|Description||Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Antibody, biotin conjugate|
|Overview||Affinity purified rabbit anti-goat IgG, Biotin conjugated.|
|Antibody Type||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||1.5 mL|
|RABBIT ANTI GOAT IgG (H & L) BIOTIN CONJUGATED AFFINITY PURIFIED ANTIBODY - 2410243||2410243|
|RABBIT ANTI GOAT IgG (H & L) -2757869||2757869|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: Simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats. |
K Takase, F Kimura, T Yagami, D Mitsushima
Neuroscience 159 7-15 2009
The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats.
|Sex difference in the 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the premotor/supplementary motor area of behaving rats. |
Kenkichi Takase,Dai Mitsushima,Toshiya Funabashi,Fukuko Kimura
Brain research 1154 2007
The sex differences in various motor functions suggest a sex-specific neural basis in the nonprimary or primary motor area. To examine the sex difference in the 24-h profile of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rostral frontal cortex area 2 (rFr2), which is equivalent to the premotor/supplementary motor area in primates, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in both sexes of rats fed pelleted or powdered diet. The dialysate was automatically collected from the rFr2 for 24 h under freely moving conditions. Moreover, the number of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) was examined. Further, to confirm the relation between ACh release in the rFr2 and motor function, the spontaneous locomotor activity was monitored for 24 h. Both sexes showed a distinct 24-h rhythm of ACh release, which was high during the dark phase and low during the light phase. Female rats, however, showed a greater ACh release and more cholinergic neurons in the NBM than male rats. Similarly, spontaneous locomotor activity also showed a 24-h rhythm, which paralleled the changes in ACh release in both sexes, and these changes were again greater in female rats than in male rats. In addition, feeding with powdered diet significantly increased the ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study is the first to report the sex difference in the 24-h profile of ACh release in the rFr2 in rats. The sex specific ACh release in the rFr2 may partly contribute to the sex difference in motor function in rats.
|Molecular characteristics suggest an effector function of palisade endings in extraocular muscles. |
Konakci, KZ; Streicher, J; Hoetzenecker, W; Blumer, MJ; Lukas, JR; Blumer, R
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46 155-65 2005
To analyze palisade endings in cat extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to clarify whether these EOM-specific organs are sensory or motor.Twelve cats aged between 1 and 16 years were analyzed. Whole EOM tendons were immunostained using four different combinations of triple fluorescence labeling. Triple labeling included antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neurofilament, synaptophysin, and alpha-bungarotoxin. Preparations were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. ChAT-labeled EOMs were also analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of palisade endings.Palisade endings were found in the distal and proximal myotendinous regions of cat EOMs. These endings arose from thin nerve fibers coming from the muscle and extending into the tendon. There, the nerve fibers turned back 180 degrees to divide into terminal branches around the muscle fiber tips. Terminal branches established numerous contacts with the tendon attached to the muscle fiber tip and only a few contacts with the muscle fiber. Often, nerve fibers forming palisade endings on muscle fiber tips were observed to establish multiple motor contacts on muscle fibers outside palisade endings. Three-dimensional reconstructions depicted the complex morphology of the palisade endings. All nerve fibers supplying palisade endings stained positively for ChAT and neurofilament. All nerve terminals in palisade endings were ChAT and synaptophysin positive. Only neuromuscular contacts in palisade endings were positive for alpha-bungarotoxin, as well.This study provides evidence that palisade endings in cat EOMs have effector function. The findings may be of significance for strabismus surgery because palisade endings are also found in human EOMs.
|Rabbit anti-Goat IgG - Data Sheet|