iPS cells.
|Wnt signaling regulates the lineage differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells through Tcf3 down-regulation.|
Atlasi, Y; Noori, R; Gaspar, C; Franken, P; Sacchetti, A; Rafati, H; Mahmoudi, T; Decraene, C; Calin, GA; Merrill, BJ; Fodde, R
PLoS genetics 9 e1003424 2013
Canonical Wnt signaling plays a rate-limiting role in regulating self-renewal and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have previously shown that mutation in the Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene constitutively activates Wnt signaling in ESCs and inhibits their capacity to differentiate towards ecto-, meso-, and endodermal lineages. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms through which Wnt regulates lineage differentiation in mouse ESCs remain to date largely unknown. To this aim, we have derived and studied the gene expression profiles of several Apc-mutant ESC lines encoding for different levels of Wnt signaling activation. We found that down-regulation of Tcf3, a member of the Tcf/Lef family and a key player in the control of self-renewal and pluripotency, represents a specific and primary response to Wnt activation in ESCs. Accordingly, rescuing Tcf3 expression partially restored the neural defects observed in Apc-mutant ESCs, suggesting that Tcf3 down-regulation is a necessary step towards Wnt-mediated suppression of neural differentiation. We found that Tcf3 down-regulation in the context of constitutively active Wnt signaling does not result from promoter DNA methylation but is likely to be caused by a plethora of mechanisms at both the RNA and protein level as shown by the observed decrease in activating histone marks (H3K4me3 and H3-acetylation) and the upregulation of miR-211, a novel Wnt-regulated microRNA that targets Tcf3 and attenuates early neural differentiation in mouse ESCs. Our data show for the first time that Wnt signaling down-regulates Tcf3 expression, possibly at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and thus highlight a novel mechanism through which Wnt signaling inhibits neuro-ectodermal lineage differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells.
|Stress-mediated p38 activation promotes somatic cell reprogramming.|
Xu, X; Wang, Q; Long, Y; Zhang, R; Wei, X; Xing, M; Gu, H; Xie, X
Cell research 23 131-41 2013
Environmental stress-mediated adaptation plays essential roles in the evolution of life. Cellular adaptation mechanisms usually involve the regulation of chromatin structure, transcription, mRNA stability and translation, which eventually lead to efficient changes in gene expression. Global epigenetic change is also involved in the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by defined factors. Here we report that environmental stress such as hyperosmosis not only facilitates four factor-mediated reprogramming, but also enhances two or one factor-induced iPS cell generation. Hyperosmosis-induced p38 activation plays a critical role in this process. Constitutive active p38 mimics the positive effect of hyperosmosis, while dominant negative p38 and p38 inhibitor block the effect of hyperosmosis. Further study indicates stress-mediated p38 activation may promote reprogramming by reducing the global DNA methylation level and enhancing the expression of pluripotency genes. Our results demonstrate how simple environmental stress like hyperosmosis helps to alter the fate of cells via intracellular signaling and epigenetic modulation.
|Enhancer transcribed RNAs arise from hypomethylated, Tet-occupied genomic regions.|
Pulakanti, K; Pinello, L; Stelloh, C; Blinka, S; Allred, J; Milanovich, S; Kiblawi, S; Peterson, J; Wang, A; Yuan, GC; Rao, S
Epigenetics 8 1303-20 2013
Enhancers are cis-acting elements capable of regulating transcription in a distance and orientation-independent manner. A subset of enhancers are occupied by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and transcribed to produce long non-coding RNAs termed eRNAs. We thoroughly investigated the association between eRNA productivity and various chromatin marks and transcriptional regulators in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through an integrative approach. We found that eRNA-producing enhancers exhibited elevated levels of the active mark H3K27Ac, decreased DNA methylation, and enrichment for the DNA hydroxylase Tet1. Many eRNA-producing enhancers have recently been characterized as "super-enhancers," suggesting an important role in the maintenance of pluripotency. Using experimental methods, we focally investigated a well-characterized enhancer linked to the Nanog locus and confirmed its exclusive eRNA productivity in ESCs. We further demonstrate that the binding of Sall4 and Tet family proteins were required for eRNA productivity at this locus. Collectively, we demonstrate that Tet1 binding and DNA hypomethylation are hallmarks of eRNA production.