Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||WB, IHC, FUNC||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Antibody|
|Presentation||Lyophilized, no preservatives. Reconstitute with 50 μL of sterile distilled water.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the development of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).|
Frias, B; Santos, J; Morgado, M; Sousa, MM; Gray, SM; McCloskey, KD; Allen, S; Cruz, F; Cruz, CD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 2146-60 2015
Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is well known that neurotrophins (NTs) are major regulators of such changes. NGF is the best-studied NT in the bladder and its role in NDO has already been established. Another very abundant neurotrophin is BDNF. Despite being shown that, acting at the spinal cord level, BDNF is a key mediator of bladder dysfunction and pain during cystitis, it is presently unclear if it is also important for NDO. This study aimed to clarify this issue. Results obtained pinpoint BDNF as an important regulator of NDO appearance and maintenance. Spinal BDNF expression increased in a time-dependent manner together with NDO emergence. In chronic SCI rats, BDNF sequestration improved bladder function, indicating that, at later stages, BDNF contributes NDO maintenance. During spinal shock, BDNF sequestration resulted in early development of bladder hyperactivity, accompanied by increased axonal growth of calcitonin gene-related peptide-labeled fibers in the dorsal horn. Chronic BDNF administration inhibited the emergence of NDO, together with reduction of axonal growth, suggesting that BDNF may have a crucial role in bladder function after SCI via inhibition of neuronal sprouting. These findings highlight the role of BDNF in NDO and may provide a significant contribution to create more efficient therapies to manage SCI patients.
|Electroacupuncture-like stimulation at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints exerts neuroprotective effects through activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated MEK1/2/ERK1/2/p90RSK/bad signaling pathway in mild transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.|
Cheng, CY; Lin, JG; Su, SY; Tang, NY; Kao, ST; Hsieh, CL
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 14 92 2014
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture-like stimulation at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints (EA at acupoints) following mild cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Furthermore, we investigated whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the neuroprotection induced by EA at acupoints.Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 3 d. EA at acupoints was applied 1 d postreperfusion then once daily for 2 consecutive days.Following the application of EA at acupoints, initiated 1 d postreperfusion, we observed significant reductions in the cerebral infarct area, neurological deficit scores, active caspase-3 protein expression, and apoptosis in the ischemic cortex after 3 d of reperfusion. We also observed markedly upregulated BDNF, phospho-Raf-1 (pRaf-1), phospho-MEK1/2 (pMEK1/2), phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (pp90RSK), and phospho-Bad (pBad) expression, and restored neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) expression. Pretreatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abrogated the effects of EA at acupoints on cerebral infarct size, neurological deficits, active caspase-3 protein, and apoptosis in the ischemic cortex after 3 d of reperfusion. Pretreatment with U0126 also abrogated the effects of EA at acupoints on pMEK1/2, pERK1/2, pp90RSK, pBad, and NeuN expression, but did not influence BDNF and pRaf-1 expression.Overall, our study results indicated that EA at acupoints, initiated 1 d postreperfusion, upregulates BDNF expression to provide BDNF-mediated neuroprotection against caspase-3-dependent neuronal apoptosis through activation of the Raf-1/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/p90RSK/Bad signaling cascade after 3 d of reperfusion in mild MCAo.
