|Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. |
V T T Huyen,D V Phan,P Thang,P T Ky,N K Hoa,C G Ostenson
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) together with sulfonylurea (SU) in 25 drug-na
|Islet autoimmunity status in Asians with young-onset diabetes (12-40 years): association with clinical characteristics, beta cell function and cardio-metabolic risk factors. |
A C Thai,V Mohan,B A K Khalid,C S Cockram,C Y Pan,P Zimmet,J P Yeo,
Diabetes research and clinical practice
In this paper, the islet autoimmunity status and relation to clinical characteristics, beta cell function and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young-onset Asian diabetic patients are evaluated at baseline. The study population consisted of 912 patients (from China, India, Malaysia and Singapore) with age 12-40 years and diabetes duration <12 months. Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2A), beta cell function and cardio-metabolic risk parameters were assessed. Among our young patient cohort, 105 (11.5%) patients were GADA and/or IA-2A positives (Ab +ve). Ab +ve patients were younger, leaner, had more severe hyperglycaemia and lower beta cell function. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in Ab +ve patients (27%) compared to Ab -ve patients (54%). However, a substantial proportion of patients in both groups of patients had atherogenic dyslipidaemia, hypertension and albuminuria (micro or macro). In our study cohort, only one in 10 Asian youth with new-onset diabetes had evidence of islet autoimmunity. At least 60% of Ab +ve and 50% of Ab -ve patients demonstrated classical features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes respectively. Regardless of autoimmunity status, the cardio-metabolic risk factors, in particular atherogenic dyslipidaemia, hypertension and albuminuria were common in our patients with young-onset diabetes.
|Sensitive quantitative analysis of C-peptide in human plasma by 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry isotope-dilution assay. |
Eduard Rogatsky, Beate Balent, Gayotri Goswami, Vlad Tomuta, Harsha Jayatillake, Greg Cruikshank, Louis Vele, Daniel T Stein
BACKGROUND: Isotope-dilution assays (IDAs) are well established for quantification of metabolites or small drug molecules in biological fluids. Because of their increased specificity, IDAs are an alternative to immunoassays for measuring C-peptide. METHODS: We evaluated a 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D LC/MS) IDA method. Sample preparation was by off-line solid-phase extraction, and C-peptide separation was performed on an Agilent 1100 2D LC system with a purification method based on high-pressure switching between 2 high-resolution reversed-phase columns. Because of the low fragmentation efficiency of C-peptide, multiple-reaction monitoring analysis was omitted and selective-ion monitoring mode was chosen for quantification. Native and isotope-labeled ([M+18] and [M+30]) C-peptides were monitored in the +3 state at m/z 1007.7, 1013.7, and 1017.7. RESULTS: The assay was linear (r(2) = 0.9995), with a detection limit of 300 amole (1 pg) on column. Inter- and intraday CVs for C-peptide were or =2%. Comparison with an established polyclonal-based RIA showed high correlation (r = 0.964). Plasma concentrations of total C-peptide measured by RIA were consistently higher than by IDA LC/MS, consistent with the higher specificity of IDAs compared with immunoassays. CONCLUSIONS: The 2D LC/MS IDA approach eliminates matrix effects, enhancing assay performance and reliability, and has a detection limit 100-fold lower than any previously reported LC/MS method. Isotope-labeled C-peptide(s) can be clearly differentiated from endogenous C-peptide by the difference in m/z ratio, so that both peptides can be quantified simultaneously. The method is highly precise, robust, and applicable to pharmacokinetic detection of plasma peptides.