Key Specifications Table
|Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Application||The NS220 Neurite Outgrowth Assay Kit (3 µm) is based on the use of Millicell cell culture inserts (chambers) containing a permeable membrane with 3-μm pores at the base.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||When stored at 2-8° C, the kit components are stable up to the expiration date. Do not freeze or expose to elevated temperatures. Discard any remaining reagents after the expiration date.|
|Material Size||12 assays|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Co-administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor with its soluble receptor protects against neuronal death and enhances neurite outgrowth. |
Ozog, Mark A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 283: 6546-60 (2008) 2008
|Identification of process-localized mRNAs from cultured rodent hippocampal neurons. |
Poon, Michael M, et al.
J. Neurosci., 26: 13390-9 (2006) 2006
The regulated translation of localized mRNAs in neurons provides a mechanism for spatially restricting gene expression in a synapse-specific manner. To identify the population of mRNAs present in distal neuronal processes of rodent hippocampal neurons, we grew neurons on polycarbonate filters etched with 3 microm pores. Although the neuronal cell bodies remained on the top surface of the filters, dendrites, axons, and glial processes penetrated through the pores to grow along the bottom surface of the membrane where they could be mechanically separated from cell bodies. Quantitative PCR and immunochemical analyses of the process preparation revealed that it was remarkably free of somatic contamination. Microarray analysis of RNA isolated from the processes identified over 100 potentially localized mRNAs. In situ hybridization studies of 19 of these transcripts confirmed that all 19 were present in dendrites, validating the utility of this approach for identifying dendritically localized transcripts. Many of the identified mRNAs encoded components of the translational machinery and several were associated with the RNA-binding protein Staufen. These findings indicate that there is a rich repertoire of mRNAs whose translation can be locally regulated and support the emerging idea that local protein synthesis serves to boost the translational capacity of synapses.
|Small GTPase Tc10 and its homologue RhoT induce N-WASP-mediated long process formation and neurite outgrowth. |
Abe, Tomoyuki, et al.
J. Cell. Sci., 116: 155-68 (2003) 2003
Rho family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular functions through reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Among them, Cdc42 and Tc10 induce filopodia or peripheral processes in cultured cells. We have identified a member of the family, designated as RhoT, which is closely related to Tc10. Tc10 was highly expressed in muscular tissues and brain and remarkably induced during differentiation of C2 skeletal muscle cells and neuronal differentiation of PC12 and N1E-115 cells. On the other hand, RhoT was predominantly expressed in heart and uterus and induced during neuronal differentiation of N1E-115 cells. Tc10 exogenously expressed in fibroblasts generated actin-filament-containing peripheral processes longer than the Cdc42-formed filopodia, whereas RhoT produced much longer and thicker processes containing actin filaments. Furthermore, both Tc10 and RhoT induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 and N1E-115 cells, but Cdc42 did not do this by itself. Tc10 and RhoT as well as Cdc42 bound to the N-terminal CRIB-motif-containing portion of N-WASP and activated N-WASP to induce Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin polymerization. The formation of peripheral processes and neurites by Tc10 and RhoT was prevented by the coexpression of dominant-negative mutants of N-WASP. Thus, N-WASP is essential for the process formation and neurite outgrowth induced by Tc10 and RhoT. Neuronal differentiation of PC12 and N1E-115 cells induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and by serum starvation, respectively, was prevented by dominant-negative Cdc42, Tc10 and RhoT. Taken together, all these Rho family proteins are required for neuronal differentiation, but they exert their functions differentially in process formation and neurite extension. Consequently, N-WASP activated by these small GTPases mediates neuronal differentiation in addition to its recently identified role in glucose uptake.
|Spinal cord repair: strategies to promote axon regeneration. |
Neurobiol. Dis., 8: 11-8 (2001) 2001
Neurons in the central nervous system have a remarkable capacity to regenerate their transected axons when provided with an appropriate growth environment. Advances in our understanding of axon regeneration have allowed the development of different experimental strategies to stimulate axon regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Growth inhibitory proteins block axon regeneration in the CNS, and many of these proteins have been identified. Various methods that are now used to stimulate regeneration in the injured spinal cord are directed at overcoming the growth inhibitory environment of the CNS. Three general approaches tested in vivo stimulate regeneration in the spinal cord. First, antibodies that bind inhibitory proteins in myelin allow axon regeneration in the CNS. Second, methods that modulate neuronal intracellular signaling allow axons to grow directly on the inhibitory substrate of the CNS. Third, transplantation of cells to the lesioned spinal cord promotes repair. In this paper we review current advances in each of these research domains.
|Repulsive factors and axon regeneration in the CNS |
Fournier, A E and Strittmatter, S M
Curr Opin Neurobiol, 11:89-94 (2001) 2001
|Glial inhibition of nerve regeneration in the mature mammalian CNS. |
Qiu, J, et al.
Glia, 29: 166-74 (2000) 2000
The lack of axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS is due to both unfavorable environmental glial factors and the intrinsic neuronal state. Inhibitors associated with myelin and the glial scar have been extensively studies and it has been shown that neutralizing at least some of the inhibitors can lead to improved growth. Meanwhile, important advances have also been made towards our understanding of the neuronal intrinsic state, particularly the intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotide, that influence the capacity of mature CNS neurons to initiate and maintain a regrowth response. It is well recognized that successful regeneration may only be achieved by application of a combination of strategies that both block glial inhibitors and enhance the intrinsic neuronal growth capacity.
|Axon regeneration: Vaccinating against spinal cord injury |
Filbin, M T
Curr Biol, 10:R100-R103 (2000) 2000
|Myelination determines the caliber of dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture |
Windebank, A J, et al
J Neurosci, 5:1563-1569 (1985) 1985
|AXIS: Axon Investigation System|
|Poster: High Throughput Screening To Identify Novel Molecular Pathways Involved In Neurite Outgrowth|
|Neurite Outgrowth Assay Kit|