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Guidelines for Choosing a Biological Detergent

Bile Salts | Detergent Adsorbents | Detergent Kits | Ionic | Non-Detergent Sulfobetaines (NDSB) | Non-Ionic | Zwitterionic

Related Literature
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A membrane protein is considered solubilized if it is present in the supernatant after one hour centrifugation of a lysate or a homogenate at 100,000 x g. In most cases, it is also important that the biological activity of the protein be preserved in the supernatant after solubilization by a detergent. Hence, the appropriate detergent should yield the maximum amount of biologically active protein in the supernatant. Given the large number of detergents available today, choosing an appropriate detergent can be a difficult process. Some of the points outlined below can be helpful in selecting a suitable detergent.

  1. The first step is a survey of the literature. A detergent that has been used previously for the isolation and characterization of a protein with similar biochemical or enzymological properties should be tried first.
  2. Solubility of the detergent at working temperature can be another consideration. For example, ZWITTERGENT® 3-14 is insoluble in water at +4°C while TRITON® X-114 undergoes a phase separation at room temperature.
  3. The method of detergent removal can be an important consideration. If dialysis is to be employed, a detergent with a high CMC is clearly preferred. Alternatively, if ion exchange chromatography is utilized, a non-ionic detergent or a ZWITTERGENT® is the detergent of choice.
  4. Preservation of biological or enzymological activity may require experimenting with several detergents. Not only the type but also the quantity of the detergent used will affect the activity of the protein. For some proteins biological activity is preserved over a very narrow range of concentration of detergent. Below this range the protein is not solubilized and above a particular concentration, the protein is inactivated.
  5. Since TRITON® X-100 contains aromatic rings that absorb at 260-280 nm, this detergent should be avoided if the protocols require UV monitoring of protein concentration. Similarly, ionic detergents should be avoided if the proteins are to be separated by isoelectric focusing. For gel filtration of proteins, detergents with smaller aggregation numbers should be considered.
  6. Detergents of utmost purity should be used since some detergents such as TRITON® X-100 are generally known to contain peroxides as contaminants. Calbiochem®’s PROTEIN GRADE® or ULTROL® GRADE detergents that have been purified to minimize these oxidizing contaminants are recommended.
  7. Calbiochem® biochemicals also offers a variety of Molecular Biology Grade detergents for any research where contaminants such as DNase, RNase, and proteases are problematic.
  8. A non-toxic detergent should be preferred over a toxic one. For example, digitonin, a cardiac glycoside, should be handled with special care.
  9. For as yet unknown reasons, specific detergents often work better for particular isolation procedures. For example, n-Dodecyl-b-D-maltoside (Cat. No. 324355) has been found to be the detergent of choice for the isolation of cytochrome c oxidase. Hence, some “trial and error” may be required for determining optimal conditions for isolation of a membrane protein in its biologically active form.
  10. In some cases, it has been observed that the inclusion of non-detergent sulfobetaines (NDSBs) with detergents in the isolation buffer dramatically improves yields of solubilized membrane proteins.

Bile Salts

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 2204 Chenodeoxycholic Acid, Free Acid
[+] 36217 Glycolithocholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 362549 Glycoursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 672305 Ursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt

Detergent Adsorbents

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 206550 CALBIOSORB™ Adsorbent
[+] 206552 CALBIOSORB™ Adsorbent, Prepacked Columns

Detergent Kits

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 178400 APO Detergent Set
[+] 182753 ASB ZWITTERGENT® Set
[+] 205532 C12E8, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution - CAS 3055-98-9 - Calbiochem
[+] 205534 C12E9, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution - CAS 9002-92-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 263451 Detergent Test Set
[+] 263458 Detergent Variety Pack - Calbiochem
[+] 480012 NDSB Set - Calbiochem
[+] 539751 ProteoExtract® Detergent Set
[+] 693030 ZWITTERGENT® Test Kit

Ionic

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 219374 Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide, Molecular Biology Grade - CAS 57-09-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 2204 Chenodeoxycholic Acid, Free Acid
[+] 220411 Chenodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt - CAS 2646-38-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 229101 Cholic Acid, Sodium Salt - CAS 361-09-1 - Calbiochem
[+] 229102 Cholic Acid, Sodium Salt, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 264101 Deoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt - CAS 302-95-4 - Calbiochem
[+] 264103 Deoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt, ULTROL® Grade - CAS 302-95-4 - Calbiochem
[+] 360512 Glycocholic Acid, Sodium Salt - CAS 863-57-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 361311 Glycodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt - CAS 16409-34-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 362549 Glycoursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 428010 Lauroylsarcosine, Sodium Salt - CAS 137-16-6 - Calbiochem
[+] 437600 LPD-12
[+] 428018 Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate, 20% Solution (w/v) - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 428015 Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 428016 Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate, High Purity - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 428023 Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate, Molecular Biology Grade - CAS 151-21-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 580211 Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 580217 Taurocholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 580218 Taurocholic Acid, Sodium Salt, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 580221 Taurodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 580549 Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt
[+] 672305 Ursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt

Non-Detergent Sulfobetaines (NDSB)

