Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, H, M, Po, R, Rb||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Unpurified mouse monoclonal IgG1 liquid in ascites fluid. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Antibody, clone GA5 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior.|
Baek, JH; Schmidt, E; Viceconte, N; Strandgren, C; Pernold, K; Richard, TJ; Van Leeuwen, FW; Dantuma, NP; Damberg, P; Hultenby, K; Ulfhake, B; Mugnaini, E; Rozell, B; Eriksson, M
Human molecular genetics 24 1305-21 2015
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824Cgreater than T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin.
|Dysregulation of astrocyte extracellular signaling in Costello syndrome.|
Krencik, R; Hokanson, KC; Narayan, AR; Dvornik, J; Rooney, GE; Rauen, KA; Weiss, LA; Rowitch, DH; Ullian, EM
Science translational medicine 7 286ra66 2015
Astrocytes produce an assortment of signals that promote neuronal maturation according to a precise developmental timeline. Is this orchestrated timing and signaling altered in human neurodevelopmental disorders? To address this question, the astroglial lineage was investigated in two model systems of a developmental disorder with intellectual disability caused by mutant Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) termed Costello syndrome: mutant HRAS human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and transgenic mice. Human iPSCs derived from patients with Costello syndrome differentiated to astroglia more rapidly in vitro than those derived from wild-type cell lines with normal HRAS, exhibited hyperplasia, and also generated an abundance of extracellular matrix remodeling factors and proteoglycans. Acute treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor and knockdown of the transcription factor SNAI2 reduced expression of several proteoglycans in Costello syndrome iPSC-derived astrocytes. Similarly, mice in which mutant HRAS was expressed selectively in astrocytes exhibited experience-independent increased accumulation of perineuronal net proteoglycans in cortex, as well as increased parvalbumin expression in interneurons, when compared to wild-type mice. Our data indicate that astrocytes expressing mutant HRAS dysregulate cortical maturation during development as shown by abnormal extracellular matrix remodeling and implicate excessive astrocyte-to-neuron signaling as a possible drug target for treating mental impairment and enhancing neuroplasticity.
|Characterization of glioma stem-like cells from human glioblastomas.|
Yamamuro, S; Okamoto, Y; Sano, E; Ochiai, Y; Ogino, A; Ohta, T; Hara, H; Ueda, T; Nakayama, T; Yoshino, A; Katayama, Y
International journal of oncology 47 91-6 2015
Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) could have potential for tumorigenesis, treatment resistance, and tumor recurrence (GSC hypothesis). However, the mechanisms underlying such potential has remained elusive and few ultrastructural features of the cells have been reported in detail. We therefore undertook observations of the antigenic characteristics and ultrastructural features of GSCs isolated from human glioblastomas. Tumor spheres formed by variable numbers of cells, exhibiting a variable appearance in both their size and shape, were frequently seen in GSCs expressing the stem cell surface markers CD133 and CD15. Increased cell nucleus atypia, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, coated vesicles, and microvilli, were noted in the GSCs. Furthermore, cells at division phases and different phases of the apoptotic process were occasionally observed. These findings could imply that GSCs have certain relations with human neural stem cells (NSCs) but are primitively different from undifferentiated NSCs. The data may provide support for the GSC hypothesis, and also facilitate the establishment of future glioblastoma treatments targeting GSCs.
