|Restoration of the growth suppression function of mutant p53 by a synthetic peptide derived from the p53 C-terminal domain. |
Selivanova, G, et al.
Nat. Med., 3: 632-8 (1997)
We demonstrate here that synthetic 22-mer peptide 46, corresponding to the carboxy-terminal amino acid residues 361-382 of p53, can activate specific DNA binding of wild-type p53 in vitro and can restore the transcriptional transactivating function of at least some mutant p53 proteins in living cells. Introduction of peptide 46 in Saos-2 cells carrying a Tet-regulatable His-273 mutant p53 construct caused growth inhibition and apoptosis in the presence of mutant p53 but not in its absence, confirming that the effect of the peptide is mediated by reactivation of mutant p53. Moreover, peptide 46 caused apoptosis in mutant as well as wild-type p53-carrying human tumor cell lines of different origin, whereas p53 null tumor cells were not affected. These findings raise possibilities for developing drugs that restore the tumor suppressor function of mutant p53 proteins, thus selectively eliminating tumor cells.
|The single-stranded DNA end binding site of p53 coincides with the C-terminal regulatory region. |
Selivanova, G, et al.
Nucleic Acids Res., 24: 3560-7 (1996)
p53 is a transcription factor that binds double-stranded (ds) DNA in a sequence-specific manner. In addition, p53 can bind the ends of single-stranded (ss) DNA. We previously demonstrated that ssDNA oligonucleotides interact with the C-terminal domain of p53 and stimulate binding to internal segments of long ssDNA by the p53 core domain. Here we show that the p53 C-terminal domain can recognize staggered ss ends of dsDNA. We have mapped the binding site for ssDNA ends to residues 361-382 in human p53 using a p53 deletion mutant (p53-delta 30) lacking the 30 C-terminal amino acid residues and a series of 22mer peptides. The binding site for DNA ends coincides with a region previously implicated in regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding by the core domain. The interaction of the C-terminal regulatory domain with the ends of ssDNA or with the protruding ends of dsDNA stimulates both sequence-specific and non-specific DNA binding via the core domain. Electron microscopy demonstrated the simultaneous binding of p53 to dsDNA and a ssDNA end. These results suggest a model in which interaction of the p53 C-terminal tail with DNA ends generated after DNA damage causes activation of sequence-specific p53 DNA binding in vivo and may thus provide a molecular link between DNA damage and p53-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis.
|Antistaphylococcal activity of cefdinir, a new oral third-generation cephalosporin, alone and in combination with other antibiotics, at supra- and sub-MIC levels. |
A Marchese,D Saverino,E A Debbia,A Pesce,G C Schito
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Cefdinir is one of the few oral third generation cephalosporins that shows useful activity against nosocomial Gram-positive pathogens. For this reason the anti-staphylococcal potency of the new drug, alone or in combination with other drugs was further characterized. Against penicillin-resistant, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus isolates, cefdinir demonstrated useful in-vitro activity. MIC90 values (in mg/L) were 0.25 for Staphylococcus aureus (30 strains), 0.06 for Staphylococcus epidermidis (24), 0.125 for Staphylococcus hominis (10), 0.5 for both Staphylococcus xylosus (15) and Staphylococcus capitis (11) and 4 for Staphylococcus saprophyticus (10), while Staphylococcus haemolyticus (12) was less susceptible with a MIC90 value of 32. Cefdinir activity was not adversely affected by several variables such as pH, inoculum size or the presence of serum or urine. The new cephem induced a PAE on all isolates studied: with S. aureus the extent of regrowth suppression ranged from 0.8 to 1 h, and with the other species from 0.5 (S. epidermidis) to 4.1 h (S. haemolyticus). Development of resistant strains was rare. At the highest level used (10 x MIC) mutants arose with a frequency of 6 x 10(-8) with S. haemolyticus and 2 x 10(-9) with S. epidermidis. The absence of a paradoxical effect of increasing concentrations of cefdinir on its bactericidal activity was confirmed up to a value of 500-fold the MICs. When cefdinir activity was assessed in association with ciprofloxacin, netilmicin, clarithromycin, fosfomycin, rifampicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin using the chequerboard and time-kill techniques, indifference predominated with all strains and in all combinations. Synergism was detected only in 11 out of a total of 175 tests performed by the chequerboard method. Using the time-kill technique cefdinir reacted synergically in 25 of 126 tests. Antagonism was never observed. S. aureus exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefdinir failed to grow on mannitol-salt agar and to produce haemolysins, but retained coagulase activity. Penicillinase production was also lost in about 17% of the survivors. Hydrophobicity changes were detected in all species tested with the exception of S. saprophyticus.