Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R, H||ELISA, IHC, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit polyclonal antiserum in buffer containing no preservatives. Lyophilized. Reconstitute with 50 μL of sterile distilled water.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
Anti-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|A role for the p75 neurotrophin receptor in axonal degeneration and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress.|
Kraemer, BR; Snow, JP; Vollbrecht, P; Pathak, A; Valentine, WM; Deutch, AY; Carter, BD
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 21205-16 2014
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) mediates the death of specific populations of neurons during the development of the nervous system or after cellular injury. The receptor has also been implicated as a contributor to neurodegeneration caused by numerous pathological conditions. Because many of these conditions are associated with increases in reactive oxygen species, we investigated whether p75(NTR) has a role in neurodegeneration in response to oxidative stress. Here we demonstrate that p75(NTR) signaling is activated by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product generated naturally during oxidative stress. Exposure of sympathetic neurons to HNE resulted in neurite degeneration and apoptosis. However, these effects were reduced markedly in neurons from p75(NTR-/-) mice. The neurodegenerative effects of HNE were not associated with production of neurotrophins and were unaffected by pretreatment with a receptor-blocking antibody, suggesting that oxidative stress activates p75(NTR) via a ligand-independent mechanism. Previous studies have established that proteolysis of p75(NTR) by the metalloprotease TNFα-converting enzyme and γ-secretase is necessary for p75(NTR)-mediated apoptotic signaling. Exposure of sympathetic neurons to HNE resulted in metalloprotease- and γ-secretase-dependent cleavage of p75(NTR). Pharmacological blockade of p75(NTR) proteolysis protected sympathetic neurons from HNE-induced neurite degeneration and apoptosis, suggesting that cleavage of p75(NTR) is necessary for oxidant-induced neurodegeneration. In vivo, p75(NTR-/-) mice exhibited resistance to axonal degeneration associated with oxidative injury following administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. Together, these data suggest a novel mechanism linking oxidative stress to ligand-independent cleavage of p75(NTR), resulting in axonal fragmentation and neuronal death.
|Sex-dependent impacts of low-level lead exposure and prenatal stress on impulsive choice behavior and associated biochemical and neurochemical manifestations.|
Weston, HI; Weston, DD; Allen, JL; Cory-Slechta, DA
Neurotoxicology 44 169-83 2014
A prior study demonstrated increased overall response rates on a fixed interval (FI) schedule of reward in female offspring that had been subjected to maternal lead (Pb) exposure, prenatal stress (PS) and offspring stress challenge relative to control, prenatal stress alone, lead alone and lead+prenatal stress alone (Virgolini et al., 2008). Response rates on FI schedules have been shown to directly relate to measures of self-control (impulsivity) in children and in infants (Darcheville et al., 1992, 1993). The current study sought to determine whether enhanced effects of Pb±PS would therefore be seen in a more direct measure of impulsive choice behavior, i.e., a delay discounting paradigm. Offspring of dams exposed to 0 or 50ppm Pb acetate from 2 to 3 months prior to breeding through lactation, with or without immobilization restraint stress (PS) on gestational days 16 and 17, were trained on a delay discounting paradigm that offered a choice between a large reward (three 45mg food pellets) after a long delay or a small reward (one 45mg food pellet) after a short delay, with the long delay value increased from 0s to 30s across sessions. Alterations in extinction of this performance, and its subsequent re-acquisition after reinforcement delivery was reinstated were also examined. Brains of littermates of behaviorally-trained offspring were utilized to examine corresponding changes in monoamines and in levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) 2A in brain regions associated with impulsive choice behavior. Results showed that Pb±PS-induced changes in delay discounting occurred almost exclusively in males. In addition to increasing percent long delay responding at the indifference point (i.e., reduced impulsive choice behavior), Pb±PS slowed acquisition of delayed discounting performance, and increased numbers of both failures to and latencies to initiate trials. Overall, the profile of these alterations were more consistent with impaired learning/behavioral flexibility and/or with enhanced sensitivity to the downshift in reward opportunities imposed by the transition from delay discounting training conditions to delay discounting choice response contingencies. Consistent with these behavioral changes, Pb±PS treated males also showed reductions in brain serotonin function in all mesocorticolimbic regions, broad monoamine changes in nucleus accumbens, and reductions in both BDNF and NMDAR 2A levels and increases in SERT in frontal cortex, i.e., in regions and neurotransmitter systems known to mediate learning/behavioral flexibility, and which were of greater impact in males. The current findings do not fully support a generality of the enhancement of Pb effects by PS, as previously seen with FI performance in females (Virgolini et al., 2008), and suggest a dissociation of the behaviors controlled by FI and delay discounting paradigms, at least in response to Pb±PS in rats. Collectively, however, the findings remain consistent with sex-dependent differences in the impacts of both Pb and PS and with the need to understand both the role of contingencies of reinforcement and underlying neurobiological effects in these sex differences.
|Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty acids.|
Roberta M Cysneiros,Danuza Ferrari,Ricardo M Arida,Vera C Terra,Antonio-Carlos G de Almeida,Esper A Cavalheiro,Fulvio A Scorza
Epilepsy & behavior : E&B 17 2010
Studies have provided evidence of the important effects of omega-3 fatty acid on the brain in neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Previous data have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids lead to prevention of status epilepticus-associated neuropathological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats with epilepsy. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has resulted in extensive preservation of GABAergic cells in animals with epilepsy. This study investigated the interplay of these effects with neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The results clearly showed a positive effect of long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain plasticity in animals with epilepsy. Enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF levels and preservation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin were observed. Parvalbumin-positive cells were identified as surviving instead of newly formed cells. Additional investigations are needed to determine the electrophysiological properties of the newly formed cells and to clarify whether the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain plasticity are accompanied by functional gain in animals with epilepsy.
|Dynamic regulation of bHLH-PAS-type transcription factor NXF gene expression and neurotrophin dependent induction of the transcriptional control activity.|
Norihisa Ooe,Kentaro Kobayashi,Kozo Motonaga,Koichi Saito,Hideo Kaneko
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 378 2009
While neurotrophin is known to be involved in a variety of neuronal functions inducing several immediate early genes and activating several signaling molecules, the correspondence with downstream cascades remains to be defined in detail. Here we show that a bHLH-PAS transcription factor, NXF, is a new member genes under the control of neurotrophin. The PI3K-Akt system, an important cell-protection-signaling cascade under the control of the neurotrophin receptor, was also revealed to contribute to the mechanism of NXF mRNA induction. Activation of MAPK under the control of the neurotrophin receptor resulted in NXF protein phosphorylation as well as enhancement of NXF transcriptional activity. This newly identified NXF gene system may provide a new insight into neurotrophin biology, which reflects the target gene functions.
|Tapered progesterone withdrawal promotes long-term recovery following brain trauma.|
Sarah M Cutler, Jacob W Vanlandingham, Donald G Stein
Experimental neurology 200 378-85 2006
We previously demonstrated that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), acute progesterone withdrawal (AW) causes an increase in anxiety behaviors and cerebro-cellular inflammation compared to tapered progesterone withdrawal (TW). Our current study investigates the behavioral and cellular effects of AW two weeks after termination of treatments to determine the longer-term influence of withdrawal after injury. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either bilateral frontal cortex contusion (L) or sham (S) surgery. Rats were injected at 1 and 6 h post-injury, then every 24 h for six days. Vehicle (V)-treated rats were given 9 injections of 22.5% cyclodextrin, whereas AW rats received 9 injections of 16 mg/kg progesterone and TW rats received 7 injections of P at 16 mg/kg, followed by one at 8 mg/kg and one at 4 mg/kg. On day 8, sensory neglect and locomotor activity tests were initiated. Animals were killed 22 days post-TBI and the brains prepared for either molecular or histological analysis. Western blotting revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in TW vs. AW animals. P53 was increased in VL animals, whereas all progesterone-treated groups were equivalent to shams. TW animals had markedly decreased sensory neglect compared to AW animals and increased center time in locomotor activity assays. In addition, lesion reconstruction revealed a decreased lesion size for TWL over AWL over VL animals. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescent staining followed this pattern as well. In conclusion, after TBI, AW affects select behaviors and molecular markers in the chronic recovery period.
