|Application||Specifically binds to & precipitates GTP-Rho, but not GDP-Rho from cell lysates. For use in Affinity Binding Assays.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at -70°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||650 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Geranylgeranyl diphosphate depletion inhibits breast cancer cell migration. |
Amel Dudakovic,Huaxiang Tong,Raymond J Hohl
Investigational new drugs 29 2011
The objective of this study was to determine whether geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase inhibition, and therefore geranylgeranyl diphosphate depletion, interferes with breast cancer cell migration. Digeranyl bisphosphonate is a specific geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase inhibitor. We demonstrate that digeranyl bisphosphonate depleted geranylgeranyl diphosphate and inhibited protein geranylgeranylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Similar to GGTI-286, a GGTase I inhibitor, digeranyl bisphosphate significantly inhibited migration of MDA-MB-231 cells as measured by transwell assay. Similarly, digeranyl bisphosphonate reduced motility of MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner as measured by large scale digital cell analysis system microscopy. Digeranyl bisphosphonate was mildly toxic and did not induce apoptosis. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with digeranyl bisphosphonate decreased membrane while it increased cytosolic RhoA localization. In addition, digeranyl bisphosphonate increased RhoA GTP binding in MDA-MB-231 cells. The specificity of geranylgeranyl diphosphonate synthase inhibition by digeranyl bisphosphonate was confirmed by exogenous addition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate addition prevented the effects of digeranyl bisphosphonate on migration, RhoA localization, and GTP binding to RhoA in MDA-MB-231 cells. These studies suggest that geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors are a novel approach to interfere with cancer cell migration.
|Vascular endothelial growth factor C promotes cervical cancer metastasis via up-regulation and activation of RhoA/ROCK-2/moesin cascade. |
He, M; Cheng, Y; Li, W; Liu, Q; Liu, J; Huang, J; Fu, X
BMC cancer 10 170 2010
The elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is correlated with clinical cervical cancer metastasis and patient survival, which is interpreted by VEGF-C functions to stimulate angiogenesis and lymphatic genesis. However, the direct impact of VEGF-C on cervical cancer cell motility remains largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the effects of VEGF-C on actin cytoskeleton remodeling and on cervical cancer cell migration and invasion and how the actin-regulatory protein, moesin regulated these effects through RhoA/ROCK-2 signaling pathway.On cervical carcinoma cell line SiHa cells, exposure of VEGF-C triggered remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of membrane ruffles, which was required for cell movement. VEGF-C significantly enhanced SiHa cells horizontal migration and three-dimensional invasion into matrices. These actions were dependent on increased expression and phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory protein moesin and specific moesin siRNA severely impaired VEGF-C stimulated-cell migration. The extracellular small GTPase RhoA/ROCK-2 cascade mediated the increased moesin expression and phosphorylation, which was discovered by the use of Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase and by transfected constitutively active, dominant-negative RhoA as well as ROCK-2 SiRNA. Furthermore, in the surgical cervical specimen from the patients with FIGO stage at cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and I-II cervical squamous cell carcinoma, the expression levels of moesin were found to be significantly correlated with tumor malignancy and metastasis.These results implied that VEGF-C promoted cervical cancer metastasis by upregulation and activation of moesin protein through RhoA/ROCK-2 pathway. Our findings offer new insight into the role of VEGF-C on cervical cancer progression and may provide potential targets for cervical cancer therapy.Full Text Article
|Functional SNP of ARHGEF10 confers risk of atherothrombotic stroke. |
Matsushita T, Ashikawa K, Yonemoto K, Hirakawa Y, Hata J, Amitani H, Doi Y, Ninomiya T, Kitazono T, Ibayashi S, Iida M, Nakamura Y, Kiyohara Y, Kubo M
Human molecular genetics 19 1137-46 2010
Although stroke is a common cause of death and a major cause of disability all over the world, genetic components of common forms of ischemic stroke are largely unknown. To identify susceptibility genes of atherothrombotic stroke, we performed a large case-control association study and a replication study in a total of 2775 cases with atherothrombotic stroke and 2839 controls. Through the analysis in 860 cases and 860 age- and sex-matched controls, we found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2280887, in the ARHGEF10 gene was significantly associated with atherothrombotic stroke even after the adjustment of multiple testing by a permutation test [unadjusted P = 1.2 x 10(-6), odds ratio = 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42-2.28]. This association was replicated in independent 1915 cases and 1979 controls. Subsequent fine mapping found another three SNPs which showed similar association due to strong linkage disequilibrium to rs2280887 (r(2) > 0.95). In the functional analyses of these four highly associated SNPs, using luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay we found that rs4376531 affected ARHGEF10 transcriptional activity due to the different Sp1-binding affinity. In small GTPase activity assay, we found that a gene product of ARHGEF10 specifically activated RhoA. A population-based cohort study revealed the subjects with rs4376531 CC or CG to increase the incidence of ischemic stroke (P = 0.033, hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.05-3.04). Our data suggest that the functional SNP of ARHGEF10 confers the susceptibility to atherothrombotic stroke.
|Extracellular matrix controls insulin signaling in mammary epithelial cells through the RhoA/Rok pathway. |
Lee, Yi-Ju, et al.
J. Cell. Physiol., 220: 476-84 (2009) 2009
Cellular responses are determined by a number of signaling cues in the local microenvironment, such as growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM). In cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), functional differentiation requires at least two types of signal, lactogenic hormones (i.e., prolactin, insulin, and hydrocortisone) and the specialized ECM, basement membrane (BM). Our previous work has shown that ECM affects insulin signaling in mammary cells. Cell adhesion to BM promotes insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and association of PI3K with IRS-1, whereas cells cultured on stromal ECM are inefficient in transducing these post-receptor events. Here we examine the mechanisms underlying ECM control of IRS phosphorylation. Compared to cells cultured on BM, cells on plastic exhibit higher level of RhoA activity. The amount and the activity of Rho kinase (Rok) associated with IRS-1 are greater in these cells, leading to serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Expression of dominant negative RhoA and the application of Rok inhibitor Y27632 in cells cultured on plastic augment tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Conversely, expression of constitutively active RhoA in cells cultured on BM impedes insulin signaling. These data indicate that RhoA/Rok is involved in substratum-mediated regulation of insulin signaling in MECs, and under the conditions where proper adhesion to BM is missing, such as after wounding and during mammary gland involution, insulin-mediated cellular differentiation and survival would be defective.
|Progestogens regulate endothelial actin cytoskeleton and cell movement via the actin-binding protein moesin. |
Xiao-Dong Fu, Marina Flamini, Angel Matias Sanchez, Lorenzo Goglia, Maria Silvia Giretti, Andrea R Genazzani, Tommaso Simoncini
Molecular human reproduction 14 225-34 2008
The endothelial effects of progestogens are poorly investigated. Actin remodeling and cell movement are fundamental for endothelial function and are controlled by the actin-binding protein moesin. In this work, we studied the effects of progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on actin remodeling, moesin activation and cell movement in human endothelial cells. Our findings show that progesterone and MPA trigger a rapid endothelial actin rearrangement, with the formation of cortical actin complexes, pseudopodia and membrane ruffles. Both progestogens trigger a rapid progesterone receptor (PR)-dependent moesin activation via a non-genomic signaling cascade involving G proteins, the small GTPase RhoA and the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK-2). In addition, MPA signaling also requires the recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). Both progestogens enhance endothelial cell migration, which is prevented by moesin silencing or by blockade of PR, G proteins, PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinases or ROCK-2. Progesterone and MPA potentiate 17beta-estradiol (E2) induced-moesin activation. However, they partially reduce cell migration induced by E2. In conclusion, progesterone and MPA regulate endothelial cell movement by rapidly signaling to the actin-binding protein moesin and to the actin cytoskeleton. These findings provide new information on the biological actions of progestins on human endothelial cells that are relevant for vascular function.
|Simvastatin reduces human atrial myofibroblast proliferation independently of cholesterol lowering via inhibition of RhoA |
Porter, K. E., et al
Cardiovasc Res, 61:745-55 (2004) 2004
|Cooperativity between the Ras-ERK and Rho-Rho kinase pathways in urokinase-type plasminogen activator-stimulated cell migration |
Jo, M., et al
J Biol Chem, 277:12479-85 (2002) 2002
|Determination of GTP loading on Rho. |
Ren, X D and Schwartz, M A
Meth. Enzymol., 325: 264-72 (2000) 2000
|Regulation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho by cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton |
Ren, X D, et al
EMBO J, 18:578-85 (1999) 1999
|Rhotekin, a new putative target for Rho bearing homology to a serine/threonine kinase, PKN, and rhophilin in the rho-binding domain. |
Reid, T, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 13556-60 (1996) 1996
Using a mouse embryo cDNA library, we conducted a two-hybrid screening to identify new partners for the small GTPase Rho. One clone obtained by this procedure contained a novel cDNA of 291 base pairs and interacted strongly with RhoA and RhoC, weakly with RhoB, and not at all with Rac1 and Cdc42Hs. Full-length cDNAs were then isolated from a mouse brain library. While multiple splicing variants were common, we identified three cDNAs with an identical open reading frame encoding a 61-kDa protein that we named rhotekin (from the Japanese "teki," meaning target). The N-terminal part of rhotekin, encoded by the initial cDNA and produced in bacteria as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, exhibited in vitro binding to 35S-labeled guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate-bound Rho, but not to Rac1 or Cdc42Hs in ligand overlay assays. In addition, this peptide inhibited both endogenous and GTPase-activating protein-stimulated Rho GTPase activity. The amino acid sequence of this region shares approximately 30% identity with the Rho-binding domains of rhophilin and a serine/threonine kinase, PKN, two other Rho target proteins that we recently identified (Watanabe, G., Saito, Y., Madaule, P., Ishizaki, T., Fujisawa, K., Morii, N., Mukai, H., Ono, Y., Kakizuka, A., and Narumiya, S. (1996) Science 271, 645-648). Thus, not only is rhotekin a novel partner for Rho, but it also belongs to a wide family of proteins that bear a consensus Rho-binding sequence at the N terminus. To our knowledge, this is the first conserved sequence for Rho effectors, and we have termed this region Rho effector motif class 1.