Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ca, Ch, Gp, H, Mk||ELISA, IHC, IP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Antibody, clone AE-1|
|Presentation||Liquid in 0.02M PB, 0.25M NaCl, pH 7.6, with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C for up to 6 months.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Antibody, clone AE-1 SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Acetylcholinesterase overexpression mediated by oncolytic adenovirus exhibited potent anti-tumor effect.|
Xu, H; Shen, Z; Xiao, J; Yang, Y; Huang, W; Zhou, Z; Shen, J; Zhu, Y; Liu, XY; Chu, L
BMC cancer 14 668 2014
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) mainly functions as an efficient terminator for acetylcholine signaling transmission. Here, we reported the effect of AChE on gastric cancer therapy.The expression of AChE in gastric cancerous tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. Gastric cancer cells were treated with AChE delivered by replication-deficient adenoviral vector (Ad.AChE) or oncolytic adenoviral vector (ZD55-AChE), respectively, followed by measurement of cell viability and apoptosis by MTT assay and apoptosis detection assays. In vivo, the tumor growth of gastric cancer xenografts in mice treated with Ad.AChE or ZD55-AChE (1 × 10(9) PFU) were measured. In addition, the cell viability of gastric cancer stem cells treated with Ad.AChE or ZD55-AChE were evaluated by MTT assay.A positive correlation was found between higher level of AChE expression in gastric cancer patient samples and longer survival time of the patients. Ad.AChE and ZD55-AChE inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, and low dose of ZD55-AChE induced mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in cells. ZD55-AChE repressed tumor growth in vivo, and the anti-tumor efficacy is greater than Ad.AChE. Moreover, ZD55-AChE suppressed the growth of gastric cancer stem cells.ZD55-AChE represented potential therapeutic effect for human gastric cancer.
|Production and purification of polymerization-competent HIV-1 capsid protein p24 (CA) in NiCo21(DE3) Escherichia coli.|
Teow, SY; Mualif, SA; Omar, TC; Wei, CY; Yusoff, NM; Ali, SA
BMC biotechnology 13 107 2013
HIV genome is packaged and organized in a conical capsid, which is made up of ~1,500 copies of the viral capsid protein p24 (CA). Being a primary structural component and due to its critical roles in both late and early stages of the HIV replication cycle, CA has attracted increased interest as a drug discovery target in recent years. Drug discovery studies require large amounts of highly pure and biologically active protein. It is therefore desirable to establish a simple and reproducible process for efficient production of HIV-1 CA.In this work, 6-His-tagged wild type CA from HIV-1 (NL4.3) was expressed in rare tRNA-supplemented NiCo21(DE3) Escherichia coli, and its production was studied in shake flask culture condition of expression. Influences of various key cultivation parameters were examined to identify optimal conditions for HIV-1 CA production. It was found that a culture temperature of 22°C and induction with 0.05 mM IPTG at the early stage of growth were ideal, leading to a maximum biomass yield when grown in Super broth supplemented with 1% glucose. With optimized culture conditions, a final biomass concentration of ~27.7 g L⁻¹ (based on optical density) was obtained in 12 hours post-induction, leading to a yield of about ~170 mg L⁻¹ HIV-1 CA. A two-step purification strategy (chitin beads + IMAC) was employed, which efficiently removed metal affinity resin-binding bacterial proteins that contaminate recombinant His-tagged protein preparation, and resulted in highly pure HIV-1 CA. The purified protein was capable of polymerization when tested in an in vitro polymerization assay.By using this optimized expression and purification procedure, milligram amounts of highly pure and polymerization-competent recombinant HIV-1 CA can be produced at the lab-scale and thus used for further biochemical studies.