|Neuronal loss and expression of neurotrophic factors in a model of rat chronic compressive spinal cord injury.|
Kazuma Kasahara, Takao Nakagawa, Toshihiko Kubota, Kazuma Kasahara, Takao Nakagawa, Toshihiko Kubota
Spine 31 2059-66 2006
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental animal study about neuronal loss and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the chronic compressive spinal cords. OBJECTIVES: To investigate neuronal loss and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the chronic compressive spinal cords of rats, and to evaluate effects of decompressive procedures for the neuronal loss. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic compression of spinal cords induces the loss of motor neurons in the anterior horn. However, the precise mechanism of this neuronal loss is not still understood completely. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether decompressive procedures prevent this neuronal loss or not. METHODS: A thin expanding polymer sheet was implanted microsurgically underneath T7 laminae of rats. After 6, 9, 12, and 15 weeks, the thoracic spinal cord was harvested and examined histopathologically. The expression of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, NT-3, GDNF, CNTF, and VEGF, was analyzed using semiquantitative RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassay, and immunohistochemistry. Decompressive surgery was performed through the removal of T7 laminae and the compression materials 6, 9, and 12 weeks after starting compression. Three weeks later, respectively, the neuronal loss in the anterior horn was estimated. RESULTS: The spinal cords were progressively flattened by the expanding of the implanted polymer sheet, and the number of motor neurons in the anterior horn decreased, especially from 6 to 9 weeks after starting compression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of NGF and BDNF mRNAs was decreased significantly in the spinal cords of 12-week compression group compared with the 6-week compression group and that NGF mRNA expression was up-regulated significantly in the 6-week compression group relative to the 6-week control group. Any changes of expression of other neurotrophic factors were not significant. Since BDNF, not NGF, has been known to be one of the powerful survival factors for spinal motoneurons, we investigated the levels of BDNF protein in the compressive spinal cords using enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated the level of BDNF protein in the compressive spinal cords was increased 6 weeks after compression but declined after 12 weeks. The decompressive procedure in the 6 weeks after compression prevented neuronal loss, but the same procedure in the 9 or 12 weeks was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: From the point of view of neuronal loss, decompressive surgery at an earlier stage, when compensatory mechanisms including the up-regulation of BDNF might be still effective, could provide better therapeutic results against chronic mechanical compressive spinal cord lesions.
|Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4 in lumbar motoneurons after low-thoracic spinal cord hemisection.|
Rosario Gulino, Salvatore Andrea Lombardo, Antonino Casabona, Giampiero Leanza, Vincenzo Perciavalle
Brain research 1013 174-81 2004
Neuroplasticity represents a common phenomenon after spinal cord (SC) injury or deafferentation that compensates for the loss of modulatory inputs to the cord. Neurotrophins play a crucial role in cell survival and anatomical reorganization of damaged spinal cord, and are known to exert an activity-dependent modulation of neuroplasticity. Little is known about their role in the earliest plastic events, probably involving synaptic plasticity, which are responsible for the rapid recovery of hindlimb motility after hemisection, in the rat. In order to gain further insight, we evaluated the changes in BDNF and NT-4 expression by lumbar motoneurons after low-thoracic spinal cord hemisection. Early after lesion (30 min), the immunostaining density within lumbar motoneurons decreased markedly on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the spinal cord. This reduction was statistically significant and was then followed by a significant recovery along the experimental period (14 days), during which a substantial recovery of hindlimb motility was observed. Our data indicate that BDNF and NT-4 expression could be modulated by activity of spinal circuitry and further support putative involvement of the endogenous neurotrophins in mechanisms of spinal neuroplasticity.
|Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in wobbler mouse motor neuron disease.|
K Tsuzaka, T Ishiyama, E P Pioro, H Mitsumoto, K Tsuzaka, T Ishiyama, E P Pioro, H Mitsumoto
Muscle nerve 24 474-80 2001
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is neuroprotective for motoneurons undergoing degeneration, including those in natural motor neuron disease (MND) in wobbler mice. To assess the role of BDNF in this model of MND, endogenous BDNF immunoreactivity was analyzed by semiquantitative video-image analysis. Affected cervical spinal cord motoneurons had significantly greater BDNF immunoreactivity compared to motoneurons of healthy littermates (P = 0.01) and affected lumbar spinal cord motoneurons (P = 0.008 at age 4 weeks; P = 0.005 at age 8 weeks). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (n-NOS) immunocytochemistry revealed increased immunoreactivity in the affected cervical spinal cord motoneurons. Exogenous BDNF treatment partially inhibited the increased NOS activity, as quantitatively measured by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry. The mean number of NADPH-d(+) motoneurons in the cervical anterior horn decreased from 3.5 +/- 1.2 to 1.5 +/- 1.2 (P = 0.002). The increase in endogenous BDNF immunoreactivity in the affected spinal cord may be compensatory in diseased motoneurons, yet it appears to still be inadequate because exogenous BDNF treatment is required to suppress increased NOS activity in degenerating motoneurons. Our study indicates that BDNF is important in halting nitric oxide (NO)-mediated motor neuron degeneration, which has potential implications for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.