Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications|
|B, H, M, Po, R, Rb||RIP, WB|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||10 assays|
|Material Package||10 assays per set. Recommended use: ~5 μg of antibody per RIP (dependent upon biological context).|
|RIPAb+ hnRNP M1-M4 - NRG1880396||NRG1880396|
|RIPAb+ hnRNP M1-M4 - 2564033||2564033|
|RIPAb+ hnRNP M1-M4 -2596518||2596518|
|RIPAb+ hnRNP M1-M4 -2767216||2767216|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|RNA-binding proteins regulate the expression of the immune activating ligand MICB.|
Nachmani, D; Gutschner, T; Reches, A; Diederichs, S; Mandelboim, O
Nature communications 5 4186 2014
The recognition of stress-induced ligands by the activating receptor NKG2D expressed on cytotoxic lymphocytes is crucial for the prevention and containment of various diseases and is also one of the best-studied examples of how danger is sensed by the immune system. Still, however, the mechanisms leading to the expression of the NKG2D ligands are far from being completely understood. Here, we use an unbiased and systematic RNA pull-down approach combined with mass spectrometry to identify six RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that bind and regulate the expression of MICB, one of the major stress-induced ligands of NKG2D. We further demonstrate that at least two of the identified RBPs function during genotoxic stress. Our data provide insights into stress recognition and hopefully open new therapeutic venues.
|Synaptoneurosome micromethod for fractionation of mouse and human brain, and primary neuronal cultures.|
Julia W Chang,Monica M Arnold,Anna Rozenbaum,Anna Caputo,Felix E Schweizer,My Huynh,Gary W Mathern,Theodore A Sarafian,Joseph B Watson
Journal of neuroscience methods 211 2012
Brain and primary neuron fractions enriched in synaptic terminals are important tools for neuroscientists in biochemical, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. We describe an annotated updated micro-method for preparing synaptoneurosomes (SNs) enriched in presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. An easy to follow, step-by-step, protocol is provided for making SNs from small amounts of mammalian brain tissue. This includes novel applications for material obtained from human neurosurgical procedures and primary rat neuronal cultures. Our updated method for preparing SNs using smaller amounts of tissue provides a valuable new tool and expands the capabilities of neuroscientists.
|Upregulation of presynaptic mGluR2, but not mGluR3 in the epileptic medial perforant path.|
Judith Rohde,Timo Kirschstein,Wiebke Wilkars,Lorenz Müller,Tursonjan Tokay,Katrin Porath,Roland A Bender,Rüdiger Köhling
Neuropharmacology 62 2012
Presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) at glutamatergic synapses play a major role in governing release probability. Previous reports indicated a downregulation of group III mGluRs at the lateral perforant path-granule cell synapse in the chronically epileptic hippocampus. Here, we investigated the mGluR-dependent presynaptic inhibition at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse in the pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rat. The specific group II mGluR agonist (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV, 10?M) significantly depressed medial perforant path-evoked responses in control slices, but significantly more so in epileptic tissue. This depression was accompanied by a significant increase of the paired-pulse ratio in both animal groups indicating a presynaptic mechanism. Moreover, we also found that this significantly enhanced DCG-IV effect in the medial perforant path recorded in slices from pilocarpine-treated rats was due to a significant increase of mGluR2, but not mGluR3 transcripts in the entorhinal cortex using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the increased expression of group II mGluRs in the epileptic medial molecular layer. These results demonstrate that chronic epilepsy not only causes downregulation of mGluRs in the hippocampus, but may also lead to enhanced expression of these receptors - at least in the medial perforant path.
|Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons.|
Bradley N Buran,Nicola Strenzke,Andreas Neef,Eckart D Gundelfinger,Tobias Moser,M Charles Liberman
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 2010
Synaptic ribbons, found at the presynaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed that fewer than 3% of the hair cells' afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range, and postonset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or Bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system.Full Text Article
|Fluorescence-activated cell sorting in plant developmental biology.|
Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi,Philip N Benfey
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 655 2010
Understanding the development of an organ requires knowledge of gene, protein, and metabolite expression in the specific cell types and tissues that comprise the organ. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is an efficient method to isolate specific cells of interest, and the information gained from this approach has been integral to plant developmental biology. The Benfey lab has developed this method to examine gene expression profiles of different cell types in the Arabidopsis root under both standard and stress conditions. In addition to gene expression, downstream applications of FACS include proteomic and metabolite analysis. This is a powerful method to examine biological functions of specific cell types and tissues with a systems biology approach.
