Key Specifications Table
|Key Applications||Entrez Gene Number||Uni Prot Number|
|Enzyme Assays, WB||NM_003538.3||P62805|
|Description||Histone H4 Protein, human recombinant, 1 mg|
|Overview||Recombinant human histone H4 produced in E. coli.|
|Application||Recombinant human histone H4 produced in E. coli, purified by FPLC. For use in Enzyme Assays & Western Blotting.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C from date of shipment|
|Material Size||1 mg|
Histone H4 Protein, human recombinant, 1 mg SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hat1 (Kat1) is associated with Mis16 and is required for telomeric silencing.|
Tong, K; Keller, T; Hoffman, CS; Annunziato, AT
Eukaryotic cell 11 1095-103 2012
The Hat1 histone acetyltransferase has been implicated in the acetylation of histone H4 during chromatin assembly. In this study, we have characterized the Hat1 complex from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and have examined its role in telomeric silencing. Hat1 is found associated with the RbAp46 homologue Mis16, an essential protein. The Hat1 complex acetylates lysines 5 and 12 of histone H4, the sites that are acetylated in newly synthesized H4 in a wide range of eukaryotes. Deletion of hat1 in S. pombe is itself sufficient to cause the loss of silencing at telomeres. This is in contrast to results obtained with an S. cerevisiae hat1Δ strain, which must also carry mutations of specific acetylatable lysines in the H3 tail domain for loss of telomeric silencing to occur. Notably, deletion of hat1 from S. pombe resulted in an increase of acetylation of histone H4 in subtelomeric chromatin, concomitant with derepression of this region. A similar loss of telomeric silencing was also observed after growing cells in the presence of the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. However, deleting hat1 did not cause loss of silencing at centromeres or the silent mating type locus. These results point to a direct link between Hat1, H4 acetylation, and the establishment of repressed telomeric chromatin in fission yeast.
|Expression and purification of recombinant human histones.|
Tanaka, Yoshinori, et al.
Methods, 33: 3-11 (2004) 2004
Nucleosomes reconstituted from bacterially expressed histones are useful for functional and structural analyses of histone variants, histone mutants, and histone post-translational modifications. In the present study, we developed a new method for the expression and purification of recombinant human histones. The human histone H2A, H2B, and H3 genes were expressed well in Escherichia coli cells, but the human histone H4 gene was poorly expressed. Therefore, we designed a new histone H4 gene with codons optimized for the E. coli expression system and constructed the H4 gene by chemically synthesized oligodeoxyribonucleotides. The recombinant human histones were expressed as hexahistidine-tagged proteins and were purified by one-step chromatography with nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose in the presence of 6 M urea. The H2A/H2B dimer and the H3/H4 tetramer were refolded by dialysis against buffer without urea, and the hexahistidine-tags of the histones in the H2A/H2B dimer and the H3/H4 tetramer were removed by thrombin protease digestion. The H2A/H2B dimer and the H3/H4 tetramer obtained by this method were confirmed to be proficient in nucleosome formation by the salt dialysis method. The human CENP-A gene, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, contains 28 minor codons for E. coli. A new CENP-A gene optimized for the E. coli expression system was also constructed, and we found that the purified recombinant CENP-A protein formed a nucleosome-like structure with histones H2A, H2B, and H4.
|Expression, purification, and structural characterization of human histone H4.|
Vergani, Laura, et al.
Protein Expr. Purif., 24: 420-8 (2002) 2002
Recombinant human histone H4 (hH4) was produced in milligrams quantities in Escherichia coli, without altering the codons of the original cDNA sequence. The hH4 cDNA was subcloned into the pQE30 expression vector, in frame with a sequence encoding an N-terminal stretch of six histidine residues. Purification to electrophoretic homogeneity was obtained by nickel-chelating chromatography, followed by gel filtration. The final yield of the entire expression and purification process was about 1 mg of pure histone H4 per liter of bacterial culture. SDS-PAGE analysis showed for the recombinant H4 a molecular weight corresponding to the expected one (12,535 Da). Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to estimate the secondary structural composition of recombinant histone, when it is isolated from the physiological core particle. It was observed that under these conditions histone H4 exhibits an altered secondary conformation. In order to induce the recombinant histone to assume a conformation more similar to the one measured when it is organized inside the nucleosome, we resuspended it in buffers at increasing ionic strengths and in the presence of different concentrations of trifluoroethanol. We tried also to mimic the physiological situation of histone H4 by adding an equimolar amount of a commercial DNA to the protein solution. Finally, an estimation of protein thermal stability was evaluated by spectropolarimetry.
|Characterization of nucleosome core particles containing histone proteins made in bacteria.|
Luger, K, et al.
J. Mol. Biol., 272: 301-11 (1997) 1997
The four core histone proteins, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 of Xenopus laevis have been individually expressed in milligram quantities in Escherichia coli. The full-length proteins and the "trypsin-resistant" globular domains were purified under denaturing conditions and folded into histone octamers. Both intact and truncated recombinant octamers, as well as chicken erythrocyte octamer, were assembled into nucleosome core particles using a 146 bp defined-sequence DNA fragment from a 5 S RNA gene. The three types of core particles were characterized and compared by gel electrophoresis, DNase I cleavage, and tyrosine fluorescence emission during stepwise dissociation with increasing ionic strength. Nucleosome core particles containing native and mutant histones made in bacteria have facilitated its X-ray structure determination at 2.8 A resolution.