Key Specifications Table
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 mg|
|FLUORO-JADE#174; B - 2115915||2115915|
|FLUORO-JADE#174; B - 2020489||2020489|
|FLUORO-JADE#174; B - 2043869||2043869|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury. |
Li, Y; Lein, PJ; Liu, C; Bruun, DA; Giulivi, C; Ford, GD; Tewolde, T; Ross-Inta, C; Ford, BD
Toxicology and applied pharmacology 262 194-204 2012
Current medical countermeasures against organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are effective in reducing mortality, but do not sufficiently protect the CNS from delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. In this study, we examined the efficacy of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in protecting against delayed neuronal cell death following acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg BW, i.m.) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg BW, i.p.) intoxication to increase survival and reduce peripheral signs of cholinergic toxicity but not prevent DFP-induced seizures or delayed neuronal injury. Pretreatment with NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. However, neuronal injury was significantly reduced in most brain regions by pretreatment with NRG-1 isoforms NRG-EGF (3.2 μg/kg BW, i.a) or NRG-GGF2 (48 μg/kg BW, i.a.) as determined by FluroJade-B labeling in multiple brain regions at 24 h post-DFP injection. NRG-1 also blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. Administration of NRG-1 at 1h after DFP injection similarly provided significant neuroprotection against delayed neuronal injury. These findings identify NRG-1 as a promising adjuvant therapy to current medical countermeasures for enhancing neuroprotection against acute OP intoxication.
|An experimental protocol for mimicking pathomechanisms of traumatic brain injury in mice. |
Christiane Albert-Weißenberger,Csanád Várrallyay,Furat Raslan,Christoph Kleinschnitz,Anna-Leena Sirén,Christiane Albert-Wei,Csan V,Anna-Leena Sir
Experimental & translational stroke medicine 4 2012
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a result of an outside force causing immediate mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events. In order to examine injury processes associated with TBI, a number of rodent models to induce brain trauma have been described. However, none of these models covers the entire spectrum of events that might occur in TBI. Here we provide a thorough methodological description of a straightforward closed head weight drop mouse model to assess brain injuries close to the clinical conditions of human TBI.
|Vulnerability of postnatal hippocampal neurons to seizures varies regionally with their maturational stage. |
Maria-Leonor Lopez-Meraz,Claude G Wasterlain,Luisa L Rocha,Suni Allen,Jerome Niquet
Neurobiology of disease 37 2010
The mechanism of status epilepticus-induced neuronal death in the immature brain is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the contribution of caspases in our lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus in 14 days old rat pups. In CA1, upregulation of caspase-8, but not caspase-9, preceded caspase-3 activation in morphologically necrotic cells. Pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor provided neuroprotection, showing that caspase activation was not an epiphenomenon but contributed to neuronal necrosis. By contrast, upregulation of active caspase-9 and caspase-3, but not caspase-8, was detected in apoptotic dentate gyrus neurons, which were immunoreactive for doublecortin and calbindin-negative, two features of immature neurons. These results suggest that, in cells which are aligned in series as parts of the same excitatory hippocampal circuit, the same seizures induce neuronal death through different mechanisms. The regional level of neuronal maturity may be a determining factor in the execution of a specific death program.Full Text Article
|Allele-specific RNA silencing of mutant ataxin-3 mediates neuroprotection in a rat model of Machado-Joseph disease. |
Alves, Sandro, et al.
PLoS ONE, 3: e3341 (2008) 2008
Recent studies have demonstrated that RNAi is a promising approach for treating autosomal dominant disorders. However, discrimination between wild-type and mutant transcripts is essential, to preserve wild-type expression and function. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is present in more than 70% of patients with Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). We investigated whether this SNP could be used to inactivate mutant ataxin-3 selectively. Lentiviral-mediated silencing of mutant human ataxin-3 was demonstrated in vitro and in a rat model of MJD in vivo. The allele-specific silencing of ataxin-3 significantly decreased the severity of the neuropathological abnormalities associated with MJD. These data demonstrate that RNAi has potential for use in MJD treatment and constitute the first proof-of-principle for allele-specific silencing in the central nervous system.
