|An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4.|
Lasagni, Laura, et al.
J. Exp. Med., 197: 1537-49 (2003)
The chemokines CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL11/I-TAC regulate lymphocyte chemotaxis, mediate vascular pericyte proliferation, and act as angiostatic agents, thus inhibiting tumor growth. These multiple activities are apparently mediated by a unique G protein-coupled receptor, termed CXCR3. The chemokine CXCL4/PF4 shares several activities with CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, including a powerful angiostatic effect, but its specific receptor is still unknown. Here, we describe a distinct, previously unrecognized receptor named CXCR3-B, derived from an alternative splicing of the CXCR3 gene that mediates the angiostatic activity of CXCR3 ligands and also acts as functional receptor for CXCL4. Human microvascular endothelial cell line-1 (HMEC-1), transfected with either the known CXCR3 (renamed CXCR3-A) or CXCR3-B, bound CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, whereas CXCL4 showed high affinity only for CXCR3-B. Overexpression of CXCR3-A induced an increase of survival, whereas overexpression of CXCR3-B dramatically reduced DNA synthesis and up-regulated apoptotic HMEC-1 death through activation of distinct signal transduction pathways. Remarkably, primary cultures of human microvascular endothelial cells, whose growth is inhibited by CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL4, expressed CXCR3-B, but not CXCR3-A. Finally, monoclonal antibodies raised to selectively recognize CXCR3-B reacted with endothelial cells from neoplastic tissues, providing evidence that CXCR3-B is also expressed in vivo and may account for the angiostatic effects of CXC chemokines.
|Molecular cloning and identification of a serine/threonine protein kinase of the second-messenger subfamily.|
Jones, P F, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 88: 4171-5 (1991)
A partial cDNA was isolated that encoded a protein kinase, termed rac (related to the A and C kinases). This cDNA was subsequently used to screen libraries derived from the human cell lines MCF-7 and WI38 and led to the isolation of full-length cDNA clones. DNA sequence analysis identified an open reading frame of 1440 base pairs encoding a protein of 480 amino acids (Mr, 55,716). This result was supported by the synthesis of a Mr 58,000 protein in an in vitro translation system that used RNA transcribed from cloned cDNAs with SP6 RNA polymerase. The predicted protein contains consensus sequences characteristic of a protein kinase catalytic domain and shows 73% and 68% similarity to protein kinase C and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, respectively. Northern (RNA) analysis revealed a single mRNA transcript of 3.2 kilobases that varied up to 300-fold between different cell lines. Specific antisera directed towards the carboxyl terminal of the rac protein kinase were prepared and used to identify that phosphorylated several substrates in immunoprecipitates prepared with the rac-specific antisera.