|Presentation||Lyophilized. Buffer = 0.01 M Sodium Phosphate, 0.15 M NaCl, pH 7.1 with 15 mg/mL BSA, and 0.1% sodium azide.
Reconstitute with 500 μL of sterile distilled water.
|Antibody Type||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||500 µL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The excitatory synaptic transmission of the nucleus of solitary tract was potentiated by chronic myocardial infarction in rats.|
Li, J; Zhang, MM; Tu, K; Wang, J; Feng, B; Zhang, ZN; Lei, J; Li, YQ; Du, JQ; Chen, T
PloS one 10 e0118827 2015
Angina pectoris is a common clinical symptom that often results from myocardial infarction. One typical characteristic of angina pectoris is that the pain does not match the severity of the myocardial ischemia. One possible explanation is that the intensity of cardiac nociceptive information could be dynamically regulated by certain brain areas. As an important nucleus for processing cardiac nociception, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has been studied to some extent. However, until now, the morphological and functional involvement of the NTS in chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) has remained unknown. In the present study, by exploring left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery, we found that the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive puncta and Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the rat NTS two weeks after ligation surgery increased significantly. Excitatory pre- and postsynaptic transmission was potentiated. A bath application of a Ca2+ channel inhibitor GABApentin and Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor antagonist NASPM could reverse the potentiated pre- and postsynaptic transmission, respectively. Meanwhile, rats with CMI showed significantly increased visceral pain behaviors. Microinjection of GABApentin or NASPM into the NTS decreased the CMI-induced visceral pain behaviors. In sum, our results suggest that the NTS is an important area for the process of cardiac afference in chronic myocardial infarction condition.
|Effects of maternal exposure to ultrafine carbon black on brain perivascular macrophages and surrounding astrocytes in offspring mice.|
Onoda, A; Umezawa, M; Takeda, K; Ihara, T; Sugamata, M
PloS one 9 e94336 2014
Perivascular macrophages (PVMs) constitute a subpopulation of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). They are located at the blood-brain barrier and can contribute to maintenance of brain functions in both health and disease conditions. PVMs have been shown to respond to particle substances administered during the prenatal period, which may alter their phenotype over a long period. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to ultrafine carbon black (UfCB) on PVMs and astrocytes close to the blood vessels in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were exposed to UfCB suspension by intranasal instillation on gestational days 5 and 9. Brains were collected from their offspring at 6 and 12 weeks after birth. PVM and astrocyte phenotypes were examined by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, transmission electron microscopy and PAS-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double staining. PVM granules were found to be enlarged and the number of PAS-positive PVMs was decreased in UfCB-exposed offspring. These results suggested that in offspring, "normal" PVMs decreased in a wide area of the CNS through maternal UfCB exposure. The increase in astrocytic GFAP expression level was closely related to the enlargement of granules in the attached PVMs in offspring. Honeycomb-like structures in some PVM granules and swelling of astrocytic end-foot were observed under electron microscopy in the UfCB group. The phenotypic changes in PVMs and astrocytes indicate that maternal UfCB exposure may result in changes to brain blood vessels and be associated with increased risk of dysfunction and disorder in the offspring brain.