|Cuprizone-induced demyelination and demyelination-associated inflammation result in different proton magnetic resonance metabolite spectra.|
Praet, J; Orije, J; Kara, F; Guglielmetti, C; Santermans, E; Daans, J; Hens, N; Verhoye, M; Berneman, Z; Ponsaerts, P; Van der Linden, A
NMR in biomedicine 28 505-13 2015
Conventional MRI is frequently used during the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis but provides only little additional pathological information. Proton MRS ((1) H-MRS), however, provides biochemical information on the lesion pathology by visualization of a spectrum of metabolites. In this study we aimed to better understand the changes in metabolite concentrations following demyelination of the white matter. Therefore, we used the cuprizone model, a well-established mouse model to mimic type III human multiple sclerosis demyelinating lesions. First, we identified CX3 CL1/CX3 CR1 signaling as a major regulator of microglial activity in the cuprizone mouse model. Compared with control groups (heterozygous CX3 CR1(+/-) C57BL/6 mice and wild type CX3 CR1(+/+) C57BL/6 mice), microgliosis, astrogliosis, oligodendrocyte cell death and demyelination were shown to be highly reduced or absent in CX3 CR1(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Second, we show that (1) H-MRS metabolite spectra are different when comparing cuprizone-treated CX3 CR1(-/-) mice showing mild demyelination with cuprizone-treated CX3 CR1(+/+) mice showing severe demyelination and demyelination-associated inflammation. Following cuprizone treatment, CX3 CR1(+/+) mice show a decrease in the Glu, tCho and tNAA concentrations as well as an increased Tau concentration. In contrast, following cuprizone treatment CX3 CR1(-/-) mice only showed a decrease in tCho and tNAA concentrations. Therefore, (1) H-MRS might possibly allow us to discriminate demyelination from demyelination-associated inflammation via changes in Tau and Glu concentration. In addition, the observed decrease in tCho concentration in cuprizone-induced demyelinating lesions should be further explored as a possible diagnostic tool for the early identification of human MS type III lesions.
|The clinical heterogeneity of coenzyme Q10 deficiency results from genotypic differences in the Coq9 gene|
Marta Luna-Sánchez 1 , Elena Díaz-Casado 1 , Emanuele Barca 2 , Miguel Ángel Tejada 3 , Ángeles Montilla-García 3 , Enrique Javier Cobos 3 , Germaine Escames 1 , Dario Acuña-Castroviejo 1 , Catarina M Quinzii 2 , Luis Carlos López
EMBO Mol Med 7(5) 670-87 2015
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is due to mutations in genes involved in CoQ biosynthesis. The disease has been associated with five major phenotypes, but a genotype-phenotype correlation is unclear. Here, we compare two mouse models with a genetic modification in Coq9 gene (Coq9(Q95X) and Coq9(R239X)), and their responses to 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-diHB). Coq9(R239X) mice manifest severe widespread CoQ deficiency associated with fatal encephalomyopathy and respond to 2,4-diHB increasing CoQ levels. In contrast, Coq9(Q95X) mice exhibit mild CoQ deficiency manifesting with reduction in CI+III activity and mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, and late-onset mild mitochondrial myopathy, which does not respond to 2,4-diHB. We show that these differences are due to the levels of COQ biosynthetic proteins, suggesting that the presence of a truncated version of COQ9 protein in Coq9(R239X) mice destabilizes the CoQ multiprotein complex. Our study points out the importance of the multiprotein complex for CoQ biosynthesis in mammals, which may provide new insights to understand the genotype-phenotype heterogeneity associated with human CoQ deficiency and may have a potential impact on the treatment of this mitochondrial disorder.
|Identification of Spinal Cord MicroRNA and Gene Signatures in a Model of Chronic Stress-Induced Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rat.|
Bradesi, S; Karagiannides, I; Bakirtzi, K; Joshi, SM; Koukos, G; Iliopoulos, D; Pothoulakis, C; Mayer, EA
PloS one 10 e0130938 2015
Animal studies have shown that stress could induce epigenetic and transcriptomic alterations essential in determining the balance between adaptive or maladaptive responses to stress. We tested the hypothesis that chronic stress in rats deregulates coding and non-coding gene expression in the spinal cord, which may underline neuroinflammation and nociceptive changes previously observed in this model.Male Wistar rats were exposed to daily stress or handled, for 10 days. At day 11, lumbar spinal segments were collected and processed for mRNA/miRNA isolation followed by expression profiling using Agilent SurePrint Rat Exon and Rat miRNA Microarray platforms. Differentially expressed gene lists were generated using the dChip program. Microarrays were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) tool from Ingenuity Systems. Multiple methods were used for the analysis of miRNA-mRNA functional modules. Quantitative real time RT-PCR for Interleukin 6 signal transducer (gp130), the Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3 (STAT3), glial fibrillary acidic protein and mir-17-5p were performed to confirm levels of expression.Gene network analysis revealed that stress deregulated different inflammatory (IL-6, JAK/STAT, TNF) and metabolic (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways. MicroRNA array analysis revealed a signature of 39 deregulated microRNAs in stressed rats. MicroRNA-gene network analysis showed that microRNAs are regulators of two gene networks relevant to inflammatory processes. Specifically, our analysis of miRNA-mRNA functional modules identified miR-17-5p as an important regulator in our model. We verified miR-17-5p increased expression in stress using qPCR and in situ hybridization. In addition, we observed changes in the expression of gp130 and STAT3 (involved in intracellular signaling cascades in response to gp130 activation), both predicted targets for miR-17-5p. A modulatory role of spinal mir17-5p in the modulation of visceral sensitivity was confirmed in vivo.Using an integrative high throughput approach, our findings suggest a link between miR-17-5p increased expression and gp130/STAT3 activation providing new insight into the possible mechanisms mediating the effect of chronic stress on neuroinflammation in the spinal cord.
|Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline.|
Cho, KO; Lybrand, ZR; Ito, N; Brulet, R; Tafacory, F; Zhang, L; Good, L; Ure, K; Kernie, SG; Birnbaum, SG; Scharfman, HE; Eisch, AJ; Hsieh, J
Nature communications 6 6606 2015
Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult.
|miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement.|
Gu, QH; Yu, D; Hu, Z; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Luo, Y; Zhu, J; Li, Z
Nature communications 6 6789 2015
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of synaptic plasticity that results in enhanced synaptic strength. It is associated with the formation and enlargement of dendritic spines-tiny protrusions accommodating excitatory synapses. Both LTP and spine remodelling are crucial for brain development, cognition and the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the maintenance of LTP, however, is not well understood. Using next-generation sequencing to profile miRNA transcriptomes, we demonstrate that miR-26a and miR-384-5p specifically affect the maintenance, but not induction, of LTP and different stages of spine enlargement by regulating the expression of RSK3. Using bioinformatics, we also examine the global effects of miRNA transcriptome changes during LTP on gene expression and cellular activities. This study reveals a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism for gene-specific regulation of translation in LTP, identifies two miRNAs required for long-lasting synaptic and spine plasticity and presents a catalogue of candidate 'LTP miRNAs'.
|Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.|
Lazarus, RC; Buonora, JE; Jacobowitz, DM; Mueller, GP
Free radical biology & medicine 78 89-100 2015
Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional and protein specificity in protein carbonylation after TBI. The marked increase in carbonylation seen in ependymal layers distant from the lesion suggests a mechanism involving the transmission of a cerebral spinal fluid-borne factor to these sites. Furthermore, this process is affected by gender, suggesting that hormonal mechanisms may serve a protective role against oxidative stress.
|Spinal autophagy is differently modulated in distinct mouse models of neuropathic pain.|
Berliocchi, L; Maiarù, M; Varano, GP; Russo, R; Corasaniti, MT; Bagetta, G; Tassorelli, C
Molecular pain 11 3 2015
Autophagy is a homeostatic degradative process essential for basal turnover of long-lived proteins and organelles as well as for removal of dysfunctional cellular components. Dysregulation of the autophagic machinery has been recently associated to several conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, but only very few studies have investigated its role in pain processing.We previously described autophagy impairment at the spinal cord in the experimental model of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). In this study, we characterized the main autophagic markers in two other common experimental models of neuropathic pain, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) and the spared nerve injury (SNI). The different modulation of LC3-I, Beclin 1 and p62 suggested that autophagy is differentially affected in the spinal dorsal horn depending on the type of peripheral injury. Confocal analysis of p62 distribution in the spinal dorsal horn indicated its presence mainly in NeuN-positive cell bodies and occasionally in glial processes, thus suggesting a predominant expression in the neuronal compartment. Finally, we investigated the consequences of autophagy impairment on pain behaviour by using the autophagy blocker cloroquine. Intrathecal chloroquine injection in naïve mice induced spinal accumulation of LC3 and p62 paralleled by significant mechanical hypersensitivity thus confirming the block in autophagosome clearance and suggesting the participation of the autophagic process in spinal mechanisms of pain processing. Altogether, our data indicate that spinal autophagy is differentially altered in different experimental pain models of neuropathic pain and that this process may be relevant for pain control.