|Differential neuroprotective properties of endogenous and exogenous erythropoietin in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury. |
Na'ama A Shein,Nikolaos Grigoriadis,Alexander G Alexandrovich,Constantina Simeonidou,Evangelia Spandou,Jeanna Tsenter,Ido Yatsiv,Michal Horowitz,Esther Shohami
Journal of neurotrauma 25 2008
Both heat acclimation (HA) and post-injury treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo, rhEpo, exogenous Epo) are neuroprotective against traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our previous data demonstrated that HA-induced neuroprotection includes improved functional recovery and reduced cerebral edema formation. Additionally, in earlier Western-blot analyses, we found that HA mice display increased expression of the specific erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), the inducible subunit of the transcription factor, which regulates Epo gene expression, but not of Epo itself. In light of this, the aim of the current study was threefold: (1) to assess Epo expression in the trauma area and hippocampus following HA, rhEpo administration, or combined HA-rhEpo treatment, using immunohistochemical methods that offer enhanced anatomical resolution; (2) to examine the effects of endogenous and exogenous Epo on edema formation in normothermic (NT) mice; and (3) to evaluate the effects of exogenous Epo administration on neuroprotective outcome measures in HA animals. HA induced enhanced expression of endogenous Epo in the trauma area and the hippocampus. Treatment with anti-Epo antibody given to NT mice increased edema formation, whereas rhEpo induced no beneficial effect. Cognitive performance testing and immunohistochemical findings reinforced HA and rhEpo as separate protective interventions but showed no advantage to combining the two strategies. We therefore suggest that HA-induced neuroprotection is shaped by pre-existing mediators but cannot be modified by post-injury treatment aimed at increasing the levels of neuroprotective agents.
|Status epilepticus induces time-dependent neuronal and astrocytic expression of interleukin-1 receptor type I in the rat limbic system. |
Ravizza, T and Vezzani, A
Neuroscience, 137: 301-8 (2006) 2006
Interleukin-1beta is rapidly synthesized by glia after the induction of seizures. Recent evidence shows that endogenous IL-1beta has proconvulsant actions mediated by interleukin-1 receptor type I. This receptor also mediates interleukin-1beta effects on neuronal susceptibility to neurotoxic insults. In this study, we investigated the basal and seizure-induced expression of interleukin-1 receptor type I in rat forebrain to identify the cells targeted by interleukin-1beta during epileptic activity. Self-sustained limbic status epilepticus was induced in rats by electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampus. Interleukin-1 receptor type I immunoreactivity was barely detectable in neurons in control brain tissue. During status epilepticus, interleukin-1 receptor type I was induced in the hippocampal neurons firstly, and several hours later in astrocytes localized in limbic and extralimbic areas. Neuronal interleukin-1 receptor type I expression in the hippocampus outlasted the duration of spontaneous electroencephalographic seizure and was not observed in degenerating neurons. Astrocytic expression occurred transiently, between six and 18 h after the induction of status epilepticus and was invariably found in regions of neuronal damage. These time-dependent, cell- and region-specific changes in interleukin-1 receptor type I expression during status epilepticus suggest that interleukin-1 receptor type I in neurons mediates interleukin-1beta-induced fast changes in hippocampal excitability while interleukin-1 receptor type I receptors in astrocytes may mediate interleukin-1beta effects on neuronal survival in hostile conditions.
|Neuropathology and neurodegeneration in rodent brain induced by lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein. |
Lauwers, Erwin, et al.
Brain Pathol., 13: 364-72 (2003) 2003
Two mutations in alpha-synuclein, the main constituent of Lewy bodies, have been identified in familial Parkinson's disease. We have stereotactically injected lentiviral vectors encoding wild-type and A30P mutant human alpha-synuclein in different brain regions (striatum, substantia nigra, amygdala) of mice. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein induced time-dependent neuropathological changes reminiscent of Lewy pathology: abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein in cell bodies and neurites, alpha-synuclein-positive neuritic varicosities and cytoplasmic inclusions that stained with ubiquitin antibodies and became larger and more frequent with time. After one year, alpha-synuclein- and ubiquitin-positive neurons displayed a degenerative morphology and a significant loss of alpha-synuclein-positive cells was observed. Similar findings were observed with both the wild-type and the A30P mutant form of alpha-synuclein and this in different brain regions. This indicates that overexpression of alpha-synuclein is sufficient to induce Lewy-like pathology and neurodegeneration and that this effect is not restricted to dopaminergic cells. Our data also demonstrate the use of lentiviral vectors to create animal models for neurodegenerative diseases.
|Fluoro-Jade B: a high affinity fluorescent marker for the localization of neuronal degeneration. |
Schmued, L C and Hopkins, K J
Brain Res., 874: 123-30 (2000) 2000
Fluoro-Jade B, like its predecessor Fluoro-Jade, is an anionic fluorescein derivative useful for the histological staining of neurons undergoing degeneration. However, Fluoro-Jade B has an even greater specific affinity for degenerating neurons. This notion is supported by the conspicuous staining of degenerating neuronal elements with minimal background staining. This improved signal-to-noise ratio means that fine neuronal processes including distal dendrites, axons and axon terminals can be more readily detected and documented. Although the staining time and dye concentration are reduced, the method is as rapid, simple and reliable as the original Fluoro-Jade technique. Like Fluoro-Jade, Fluoro-Jade B is compatible with a number of other labeling procedures including immunofluorescent and fluorescent Nissl techniques.