|Long-term exercise is a potent trigger for ΔFosB induction in the hippocampus along the dorso-ventral axis.|
Nishijima, T; Kawakami, M; Kita, I
PloS one 8 e81245 2013
Physical exercise improves multiple aspects of hippocampal function. In line with the notion that neuronal activity is key to promoting neuronal functions, previous literature has consistently demonstrated that acute bouts of exercise evoke neuronal activation in the hippocampus. Repeated activating stimuli lead to an accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, which mediates long-term neural plasticity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term voluntary wheel running induces ΔFosB expression in the hippocampus, and examined any potential region-specific effects within the hippocampal subfields along the dorso-ventral axis. Male C57BL/6 mice were housed with or without a running wheel for 4 weeks. Long-term wheel running significantly increased FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in all hippocampal regions measured (i.e., in the DG, CA1, and CA3 subfields of both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus). Results confirmed that wheel running induced region-specific expression of FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the cortex, suggesting that the uniform increase in FosB/ΔFosB within the hippocampus is not a non-specific consequence of running. Western blot data indicated that the increased hippocampal FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was primarily due to increased ΔFosB. These results suggest that long-term physical exercise is a potent trigger for ΔFosB induction throughout the entire hippocampus, which would explain why exercise can improve both dorsal and ventral hippocampus-dependent functions. Interestingly, we found that FosB/ΔFosB expression in the DG was positively correlated with the number of doublecortin-immunoreactive (i.e., immature) neurons. Although the mechanisms by which ΔFosB mediates exercise-induced neurogenesis are still uncertain, these data imply that exercise-induced neurogenesis is at least activity dependent. Taken together, our current results suggest that ΔFosB is a new molecular target involved in regulating exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity.
|Gene expression changes in the olfactory bulb of mice induced by exposure to diesel exhaust are dependent on animal rearing environment.|
Yokota, S; Hori, H; Umezawa, M; Kubota, N; Niki, R; Yanagita, S; Takeda, K
PloS one 8 e70145 2013
There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3), 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.
|Corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist reduces activation of noradrenalin and serotonin neurons in the locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe in the arousal response accompanied by yawning behavior in rats.|
Natsuko Kubota,Seiichiro Amemiya,Chiharu Motoki,Tomomi Otsuka,Takeshi Nishijima,Ichiro Kita
Neuroscience research 72 2012
We previously reported that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist attenuates the arousal response during yawning behavior in rats. However, the CRF-related pathway involved in the arousal response during yawning is still unclear. In the present study, we assessed the involvement of the CRF-containing pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to the locus coeruleus (LC) and the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the arousal response during frequent spontaneous yawning, which was induced by several microinjections of l-glutamate into the PVN in anesthetized rats, using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The PVN stimulation showed significant increases in activation of PVN CRF neurons, LC noradrenalin (NA) neurons and DRN serotonin (5-HT) neurons as well as arousal response during yawning. But icv administration of a CRF receptor antagonist, ?-helical CRF (9-41), significantly inhibited the activation of both LC NA neurons and DRN 5-HT neurons except the activation of CRF neurons in the PVN, and significantly suppressed the arousal response during yawning. These results suggest that the CRF-containing pathway from PVN CRF neurons to LC NA neurons and DRN 5-HT neurons can be involved in the arousal response during yawning behavior.
|Central administration of aminoprocalcitonin inhibits food intake and stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats via the corticotrophin-releasing factor system.|
E Tavares,R Maldonado,A Garcia-Martinez,F J Miñano
Journal of neuroendocrinology 24 2012
Aminoprocalcitonin (N-PCT), a neuroendocrine peptide derived from procalcitonin, reduces food intake and body weight when administered centrally in rats. We have recently shown that N-PCT is expressed in brain areas known to be involved in energy homeostasis, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, which contains a prominent population of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-synthesising neurones. CRF plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and food intake. However, little is known about functional interactions of N-PCT and CRF. In the present study, we found endogenous N-PCT protein in the rat PVN. We also showed N-PCT immunoreactivity in PVN co-localised with NeuN, a neuronal marker, or glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker. Double staining immunohistochemistry revealed that N-PCT co-localised with CRF in parvocellular neurones of the PVN. Intracerebroventricular N-PCT administration increased CRF mRNA and content in the hypothalamus, suggesting that N-PCT stimulates the HPA axis and suppresses food intake and body weight via CRF-dependent pathways. In keeping with this, i.c.v. co-injection of D-Phe-CRF(12-41), a CRF receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated N-PCT-induced reduction in food intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of N-PCT increased plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone concentrations and induced the expression of Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activity, in parvocellular CRF neurones. These data collectively support the hypothesis that N-PCT inhibits food intake and body weight and stimulates the HPA axis via CRF-mediated pathways.
|Maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticle increases collagen type VIII expression in the kidney of offspring.|
Umezawa M, Kudo S, Yanagita S, Shinkai Y, Niki R, Oyabu T, Takeda K, Ihara T, Sugamata M.