|A novel approach to induction and rehabilitation of deficits in forelimb function in a rat model of ischemic stroke.|
Livingston-Thomas, JM; Hume, AW; Doucette, TA; Tasker, RA
Acta pharmacologica Sinica 34 104-12 2013
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), which forces use of the impaired arm following unilateral stroke, promotes functional recovery in the clinic but animal models of CIMT have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study is to develop a refined endothelin-1 (ET-1) model of focal ischemic injury in rats that resulted in reproducible, well-defined lesions and reliable upper extremity impairments, and to determine if an appetitively motivated form of rehabilitation (voluntary forced use movement therapy; FUMT) would accelerate post-ischemic motor recovery.Male Sprague Dawley rats (3 months old) were given multiple intracerebral microinjections of ET-1 into the sensorimotor cortex and dorsolateral striatum. Sham-operated rats received the same surgical procedure up to but not including the drill holes on the skull. Functional deficits were assessed using two tests of forelimb placing, a forelimb postural reflex test, a forelimb asymmetry test, and a horizontal ladder test. In a separate experiment ET-1 stroke rats were subjected to daily rehabilitation with FUMT or with a control therapy beginning on post-surgery d 5. Performance and post-mortem analysis of lesion volume and regional BDNF expression were measured.Following microinjections of ET-1 animals exhibited significant deficits in contralateral forelimb function on a variety of tests compared with the sham group. These deficits persisted for up to 20 d with no mortality and were associated with consistent lesion volumes. FUMT therapy resulted in a modest but significantly accelerated recovery in the forelimb function as compared with the control therapy, but did not affect lesion size or BDNF expression in the ipsilesional hemisphere.We conclude that refined ET-1 microinjection protocols and forcing use of the impaired forelimb in an appetitively motivated paradigm may prove useful in developing strategies to study post-ischemic rehabilitation and neuroplasticity.
|Transient domoic acid excitotoxicity increases BDNF expression and activates both MEK- and PKA-dependent neurogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slices.|
Pérez-Gómez, A; Tasker, RA
BMC neuroscience 14 72 2013
We have previously reported evidence of cell proliferation and increased neurogenesis in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) after a transient excitotoxic injury to the hippocampal CA1 area induced by low concentrations of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM). An increased baseline rate of neurogenesis may contribute to recovery from DOM-induced mild injury but the intracellular mechanism(s) responsible for neuronal proliferation remain unclear. The current study investigated the key intracellular pathways responsible for DOM-induced neurogenesis in OHSC including the effects of transient excitotoxicity on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known regulator of progenitor cell mitosis.Application of a low concentration of DOM (2 μM) for 24 h followed by recovery induced a significant and long lasting increase in BDNF protein levels expressed by both neurons and microglial cells. Furthermore, the mild DOM toxicity stimulated both PKA and MEK-dependent intracellular signaling cascades and induced a significant increase in BDNF- transcription factor CREB activation and BDNF-receptor TrkB expression. Coexposure to specific inhibitors of PKA and MEK phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in the neurogenic marker doublecortin.Our results suggest that transient excitotoxic insult induced by DOM produces BDNF and CREB overexpression via MEK and PKA pathways and that both pathways mediate, at least in part, the increased neural proliferation resulting from mild excitotoxicity.
|Different roles of BDNF in nucleus accumbens core versus shell during the incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving and its long-term maintenance.|
Li, X; DeJoseph, MR; Urban, JH; Bahi, A; Dreyer, JL; Meredith, GE; Ford, KA; Ferrario, CR; Loweth, JA; Wolf, ME
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 1130-42 2013
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) contributes to diverse types of plasticity, including cocaine addiction. We investigated the role of BDNF in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the incubation of cocaine craving over 3 months of withdrawal from extended access cocaine self-administration. First, we confirmed by immunoblotting that BDNF levels are elevated after this cocaine regimen on withdrawal day 45 (WD45) and showed that BDNF mRNA levels are not altered. Next, we explored the time course of elevated BDNF expression using immunohistochemistry. Elevation of BDNF in the NAc core was detected on WD45 and further increased on WD90, whereas elevation in shell was not detected until WD90. Surface expression of activated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) was also enhanced on WD90. Next, we used viral vectors to attenuate BDNF-TrkB signaling. Virus injection into the NAc core enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD1 compared with controls, whereas no effect was observed on WD30 or WD90. Attenuating BDNF-TrkB signaling in shell did not affect cocaine seeking on WD1 or WD45 but significantly decreased cocaine seeking on WD90. These results suggest that basal levels of BDNF transmission in the NAc core exert a suppressive effect on cocaine seeking in early withdrawal (WD1), whereas the late elevation of BDNF protein in NAc shell contributes to incubation in late withdrawal (WD90). Finally, BDNF protein levels in the NAc were significantly increased after ampakine treatment, supporting the novel hypothesis that the gradual increase of BDNF levels in NAc accompanying incubation could be caused by increased AMPAR transmission during withdrawal.