|Paraquat toxicity induced by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 acts as an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase.|
Hiroki Shimada,Kei-Ichi Hirai,Eriko Simamura,Toshihisa Hatta,Hiroki Iwakiri,Keiji Mizuki,Taizo Hatta,Tatsuya Sawasaki,Satoko Matsunaga,Yaeta Endo,Shigeomi Shimizu
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 2009
Paraquat (PQ), a herbicide used worldwide, causes fatal injury to organs upon high dose ingestion. Treatments for PQ poisoning are unreliable, and numerous deaths have been attributed inappropriate usage of the agent. It is generally speculated that a microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system is responsible for PQ toxicity. However, recent studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity via mitochondria, and therefore, the cytotoxic mechanism remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that mitochondrial NADH-dependent PQ reductase containing a voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) is responsible for PQ cytotoxicity. When mitochondria were incubated with NADH and PQ, superoxide anion (O(2)(*)) was produced, and the mitochondria ruptured. Outer membrane extract oxidized NADH in a PQ dose-dependent manner, and oxidation was suppressed by VDAC inhibitors. Zymographic analysis revealed the presence of VDAC1 protein in the oxidoreductase, and the direct binding of PQ to VDAC1 was demonstrated using biotinylated PQ. VDAC1-overexpressing cells showed increased O(2)(*) production and cytotoxicity, both of which were suppressed in VDAC1 knockdown cells. These results indicated that a VDAC1-containing mitochondrial system is involved in PQ poisoning. These insights into the mechanism of PQ poisoning not only demonstrated novel physiological functions of VDAC protein, but they may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches.Full Text Article
|Loss of synaptophysin-positive boutons on lumbar motor neurons innervating the medial gastrocnemius muscle of the SOD1G93A G1H transgenic mouse model of ALS.|
Da Wei Zang,Elizabeth C Lopes,Surindar S Cheema
Journal of neuroscience research 79 2005
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common form of motor neuron disease (MND) that involves both upper and lower nervous systems. In the SOD1G93A G1H transgenic mouse, a widely used animal model of human ALS, a significant pathology is linked to the degeneration of lower motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord and brainstem. In the current study, the number of presynaptic boutons immunoreactive for synaptophysin was estimated on retrogradely labeled soma and proximal dendrites of alpha and gamma motor neurons innervating the medial gastrocnemius muscle. No changes were detected on both soma and proximal dendrites at postnatal day 60 (P60) of alpha and gamma motor neurons. By P90 and P120, however, alpha motor neuron soma had a reduction of 14 and 33% and a dendritic reduction of 19 and 36%, respectively. By P90 and P120, gamma motor neuron soma had a reduction of 17 and 41% and a dendritic reduction of 19 and 35%, respectively. This study shows that levels of afferent innervation significantly decreased on surviving alpha and gamma motor neurons that innervate the medial gastrocnemius muscle. This finding suggests that the loss of motor neurons and the decrease of synaptophysin in the remaining motor neurons could lead to functional motor deficits, which may contribute significantly to the progression of ALS/MND.
|Proline-glutamate interactions in the CNS.|
J G Ortiz,M L Cordero,A Rosado
Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 21 1997
1. Crude synaptosomes (P2) and synaptosomal membranes were prepared from normal C57/B110 mouse brains and Wistar rats respectively. 2. [3H]Pro binding to mouse brain synaptic membranes was examined in the presence of competitive NMDA antagonist, MK-801, or HA-966. Conversely, the effects of l-proline on [3H]MK-801 binding were also probed. The effects of l-proline on glutamate-medicated [Ca+2]i levels were tested. 3. The authors could not detect any effect of proline on glutamate-mediated [CA+2]i levels using FURA-2 in synaptosomes or neuroblastoma cells. 4. NMDA competitive antagonists, AP-7, CPP, and CGS 19755 inhibit [3H]Pro binding to mouse brain synaptic membranes. 5. MK-801, a NMDA channel blocker, also inhibits [3H]Pro binding, but 200 mM proline is incapable of inhibiting [3H]MK-801 binding. 6. HA-966, a glycine site partial agonist inhibits [3H]Pro binding. Proline has modest effects on [3H]glycine binding.
|3,5-Di-iodo-L-thyronine suppresses TSH in rats in vivo and in rat pituitary fragments in vitro.|
C Horst,A Harneit,H J Seitz,H Rokos
The Journal of endocrinology 145 1995
3,5-Di-iodo-L-thyronine (T2) is a naturally occurring metabolite of thyroxine (T4). Contrary to earlier findings, T2 has recently been shown to have rapid effects in rat liver and in mononuclear blood cells. In the experiments described here, T2 was tested to determine whether it has a TSH suppressive effect in rats in vivo and in rat pituitary fragments in vitro. In experiments over 2 weeks in rats in vivo, low doses of T2 (20-200 micrograms/100 g body weight per day) had no significant influence on body and organ weights, but significantly decreased TSh and T4 serum concentrations. At 200 micrograms/100 g per day, T2 suppressed TSH to 43% and T4 to 29% of control levels. At 1-15 micrograms/100 g per day, 3,5,3'-tri-iodo-L-thyronine (T3), used as a comparison to T2, had significant effects on TSH and T4 levels, and also on body weight. Fifteen micrograms T3/100 g per day decreased TSH to 44%, T4 to 25%, and body weight to 59% of control levels. In experiments over 3 months in rats in vivo, a low dose (25 micrograms/100 g per day) of T2 suppressed TSH to 60% and T4 to 57% of control levels and had no significant influence on other parameters. Conversely, 0.1 microgram/100 g per day T3 had significant effects on body and organ weights as well as pellet intake, but a less pronounced TSH suppressive effect: TSH concentrations were unchanged and T4 concentrations were down to 80% of control values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
|Chick sympathetic neurons in culture respond differentially to nerve growth factor and conditioned medium from activated splenic lymphocytes.|
J J Luo,S Hasegawa
Neuroscience research 10 1991
Chicken splenic cells, stimulated by concanavalin A, secreted a factor or factors into the culture medium which supported the survival of neurons from sympathetic ganglia of chick embryos. The effect of this conditioned medium (CM) was similar to the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF). However, the enhanced survival effect of CM was unaffected by K-252a, a protein kinase inhibitor which completely abolished the effect of NGF. 6-Thioguanine, an inhibitor of NGF-activated protein kinase N, blocked the survival effects of both NGF and CM on sympathetic neurons, but a dose required for the half-maximal inhibition for the survival effect of CM was 10 times higher than that for NGF. H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, did not block the effect of either CM or NGF. On the other hand, the survival effect of both CM and NGF was blocked to the same extent by 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine and LiCl. These results suggest that activated splenic cells secreted neuronal survival-promoting factor(s) into CM and that the cellular mechanisms promoting neuronal survival by CM are different from those promoting neuronal survival induced by NGF.
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