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 480001 NDSB-195 - CAS 160255-06-1 - Calbiochem
[+] 480005 NDSB-201 - CAS 15471-17-7 - Calbiochem
[+] 480013 NDSB-211
[+] 480014 NDSB-221
[+] 480011 NDSB-256-4T
[+] 480010 NDSB-256 - CAS 81239-45-4 - Calbiochem

Non-Ionic

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 178375 APO-10 - CAS 2190-95-6 - Calbiochem
[+] 178377 APO-12 - CAS 871-95-4 - Calbiochem
[+] 200965 Big CHAP - CAS 86303-22-2 - Calbiochem
[+] 256455 Big CHAP, Deoxy - CAS 86303-23-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 203724 BRIJ® 35 Detergent, 30% Aqueous Solution - CAS 9002-92-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 203728 BRIJ® 35 Detergent, PROTEIN GRADE®, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered - CAS 9002-92-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 205528 C12E8 - CAS 3055-98-9 - Calbiochem
[+] 205532 C12E8, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution - CAS 3055-98-9 - Calbiochem
[+] 205534 C12E9, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution - CAS 9002-92-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 239775 Cyclohexyl-n-hexyl-β-D-maltoside, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 300411 Digitonin, Alcohol-Soluble, High Purity
[+] 300410 Digitonin, High Purity - CAS 11024-24-1 - Calbiochem
[+] 324707 ELUGENT™ Detergent, 50% Solution - CAS 132778-08-6 - Calbiochem
[+] 345794 GENAPOL® C-100, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered
[+] 345796 GENAPOL® X-080, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered - CAS 9043-30-5 - Calbiochem
[+] 345798 GENAPOL® X-100, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered - Calbiochem
[+] 373272 HECAMEG® - CAS 115457-83-5 - Calbiochem
[+] 444934 MEGA-10, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 444926 MEGA-8, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 444930 MEGA-9, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 252721 n-Decanoylsucrose - CAS 31835-06-0 - Calbiochem
[+] 252718 n-Decyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, ULTROL® Grade - CAS 82494-09-5 - Calbiochem
[+] 324374 n-Dodecanoylsucrose - CAS 25339-99-5 - Calbiochem
[+] 324351 n-Dodecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside - CAS 59122-55-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 324355 n-Dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, ULTROL® Grade - CAS 69227-93-6 - Calbiochem
[+] 375655 n-Heptyl-β-D-glucopyranoside
[+] 375659 n-Heptyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside, ULTROL® Grade, 10% Solution
[+] 376965 n-Hexyl-β-D-glucopyranoside
[+] 488285 n-Nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside
[+] 494466 n-Octanoylsucrose - Calbiochem
[+] 494459 n-Octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside - CAS 29836-26-8 - Calbiochem
[+] 494460 n-Octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, ULTROL® Grade
[+] 494465 n-Octyl-β-D-maltopyranoside
[+] 494461 n-Octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside, ULTROL® Grade - CAS 85618-21-9 - Calbiochem
[+] 492016 NP-40 Alternative - CAS 9016-45-9 - Calbiochem
[+] 492018 NP-40 Alternative, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered - CAS 9016-45-9 - Calbiochem
[+] 540025 PLURONIC® F-127, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered
[+] 648462 TRITON® X-100 Detergent
[+] 648465 TRITON® X-100 Detergent, Hydrogenated
[+] 648466 TRITON® X-100 Detergent, Molecular Biology Grade
[+] 648464 TRITON® X-100, Hydrogenated, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered
[+] 648468 TRITON® X-114, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered
[+] 655205 TWEEN® 20 Detergent
[+] 655204 TWEEN® 20 Detergent, Molecular Biology Grade
[+] 655206 TWEEN® 20, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered
[+] 655207 TWEEN® 80, PROTEIN GRADE® Detergent, 10% Solution, Sterile-Filtered

Zwitterionic

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  Cat. No. Product
[+] 182751 ASB-14-4
[+] 182750 ASB-14 - Calbiochem
[+] 182755 ASB-16 - CAS 52562-29-5 - Calbiochem
[+] 182728 ASB-C6Ø
[+] 182729 ASB-C7BzO
[+] 182730 ASB-C8Ø - CAS 216667-49-1 - Calbiochem
[+] 182753 ASB ZWITTERGENT® Set
[+] 220201 CHAPS, Molecular Biology Grade - CAS 75621-03-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 220202 CHAPSO - CAS 82473-24-3 - Calbiochem
[+] 252000 DDMAB - CAS 15163-30-1 - Calbiochem
[+] 252005 DDMAU
[+] 528200 PMAL-B-100
[+] 693019 ZWITTERGENT® 3-08 Detergent
[+] 693021 ZWITTERGENT® 3-10 Detergent
[+] 693015 ZWITTERGENT® 3-12 Detergent
[+] 693017 ZWITTERGENT® 3-14 Detergent
[+] 693023 ZWITTERGENT® 3-16 Detergent
[+] 693030 ZWITTERGENT® Test Kit

© Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, 2014

All references to Merck refer to Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.


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