|Purification and assay protocols for obtaining highly active Jumonji C demethylases. |
Swathi Krishnan,Evys Collazo,Patricia A Ortiz-Tello,Raymond C Trievel
Jumonji C (JmjC) lysine demethylases (KDMs) are Fe(II)-dependent hydroxylases that catalyze the oxidative demethylation of methyllysine residues in histones and nonhistone proteins. These enzymes play vital roles in regulating cellular processes such as gene expression, cell cycle progression, and stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Despite their biological importance, recombinant forms of JmjC KDMs generally display low enzymatic activity and have remained challenging to isolate in a highly active form. Here we present a simple affinity purification scheme for Strep(II)-tagged JmjC KDMs that minimizes contamination by transition state metal ions, yielding highly active and pure enzyme. We also describe an optimized continuous fluorescent assay for KDMs that detects formaldehyde production during demethylation via a coupled reaction using formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Purification and kinetic analysis of the human KDMs JMJD2A and JMJD2D using these methods yielded activities substantially higher than those previously reported for these enzymes, which are comparable to that of the flavin-dependent KDM LSD1. In addition, we show that JMJD2A exhibited a lower catalytic efficiency toward a histone peptide bearing a chemically installed trimethyllysine analog compared with a bona fide trimethylated substrate. The methodology described here is broadly applicable to other JmjC KDMs, facilitating their biochemical characterization and high-throughput screening applications.
|Mechanisms for increased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles of calorie-restricted rats. |
Sharma, N; Arias, EB; Bhat, AD; Sequea, DA; Ho, S; Croff, KK; Sajan, MP; Farese, RV; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Calorie restriction [CR; ~65% of ad libitum (AL) intake] improves insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. We aimed to elucidate the effects of CR on 1) processes that regulate Akt phosphorylation [insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine phosphorylation, IR substrate 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (IRS-PI3K) activity, and Akt binding to regulatory proteins (heat shock protein 90, Appl1, protein phosphatase 2A)]; 2) Akt substrate of 160-kDa (AS160) phosphorylation on key phosphorylation sites; and 3) atypical PKC (aPKC) activity. Isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from AL or CR (6 mo duration) 9-mo-old male F344BN rats were incubated with 0, 1.2, or 30 nM insulin and 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose. Some CR effects were independent of insulin dose or muscle type: CR caused activation of Akt (Thr(308) and Ser(473)) and GU in both muscles at both insulin doses without CR effects on IRS1-PI3K, Akt-PP2A, or Akt-Appl1. Several muscle- and insulin dose-specific CR effects were revealed. Akt-HSP90 binding was increased in the epitrochlearis; AS160 phosphorylation (Ser(588) and Thr(642)) was greater for CR epitrochlearis at 1.2 nM insulin; and IR phosphorylation and aPKC activity were greater for CR in both muscles with 30 nM insulin. On the basis of these data, our working hypothesis for improved insulin-stimulated GU with CR is as follows: 1) elevated Akt phosphorylation is fundamental, regardless of muscle or insulin dose; 2) altered Akt binding to regulatory proteins (HSP90 and unidentified Akt partners) is involved in the effects of CR on Akt phosphorylation; 3) Akt effects on GU depend on muscle- and insulin dose-specific elevation in phosphorylation of Akt substrates, including, but not limited to, AS160; and 4) greater IR phosphorylation and aPKC activity may contribute at higher insulin doses.
|Regulation of MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 activity and subcellular localization by the atypical MAPK ERK4/MAPK4. |
Espen Aberg, Maria Perander, Bjarne Johansen, Catherine Julien, Sylvain Meloche, Stephen M Keyse, Ole-Morten Seternes
The Journal of biological chemistry
MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) was recently identified as a physiological substrate of the atypical MAPK ERK3. Complex formation between ERK3 and MK5 results in phosphorylation and activation of MK5, concomitant stabilization of ERK3, and the nuclear exclusion of both proteins. However, ablation of ERK3 in HeLa cells using small interfering RNA or in fibroblasts derived from ERK3 null mice reduces the activity of endogenous MK5 by only 50%, suggesting additional mechanisms of MK5 regulation. Here we identify the ERK3-related kinase ERK4 as a bona fide interaction partner of MK5. Binding of ERK4 to MK5 is accompanied by phosphorylation and activation of MK5. Furthermore, complex formation also results in the relocalization of MK5 from nucleus to cytoplasm. However unlike ERK3, ERK4 is a stable protein, and its half-life is not modified by the presence or absence of MK5. Finally, although knock-down of ERK4 protein in HeLa cells reduces endogenous MK5 activity by approximately 50%, a combination of small interfering RNAs targeting both ERK4 and ERK3 causes a further reduction in the MK5 activity by more than 80%. We conclude that MK5 activation is dependent on both ERK3 and ERK4 in these cells and that these atypical MAPKs are both physiological regulators of MK5 activity.
|Transactivation of the EGF receptor mediates IGF-1-stimulated shc phosphorylation and ERK1/2 activation in COS-7 cells |
Roudabush, F. L., et al
J Biol Chem, 275:22583-9 (2000)
|Akt/protein kinase B isoforms are differentially regulated by epidermal growth factor stimulation |
Okano, J., et al
J Biol Chem, 275:30934-42 (2000)