β-catenin is the founding member of the β -catenin family. This protein is comprised of 12 ARM repeats and is considered to have dual function depending on its localization. Cytoplasmic β -catenin is a critical component of E-cadherin/catening adhesion complexes and is involved in regulating cadherin-dependent cell-cell interactions.When localized to the nucleus, β -catenin serves a regulatory role by binding with transcription factors from the TCF/LEF family, activating transcription. Expression of β -catenin has been reported in a variety of hair follicle cells such as cells found in the inner and outer portions of the root sheaths, and the basal and peripheral matrix cells. It has also been observed in colon tissue. Defects in expression have been linked to the development of several tumors and cancers such as; colorectal cancer (CRC), medulloblastoma (MDB), ovarian cancer (OC), and pilomatrixoma (PTR).
A431 cell lysate
Purified rabbit polyclonal in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.
The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex of proteins that constitute adherens junctions (AJs). AJs are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers by regulating cell growth and adhesion between cells. The encoded protein also anchors the actin cytoskeleton and may be responsible for transmitting the contact inhibition signal that causes cells to stop dividing once the epithelial sheet is complete. Finally, this protein binds to the product of the APC gene, which is mutated in adenomatous polyposis of the colon. Mutations in this gene are a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC), pilomatrixoma (PTR), medulloblastoma (MDB), and ovarian cancer. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.
FUNCTION: Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and in signal transduction through the Wnt pathway.
SIZE: 781 amino acids; 85497 Da
SUBUNIT: Two separate pools are found in the cytoplasm: one is PSEN1/cadherin/catenin complex which anchors to the actin cytoskeleton. The other pool is part of a large complex containing AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Wnt- dependent activation of DVL antagonizes the action of GSK3B. When GSK3B activity is inhibited the complex dissociates, CTNNB1 is dephosphorylated and is no longer targeted for destruction. The stabilized protein translocates to the nucleus, where it binds TCF/LEF-1 family members, TBP, BCL9 and possibly also RUVBL1 and DUPLIN. Binds CTNNBIP and EP300. CTNNB1 forms a ternary complex with LEF1 and EP300 that is disrupted by CTNNBIP1 binding (By similarity). Interacts with the PDZ domain of TAX1BP3; this interaction inhibits the transcriptional activity of CTNNB1 (By similarity). Interacts with AJAP1, BAIAP1, CARM1, CTNNA3, CXADR and PCDH11Y. Binds SLC9A3R1. Interacts with GLIS2. Interacts with SLC30A9 (By similarity).
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Cytoplasmic when it is unstabilized (high level of phosphorylation) or bound to CDH1. Translocates to the nucleus when it is stabilized (low level of phosphorylation). Interaction with GLIS2 promotes nuclear translocation.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in several hair follicle cell types: basal and peripheral matrix cells, and cells of the outer and inner root sheats. Expressed in colon.
PTM: Phosphorylation by GSK3B requires prior phosphorylation of Ser-45 by another kinase. Phosphorylation proceeds then from Thr- 41 to Ser-37 and Ser-33. & EGF stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation on Tyr-654 decreases CDH1 binding and enhances TBP binding. & Ubiquitinated by a E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing UBE2D1, SIAH1, CACYBP/SIP, SKP1A, APC and TBL1X (Probable). Its ubiquitination leads to its subsequent proteasomal degradation.
DISEASE: Activating mutations in CTNNB1 have oncogenic activity resulting in tumor development. Somatic mutations are found in various tumor types, including colon cancers, ovarian and prostate carcinomas, hepatoblastoma (HB), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBs are malignant embryonal tumors mainly affecting young children in the first three years of life. & Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of pilomatrixoma (PTR) [MIM:132600]; a common benign skin tumor. & Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children. & A chromosomal rearrangement involving CTNNB1 may be a cause of salivary gland pleiomorphic adenomas (PA) . Pleiomorphic adenomas are the most common benign epithelial tumors of the salivary gland. Translocation t(3;8)(p21;q12) with PLAG1."
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the beta-catenin family. & Contains 12 ARM repeats.
Safety Information according to GHS
Product Usage Statements
Evaluated by Western Blot in A431 cell lysate.
Western Blot Analysis: 0.05 µg/mL of this antibody detected β-Catenin on 10 µg of A431 cell lysate.
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Millipore’s β-catenin antibodies, kits and proteins are high quality, validated tools for beta-catenin research. See below for a list of β-catenin antibodies, from the expertise of Upstate & Chemicon. Learn More >>