|Cloning and sequencing of the complete cDNA encoding the human insulin receptor related receptor. |
Hänze, J, et al.
Horm. Metab. Res., 31: 77-9 (1999)
The insulin receptor related receptor (IRR) is a heterotetrameric transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. The IRR shares large homology with the insulin and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) receptor with regard to amino acid sequence and protein structure. So far, only a partial human sequence containing the complete 3' end has been reported, although the full-length human IRR cDNA had been used for transfection studies and functional analysis of the receptor. We have isolated a full-length human IRR cDNA and report on the 5' translated and untranslated region of the human IRR gene. The full length IRR sequence contains 4150 bases and shares a high degree of homology with the guinea pig IRR cDNA sequence and rat IRR sequences that had been reported earlier on by others. Sequencing of the IRR cDNA revealed that the human IRR cDNA contains 341 bases corresponding to the IRR 5' end in addition to the bases that had been reported on before. Also, this sequence contains the start codon of translation. The full length cDNA for the human IRR can now be used for functional expression studies and to elucidate the nature of the ligand for this receptor type.
|Correlation of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-I-R) and insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) messenger RNA levels in tumor cell lines from pediatric tumors of neuronal origin. |
Elmlinger, M W, et al.
Regul. Pept., 84: 37-42 (1999)
The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) is a member of the insulin receptor family. So far no ligand has yet been discovered for this receptor type (orphan receptor). IRR, insulin receptor (IR), and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-I-R) are all tyrosine kinases. The cellular function of the IRR is not known. The expression of IRR mRNA is restricted to a few, e.g. neuronal tissues, and has also been found in neuroblastomas. Since tyrosine kinase receptors, including the IGF-I-R, may be involved in tumor genesis, we examined the expression of IRR mRNA and IGF-I-mRNA in 18 tumor cell lines using RT-PCR and the solution hybridization/RNAse protection assay. In particular, the mRNA levels of IRR and IGF-I-R were compared by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in seven neuroblastomas and 11 soft tissue sarcomas (STS), five of which were of neuronal origin. In all of the seven neuroblastoma cell lines and in five of the 11 STS cell lines, the IRR mRNA was detected. In addition, the IRR mRNA was expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma, in leiomyosarcoma, in one of the Ewing sarcoma and in the neurofibrosarcoma cell line. The last two tumor cell types are of neuronal origin. The levels of expression of IGF-I-R and IRR mRNA of the neuroblastoma cell lines were closely related (r = 0.82, P < 0.002). Furthermore, IRR mRNA was found only in cell lines that also expressed IGF-I-R mRNA. In conclusion, cell lines from pediatric tumors of neuronal origin express IRR mRNA simultaneously with a another tyrosine kinase receptor (IGF-I-R) mRNA. The tight coupling of their mRNA expression suggests a functional association of both receptors in the tumor cells.
|Primary structure of a putative receptor for a ligand of the insulin family. |
Shier, P and Watt, V M
J. Biol. Chem., 264: 14605-8 (1989)
Nucleotide sequence analysis of human and guinea pig genomic DNA encoding a new member of the insulin receptor (IR) family revealed that the predicted primary structure of this IR-related protein is as similar to the IR and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I receptor as the IR and IGF-IR are to each other. The conservation of this IR-related sequence among mammals and with the IR and IGF-IR suggests that this IR-related protein is a novel receptor for insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, or an as yet unidentified peptide hormone or growth factor belonging to the insulin family.