|Escalated or suppressed cocaine reward, tegmental BDNF, and accumbal dopamine caused by episodic versus continuous social stress in rats.|
Miczek, KA; Nikulina, EM; Shimamoto, A; Covington, HE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 9848-57 2011
The neural link between ostensibly aversive stress experiences and intensely rewarding drug taking remains to be delineated. Epidemiological data associate stress and the abuse of various drugs, and experimental data identify the conditions that determine how episodic social stress intensifies the motivation for cocaine and the actual self-administration of cocaine. Two types of social stress have been the focus of experimental study in Long-Evans rats, since they engender divergent changes in drug- or sugar-rewarded behavior and in neuroadaptation. Episodic social defeat stress consists of four brief confrontations between the experimental rat and an aggressive resident rat of the Long-Evans strain over the course of 10 d. Subordination stress involves the continuous exposure to an aggressive resident for 5 weeks, while living in a protective cage within the resident's home cage with brief daily confrontations. These stress experiences result in (1) increased intravenous cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule with prolonged binge-like access in episodically defeated intruder rats but suppressed cocaine intake by continuously subordinate rats; (2) deteriorated sugar preference and intake and decreased exploratory behavior in subordinate, but not intermittently defeated, rats; and (3) a sensitized dopamine (DA) response in the nucleus accumbens via in vivo microdialysis and increased tegmental brain-derived neural growth factor (BDNF) in episodically defeated rats, whereas the continuously subordinate rats show suppression of the DA and BDNF responses. These divergent neuroadaptations to social stress may represent the substrates for the intensification of cocaine "bingeing" relative to the anhedonia-like deterioration of reward processes during subordination stress.
|Roles of BDNF in spinal neuroplasticity in cats subjected to partial dorsal ganglionectomy.|
Rong Rong,Bu-Liang Meng,Nan Jiang,Li-Qun Hu,Ting-Hua Wang
Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 29 2011
This study investigated the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neuroplasticity in cats subjected to the removal of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Following partial ganglionectomy, the number of BDNF-positive varicosities from spared L6 DRG decreased significantly. This reduction was observed at 3 days post operation (dpo) in spinal lamina II of L3 and L5. Whereas the percentages of positive neurons for BDNF and its mRNA in spared L6 DRG at 10 dpo were significantly increased, and accumulated BDNF was seen on the DRG side of the ligated axons. Importantly, BDNF antibody neutralization in vivo results in a significant reduction in the number of varicosities in spinal lamina II, evidenced by BDNF and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggested that peripheral-derived BDNF could play a critical role in spinal neuroplasticity in cats subjected to partial ganglionectomy. This may underlie the basis of molecular therapy depending on gene drug-like BDNF release.