|Effects on contralateral muscles after unilateral electrical muscle stimulation and exercise.|
Song, Y; Forsgren, S; Yu, J; Lorentzon, R; Stål, PS
PloS one 7 e52230 2012
It is well established that unilateral exercise can produce contralateral effects. However, it is unclear whether unilateral exercise that leads to muscle injury and inflammation also affects the homologous contralateral muscles. To test the hypothesis that unilateral muscle injury causes contralateral muscle changes, an experimental rabbit model with unilateral muscle overuse caused by a combination of electrical muscle stimulation and exercise (EMS/E) was used. The soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of both exercised and non-exercised legs were analyzed with enzyme- and immunohistochemical methods after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of repeated EMS/E. After 1 w of unilateral EMS/E there were structural muscle changes such as increased variability in fiber size, fiber splitting, internal myonuclei, necrotic fibers, expression of developmental MyHCs, fibrosis and inflammation in the exercised soleus muscle. Only limited changes were found in the exercised gastrocnemius muscle and in both non-exercised contralateral muscles. After 3 w of EMS/E, muscle fiber changes, presence of developmental MyHCs, inflammation, fibrosis and affections of nerve axons and AChE production were observed bilaterally in both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. At 6 w of EMS/E, the severity of these changes significantly increased in the soleus muscles and infiltration of fat was observed bilaterally in both the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles. The affections of the muscles were in all three experimental groups restricted to focal regions of the muscle samples. We conclude that repetitive unilateral muscle overuse caused by EMS/E overtime leads to both degenerative and regenerative tissue changes and myositis not only in the exercised muscles, but also in the homologous non-exercised muscles of the contralateral leg. Although the mechanism behind the contralateral changes is unclear, we suggest that the nervous system is involved in the cross-transfer effects.
|Chemical analysis and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of anthocyanin-rich red leaf tea (cv. Sunrouge).|
Mari Maeda-Yamamoto,Takeshi Saito,Atsushi Nesumi,Yoshiko Tokuda,Kaori Ema,Daiki Honma,Akiko Ogino,Manami Monobe,Akira Murakami,Hirofumi Tachibana
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 92 2012
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of leaf order or crop season on anthocyanins and other chemicals in the anthocyanin-rich tea cultivar 'Sunrouge' (Camellia sinensis x C. taliensis) by using high-performance liquid chromatography, and to study the effect of 'Sunrouge' extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.
|HIV Nef is secreted in exosomes and triggers apoptosis in bystander CD4+ T cells.|
Lenassi M, Cagney G, Liao M, Vaupotic T, Bartholomeeusen K, Cheng Y, Krogan NJ, Plemenitas A, Peterlin BM
Traffic 11 110-22. 2010
The HIV accessory protein negative factor (Nef) is one of the earliest and most abundantly expressed viral proteins. It is also found in the serum of infected individuals (Caby MP, Lankar D, Vincendeau-Scherrer C, Raposo G, Bonnerot C. Exosomal-like vesicles are present in human blood plasma. Int Immunol 2005;17:879-887). Extracellular Nef protein has deleterious effects on CD4(+) T cells (James CO, Huang MB, Khan M, Garcia-Barrio M, Powell MD, Bond VC. Extracellular Nef protein targets CD4(+) T cells for apoptosis by interacting with CXCR4 surface receptors. J Virol 2004;78:3099-3109), the primary targets of HIV, and can suppress immunoglobulin class switching in bystander B cells (Qiao X, He B, Chiu A, Knowles DM, Chadburn A, Cerutti A. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Nef suppresses CD40-dependent immunoglobulin class switching in bystander B cells. Nat Immunol 2006;7:302-310). Nevertheless, the mode of exit of Nef from infected cells remains a conundrum. We found that Nef stimulates its own export via the release of exosomes from all cells examined. Depending on its intracellular location, these Nef exosomes form at the plasma membrane, late endosomes or both compartments in Jurkat, SupT1 and primary T cells, respectively. Nef release through exosomes is conserved also during HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Released Nef exosomes cause activation-induced cell death of resting PBLs in vitro. Thus, HIV-infected cells export Nef in bioactive vesicles, which facilitate the depletion of CD4(+) T cells that is a hallmark of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Full Text Article
|The Cholinesterase-like Domain, Essential in Thyroglobulin Trafficking for Thyroid Hormone Synthesis, Is Required for Protein Dimerization.|
Jaemin Lee, Xiaofan Wang, Bruno Di Jeso, Peter Arvan, Jaemin Lee, Xiaofan Wang, Bruno Di Jeso, Peter Arvan, Jaemin Lee, Xiaofan Wang, Bruno Di Jeso, Peter Arvan, Jaemin Lee, Xiaofan Wang, Bruno Di Jeso, Peter Arvan
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 12752-61 2009
The carboxyl-terminal cholinesterase-like (ChEL) domain of thyroglobulin (Tg) has been identified as critically important in Tg export from the endoplasmic reticulum. In a number of human kindreds suffering from congenital hypothyroidism, and in the cog congenital goiter mouse and rdw rat dwarf models, thyroid hormone synthesis is inhibited because of mutations in the ChEL domain that block protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum. We hypothesize that Tg forms homodimers through noncovalent interactions involving two predicted alpha-helices in each ChEL domain that are homologous to the dimerization helices of acetylcholinesterase. This has been explored through selective epitope tagging of dimerization partners and by inserting an extra, unpaired Cys residue to create an opportunity for intermolecular disulfide pairing. We show that the ChEL domain is necessary and sufficient for Tg dimerization; specifically, the isolated ChEL domain can dimerize with full-length Tg or with itself. Insertion of an N-linked glycan into the putative upstream dimerization helix inhibits homodimerization of the isolated ChEL domain. However, interestingly, co-expression of upstream Tg domains, either in cis or in trans, overrides the dimerization defect of such a mutant. Thus, although the ChEL domain provides a nidus for Tg dimerization, interactions of upstream Tg regions with the ChEL domain actively stabilizes the Tg dimer complex for intracellular transport.Full Text Article
|Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in CSF versus brain assessed by 11C-PMP PET in AD patients treated with galantamine.|
T Darreh-Shori, A Kadir, O Almkvist, M Grut, A Wall, G Blomquist, B Eriksson, B Långström, A Nordberg
Neurobiology of aging 29 168-84 2008
The relationship between acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the CSF and brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in 18 mild AD patients following galantamine treatment. The first 3 months of the study had a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, during which 12 patients received galantamine (16-24 mg/day) and six patients placebo. This was followed by 9 months galantamine treatment in all patients. Activities and protein levels of both the read-through AChE (AChE-R) and the synaptic (AChE-S) variants in CSF were assessed in parallel together with the regional brain AChE activity by (11)C-PMP and PET. The AChE-S inhibition was 30-36% in CSF, which correlated well with the in vivo AChE inhibition in the brain. No significant AChE inhibition was observed in the placebo group. The increased level of the AChE-R protein was 16% higher than that of AChE-S. Both the AChE inhibition and the increased level of AChE-R protein positively correlated with the patient's performance in cognitive tests associated with visuospatial ability and attention. In conclusion, AChE levels in CSF closely mirror in vivo brain AChE levels prior to and after treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitors. A positive cognitive response seems to dependent on the AChE inhibition level, which is balanced by an increased protein level of the AChE-R variant in the patients.
|The cholinesterase-like domain of thyroglobulin functions as an intramolecular chaperone.|
Jaemin Lee,Bruno Di Jeso,Peter Arvan
The Journal of clinical investigation 118 2008
Thyroid hormonogenesis requires secretion of thyroglobulin, a protein comprising Cys-rich regions I, II, and III (referred to collectively as region I-II-III) followed by a cholinesterase-like (ChEL) domain. Secretion of mature thyroglobulin requires extensive folding and glycosylation in the ER. Multiple reports have linked mutations in the ChEL domain to congenital hypothyroidism in humans and rodents; these mutations block thyroglobulin from exiting the ER and induce ER stress. We report that, in a cell-based system, mutations in the ChEL domain impaired folding of thyroglobulin region I-II-III. Truncated thyroglobulin devoid of the ChEL domain was incompetent for cellular export; however, a recombinant ChEL protein (secretory ChEL) was secreted efficiently. Coexpression of secretory ChEL with truncated thyroglobulin increased intracellular folding, promoted oxidative maturation, and facilitated secretion of region I-II-III, indicating that the ChEL domain may function as an intramolecular chaperone. Additionally, we found that the I-II-III peptide was cosecreted and physically associated with secretory ChEL. A functional ChEL domain engineered to be retained intracellularly triggered oxidative maturation of I-II-III but coretained I-II-III, indicating that the ChEL domain may also function as a molecular escort. These insights into the role of the ChEL domain may represent potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of congenital hypothyroidism.Full Text Article
|Changes in the activity and protein levels of CSF acetylcholinesterases in relation to cognitive function of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease following chronic donepezil treatment.|
T Darreh-Shori, L Meurling, T Pettersson, K Hugosson, E Hellström-Lindahl, N Andreasen, L Minthon, A Nordberg
Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 113 1791-801 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in CSF and blood following donepezil treatment in relation to the concentration of donepezil and cognition in AD patients. METHODS: CSF or blood (or both) samples of a total of 104 patients with mild AD were used [MMSE score 23 +/- 0.4; age 75 +/- 1 years (mean +/- SEM); n=53 for CSF and n=51 for plasma/red blood cell (RBC) samples]. The patients were treated with 5 or 10 mg/day donepezil and clinically followed for 2 years. The CSF and RBC AChE activities were measured by the Ellman's direct colorimetric assay. Protein levels of two variants of AChE (read-through AChE-R and synaptic AChE-S) were determined by an ELISA-like method. RESULTS: The plasma donepezil concentration was dose-dependent (between 30 and 60 ng/mL in the 5-mg and 10-mg group, respectively). The CSF donepezil concentration was 10 times lower than the plasma level and showed dose- and time-dependent kinetics. The RBC AChE inhibition was moderate (19-29%). CSF AChE-S inhibition was estimated to 30-40% in the 5-mg and 45-55% in the 10-mg group. Positive correlations were observed between the CSF AChE inhibition, an increased protein level of the AChE-R variant and MMSE examination. Patients with high AChE inhibition (>or=45%) showed a stabilized MMSE test result after up to two years, while a significant decline was observed in AD patients with lower AChE inhibition (or=30%). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the protein level of the AChE-R variant corresponded to a high AChE inhibition in CSF and favored less cognitive deterioration.
|Axodendritic contacts onto calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II-expressing neurons in the barn owl auditory space map.|
Rodriguez-Contreras, A; Liu, XB; DeBello, WM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 5611-22 2005
In the owl midbrain, a map of auditory space is synthesized in the inferior colliculus (IC) and conveyed to the optic tectum (OT). Ascending auditory information courses through these structures via topographic axonal projections. Little is known about the molecular composition of projection neurons or their postsynaptic targets. To visualize axodendritic contacts between identified cell types, we used double-label immunohistochemistry, in vivo retrograde tracing, in vitro anterograde tracing, high-resolution confocal microscopy, three-dimensional reconstruction and fly-through visualization. We discovered a major class of IC neurons that strongly expressed calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II, alpha subunit (CaMKII). The distribution of these cells within the IC was mostly restricted to the external nucleus of the IC (ICX), in which the auditory space map is assembled. A large proportion of ICX-OT projection neurons were CaMKII positive. In addition to being the principal outputs, CaMKII cells were in direct contact with axonal boutons emanating from the main source of input to ICX, the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls). Numerous sites of putative synaptic contact were found on the somata, proximal dendrites, and distal dendrites. Double-label immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the existence of synapses between ICCls axons and the dendrites of CaMKII cells. Collectively, our data indicate that CaMKII ICX neurons are a cellular locus for the computation of auditory space-specific responses. Because the ICCls-ICX projection is physically altered during experience-dependent plasticity, these results lay the groundwork for probing microanatomical rearrangements that may underlie plasticity and learning.
|MOUSE ANTI-ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|