|Caveosomal Oxidative Stress Causes Src-p21ras Activation and Lysine 63 TRAF6 Protein Polyubiquitination in Iron-induced M1 Hepatic Macrophage Activation. |
Shuping Zhong,Jun Xu,Peggy Li,Hidekazu Tsukamoto
The Journal of biological chemistry
Proinflammatory M1 activation of hepatic macrophages (HM) is critical in pathogenesis of hepatitis, but its mechanisms are still elusive. Our earlier work demonstrates the role of ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern-independent agonist for activation of IκB kinase (IKK) and NF-κB in HM via activation and interaction of p21(ras), transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in caveosomes. However, iron-induced signaling upstream of these kinases is not known. Here we show that Fe(2+) induces generation of superoxide anion (O(2)()) in endosomes, reduces protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity, and activates Src at 2∼10 min of Fe(2+) addition to rat primary HM culture. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) blocks O(2)() generation, PTP inhibition, and Src activation. Fe(2+)-induced p21(ras) activity is abrogated with the Src inhibitor PP2 and SOD. Fe(2+) stimulates Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination (polyUb) of TRAF6 in caveosomes, and a dominant negative K63R mutant of ubiquitin or SOD prevents iron-induced TRAF6 polyUb and TAK1 activation. These results demonstrate that Fe(2+)-generated O(2)() mediates p21(ras) and TAK1 activation via PTP inhibition and Lys(63)-polyUb of TRAF6 in caveosomes for proinflammatory M1 activation in HM.
|New role for the protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 in Akt activation and endothelial cell survival. |
Catherine Chabot,Kathleen Spring,Jean-Philippe Gratton,Mounib Elchebly,Isabelle Royal
Molecular and cellular biology
Functional inactivation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 leads to increased endothelial cell proliferation and failure of vessels to remodel and branch. DEP-1 has also been proposed to contribute to the contact inhibition of endothelial cell growth via dephosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), a mediator of vascular development. However, how DEP-1 regulates VEGF-dependent signaling and biological responses remains ill-defined. We show here that DEP-1 targets tyrosine residues in the VEGFR2 kinase activation loop. Consequently, depletion of DEP-1 results in the increased phosphorylation of all major VEGFR2 autophosphorylation sites, but surprisingly, not in the overall stimulation of VEGF-dependent signaling. The increased phosphorylation of Src on Y529 under these conditions results in impaired Src and Akt activation. This inhibition is similarly observed upon expression of catalytically inactive DEP-1, and coexpression of an active Src-Y529F mutant rescues Akt activation. Reduced Src activity correlates with decreased phosphorylation of Gab1, an adapter protein involved in VEGF-dependent Akt activation. Hypophosphorylated Gab1 is unable to fully associate with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, VEGFR2, and VE-cadherin complexes, leading to suboptimal Akt activation and increased cell death. Overall, our results reveal that despite its negative role on global VEGFR2 phosphorylation, DEP-1 is a positive regulator of VEGF-mediated Src and Akt activation and endothelial cell survival.Full Text Article
|Srcasm modulates EGF and Src-kinase signaling in keratinocytes. |
Weijie Li, Christine Marshall, Lijuan Mei, Leonard Dzubow, Chrysalene Schmults, Michael Dans, John Seykora
The Journal of biological chemistry
The Src-activating and signaling molecule (Srcasm) is a recently described activator and substrate of Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs). When phosphorylated at specific tyrosines, Srcasm associates with Grb2 and p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase; however, little is known about the role of Srcasm in cellular signaling. Data presented here demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands promote the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous and adenovirally transduced Srcasm in keratinocytes, and that increased levels of Srcasm activate endogenous SFKs, with a preference for Fyn and Src. In addition, Srcasm potentiates EGF-dependent signals transmitted by SFKs in keratinocytes. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Srcasm is dependent on growth factors and the activity of EGFR and SFKs. Increased Srcasm expression enhances p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and Elk-1-dependent transcriptional events. Elevated Srcasm levels inhibit keratinocyte proliferation while promoting specific aspects of keratinocyte differentiation. Lastly, Srcasm levels are decreased in human cutaneous neoplasia. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Srcasm plays a role in linking EGF receptor- and SFK-dependent signaling to differentiation in keratinocytes.
|c-Src-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by arsenic. Role in carcinogenesis. |
Simeonova, Petia P, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 2945-50 (2002)
|G alpha(i) and G alpha(o) are target proteins of reactive oxygen species |
Nishida, M., et al
Nature, 408:492-5 (2000)
|Growth hormone stimulates the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex involving p130(Cas) and CrkII. Resultant activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) |
Zhu, T., et al
J Biol Chem, 273:33864-75 (1998)