|Cocaine-induced chromatin remodeling increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription in the rat medial prefrontal cortex, which alters the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine.|
Sadri-Vakili, G; Kumaresan, V; Schmidt, HD; Famous, KR; Chawla, P; Vassoler, FM; Overland, RP; Xia, E; Bass, CE; Terwilliger, EF; Pierce, RC; Cha, JH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 11735-44 2010
Cocaine self-administration alters patterns of gene expression in the brain that may underlie cocaine-induced neuronal plasticity. In the present study, male Sprague Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) 2 h/d for 14 d, followed by 7 d of forced abstinence. Compared with yoked saline control rats, cocaine self-administration resulted in increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To examine the functional relevance of this finding, cocaine self-administration maintained under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement was assessed after short hairpin RNA-induced suppression of BDNF expression in the mPFC. Decreased BDNF expression in the mPFC increased the cocaine self-administration breakpoint. Next, the effect of cocaine self-administration on specific BDNF exons was assessed; results revealed selectively increased BDNF exon IV-containing transcripts in the mPFC. Moreover, there were significant cocaine-induced increases in acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) and phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) association with BDNF promoter IV. In contrast, there was decreased methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) association with BDNF promoter IV in the mPFC of rats that previously self-administered cocaine. Together, these results indicate that cocaine-induced increases in BDNF promoter IV transcript in the mPFC are driven by increased binding of AcH3 and pCREB as well as decreased MeCP2 binding at this BDNF promoter. Collectively, these results indicate that cocaine self-administration remodels chromatin in the mPFC, resulting in increased expression of BDNF, which appears to represent a compensatory neuroadaptation that reduces the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine.Full Text Article
|Immunolocalization of pro- and mature-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor TrkB in the human brainstem and hippocampus.|
Tang S, Machaalani R, Waters KA
Brain Res 1354 1-14. Epub 2010 Jul 29. 2010
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB are essential in promoting normal development of the central nervous system. Specific functions that are affected in knockout models include respiratory control, coordination of movement and balance, and feeding activities. The expression of these markers has not yet been studied in the human infant brain. This study provides a detailed account of the distribution and localization of both pro- and mature-recombinant human (rh) forms of BDNF, and of TrkB in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, and qualitatively compares this expression to that seen in the human adult. Using commercially available antibodies, we applied immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human brain tissue [n=8 for infant, n=6 for adult], and qualitatively analyzed the expression of proBDNF, rhBDNF and TrkB. Amongst the brainstem regions studied, the greatest expression of the markers was in the mesencephalic trigeminal of the pons, and in the medulla, the inferior olive and arcuate nucleus. The lowest expression was in the substantia nigra of the midbrain and pontine locus coeruleus. Compared to adults, all the studied markers had a higher expression in the infant brainstem nuclei of the hypoglossal, vestibular, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, prepositus, cuneate, and dorsal raphe. In the hippocampus, only TrkB showed a higher expression in infants compared to adults. We conclude that BDNF and TrkB play important roles in controlling respiration, movement, balance and feeding in the brainstem and that the TrkB receptor is the most age-sensitive component of this system, especially in the hippocampus.
|A switch in retrograde signaling from survival to stress in rapid-onset neurodegeneration.|
Perlson, E; Jeong, GB; Ross, JL; Dixit, R; Wallace, KE; Kalb, RG; Holzbaur, EL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 9903-17 2009
Retrograde axonal transport of cellular signals driven by dynein is vital for neuronal survival. Mouse models with defects in the retrograde transport machinery, including the Loa mouse (point mutation in dynein) and the Tg(dynamitin) mouse (overexpression of dynamitin), exhibit mild neurodegenerative disease. Transport defects have also been observed in more rapidly progressive neurodegeneration, such as that observed in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we test the hypothesis that alterations in retrograde signaling lead to neurodegeneration. In vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging motility assays show misregulation of transport and inhibition of retrograde signaling in the SOD1(G93A) model. However, similar inhibition is also seen in the Loa and Tg(dynamitin) mouse models. Thus, slowing of retrograde signaling leads only to mild degeneration and cannot explain ALS etiology. To further pursue this question, we used a proteomics approach to investigate dynein-associated retrograde signaling. These data indicate a significant decrease in retrograde survival factors, including P-Trk (phospho-Trk) and P-Erk1/2, and an increase in retrograde stress factor signaling, including P-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase), caspase-8, and p75(NTR) cleavage fragment in the SOD1(G93A) model; similar changes are not seen in the Loa mouse. Cocultures of motor neurons and glia expressing mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) in compartmentalized chambers indicate that inhibition of retrograde stress signaling is sufficient to block activation of cellular stress pathways and to rescue motor neurons from mSOD1-induced toxicity. Hence, a shift from survival-promoting to death-promoting retrograde signaling may be key to the rapid onset of neurodegeneration seen in ALS.Full Text Article
|RABBIT ANTI-BRAIN DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR|