|Proliferative capacity and pluripotent characteristics of porcine adult stem cells derived from adipose tissue and bone marrow. |
Lina Tang,Yupeng Yin,Haole Zhou,Guangqi Song,Anran Fan,Bo Tang,Wei Shi,Ziyi Li
Abstract Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides an invaluable resource for regenerative medicine. Because of some ethical and logistical barriers, human iPSCs cannot be used to generate a chimera, which is one of markers representing pluripotency. As the most attractive model for preclinical studies, pigs offer another path to improve clinical medicine. In this study, porcine adult stem cells (pASCs), including adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), were collected and cultured under the same conditions in vitro. Real-time PCR, immunocytochemical staining, apoptosis analysis, and induced differentiation and reprogramming techniques were used to investigate the proliferative capacity and pluripotent characteristics of pASCs. Our results showed that both AMSCs and BMSCs displayed a similar immunophenotype, and their proliferative capacity appeared as a downward trend as the cell passage number increased. The cell proliferative capacity of AMSCs was significantly lower than that of BMSCs (p<0.05). Moreover, each type of pASCs went through 20 passages without undergoing alterations in the expression of reprogramming transcriptional factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Nanog). All pASCs had adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. In addition, they also could be reprogrammed to pig induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) with similar time and efficiency. In conclusion, porcine BMSCs had a higher proliferative capacity than AMSCs, and the pluripotency of pASCs was stable in long-term culture.
|Decreased Cholinergic Receptor Expression in the Striatum: Motor Function Deficit in Hypoglycemic and Diabetic Rats. |
Sherin A, Peeyush KT, Jayanarayanan S, Amee KK, Paulose CS
Cellular and molecular neurobiology
Hypoglycemic brain injury is a common and serious complication of insulin therapy associated with diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of insulin-induced hypoglycemia and STZ-induced diabetes on striatal cholinergic receptors and enzyme expression and on motor function. Cholinergic enzymes: AChE and ChAT gene expression, radioreceptor binding assay and immunohistochemistry of muscarinic M1, M3 receptors and α7nAChR were carried out. Motor performance on grid walk test was analysed. AChE and ChAT expression significantly downregulated in hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. Total muscarinic and Muscarinic M3 receptor binding decreased in hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic rats whereas muscarinic M1 receptor binding increased in hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic rats. Real-time PCR analysis and confocal imaging of muscarinic M1, M3 receptors confirmed the changes in muscarinic receptor binding in hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. In hypoglycemic rats, α7nAChR expression significantly up regulated compared to diabetic rats. Grid walk test demonstrated the impairment in motor function and coordination in hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats. Neurochemical changes along with the behavioral data implicate a role for impaired striatal cholinergic receptor function inducing motor function deficit induced by hypo and hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia exacerbated the neurobehavioral deficit in diabetes which has clinical significance in the treatment of diabetes.
|Interleukin-6 and IL-6 receptor cell expression in testis of rats with autoimmune orchitis. |
Claudia Rival, María S Theas, Vanesa A Guazzone, Livia Lustig
Journal of reproductive immunology
Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is an organ-specific model of autoimmunity characterized by an interstitial lymphomononuclear cell infiltrate as well as sloughing and apoptosis of germ cells. EAO was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by active immunization with testicular homogenate and adjuvants. Rats injected with saline solution and adjuvants were used as control group. The aim of this work was to study the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL-6R) in the testis of rats with EAO and analyze whether IL-6 could be involved in germ cell apoptosis. By immunohistochemistry, we detected IL-6 expression in testicular macrophages and Leydig cells of control and EAO rats. Sertoli cells showed IL-6 immunoreactivity in most of the seminiferous tubules of control rats, while a few IL-6+ Sertoli cells were found in the testis of rats with EAO. IL-6R immunoreactivity was observed in macrophages, Leydig and germ cells. A significant increase was noted in the number of IL-6R+ germ cells in rats with EAO compared to control rats. The content of IL-6 (ELISA) in the conditioned media obtained from testicular macrophages of rats with orchitis was significantly higher than in the control group. By immunofluorescence performed on isolated testicular macrophages, IL-6 was shown to be expressed by monocytes recently arrived from circulation (ED1+ cells), while resident macrophages (ED2+ cells) were negative. In vitro experiments (trypan blue and MTS assays) showed that IL-6 (50 ng/ml) reduced germ cell viability. We demonstrated also using the TUNEL technique that IL-6 added to cultures of seminiferous tubule segments induced apoptosis of germ cells. Our results suggest that IL-6 and IL-6R may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune orchitis by promoting testicular inflammation and germ cell apoptosis.
|BAALC, the human member of a novel mammalian neuroectoderm gene lineage, is implicated in hematopoiesis and acute leukemia. |
Tanner, SM; Austin, JL; Leone, G; Rush, LJ; Plass, C; Heinonen, K; Mrózek, K; Sill, H; Knuutila, S; Kolitz, JE; Archer, KJ; Caligiuri, MA; Bloomfield, CD; de La Chapelle, A
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The molecular basis of human leukemia is heterogeneous. Cytogenetic findings are increasingly associated with molecular abnormalities, some of which are being understood at the functional level. Specific therapies can be developed based on such knowledge. To search for new genes in the acute leukemias, we performed a representational difference analysis. We describe a human gene in chromosome 8q22.3, BAALC (brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic), that is highly conserved among mammals but evidently absent from lower organisms. We characterized BAALC on the genomic level and investigated its expression pattern in human and mouse, as well as its complex splicing behavior. In vitro studies of the protein showing its subcellular localization suggest a function in the cytoskeleton network. Two isoforms are specifically expressed in neuroectoderm-derived tissues, but not in tumors or cancer cell lines of nonneural tissue origin. We show that blasts from a subset of patients with acute leukemia greatly overexpress eight different BAALC transcripts, resulting in five protein isoforms. Among patients with acute myeloid leukemia, those overexpressing BAALC show distinctly poor prognosis, pointing to a key role of the BAALC products in leukemia. Our data suggest that BAALC is a gene implicated in both neuroectodermal and hematopoietic cell functions.