The Journal of toxicological sciences 36 461-8 2011
The potential health risks of inhaling nanomaterials are of great concern because of their high specific activity and their unique property of translocation. Earlier studies showed that exposure to nanoparticles through the airway affects both respiratory and extrapulmonary organs. When pregnant mice were exposed to nanoparticles, the respiratory system, the central nervous system and the reproductive system of their offspring were affected. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to nanoparticles on the offspring, particularly on the kidney. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a total of 100 µg of carbon black nanoparticle on the fifth and the ninth days of pregnancy. Samples of blood and kidney tissue were collected from 3-week-old and 12-week-old male offspring mice. Collagen expression was examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were examined. Exposure of pregnant ICR mice to carbon black resulted in increased expression of Collagen, type VIII, a1 (Col8a1) in the tubular cells in the kidney of 12-week-old offspring mice but not in 3-week-old ones. The levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, indices of renal function, were not different between the groups. These observations were similar to those of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. These results suggest that maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticle induces renal abnormalities similar to tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy are induced in the kidney of offspring.
|Quantification of pluripotency transcription factor levels in embryonic stem cells by flow cytometry.|
Nicola Festuccia,Ian Chambers
Current protocols in stem cell biology Chapter 1 2011
Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are derived from the inner cell mass of the pre-implantation blastocyst and are characterized by the ability to undergo indefinite self-renewal while retaining the potential to differentiate into each of the three primary germ layers. The ability of individual ES cells to self-renew or appropriately respond to differentiation signals is influenced by the intracellular level of a number of crucial transcription factors. It is therefore important to be able to reliably quantify the levels of these proteins in single cells. Here we present an intracellular staining technique for flow cytometry suitable for monitoring transcription factor expression in ES cells. We illustrate the application of this technique to the detection of Oct4 and Nanog proteins and the coupling of this approach with fluorescent reporters of gene activity.
|Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats.|
Satoko Suzuki, Shinya Yanagita, Seiichiro Amemiya, Yumi Kato, Natsuko Kubota, Tomoo Ryushi, Ichiro Kita
International journal of biometeorology 52 481-9 2008
The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.
|Effects of spontaneous and forced running on activation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in rats.|
Shinya Yanagita,Seiichiro Amemiya,Satoko Suzuki,Ichiro Kita
Life sciences 80 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are known to be activated during physical or psychological stress, and play an important role as one of the central activators of integrated stress response. Physical exercise has also been suggested as one of the stressors activating CRH neurons in the PVN. Spontaneous wheel running (SWR) has recently been reported to result in improved mental health or mood, unlike treadmill running that commonly forces the animal to run. Thus, forced running may strongly induce an activation of CRH neurons compared with spontaneous running, and spontaneous running may not represent a strong stressor. However, whether the effects of spontaneous running on activation of CRH neurons in the PVN differ from those of forced running is unknown. The present study examined the activity of CRH neurons in 1-h forced wheel running (FWR) and SWR using c-Fos/CRH immunohistochemistry in male Wistar rats. No significant differences in 1-h running distance were observed between FWR and SWR, indicating that amount of work was almost equal between exercises. Number of double-labeled neurons for c-Fos and CRH in the PVN was markedly higher in FWR than in SWR. In addition, no significant differences in Fos expression in the LC, which is related to various stress responses, were found between FWR and SWR. These results indicate that FWR strongly activates CRH neurons in the PVN compared with SWR, suggesting that spontaneous running is not an intense stressor even though running distance does not differ significantly from forced running.
|Donkey anti-Rabbit IgG, Biotin-SP-Conjugated, Species Adsorbed: Hu, Ms, Rt, Bov, Gt, Sh, Chk, GP, Eq - Data Sheet|