|Presentation||Lyophilized. Buffer = 0.01 M Sodium Phosphate, 0.25 M NaCl, pH 7.6 with 15 mg/mL BSA. Contains no preservative.
Reconstitute with 500 μL of sterile distilled water.
|Concentration||Please refer to the Certificate of Analysis for the lot-specific concentration.|
|Antibody Type||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||500 µL|
Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody, HRP conjugate, Species Adsorbed SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Bile acids induce hepatic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.|
Sawitza, I; Kordes, C; Götze, S; Herebian, D; Häussinger, D
Scientific reports 5 13320 2015
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages and their therapeutic potential has become obvious. In the liver, MSC are represented by stellate cells which have the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes after stimulation with growth factors. Since bile acids can promote liver regeneration, their influence on liver-resident and bone marrow-derived MSC was investigated. Physiological concentrations of bile acids such as tauroursodeoxycholic acid were able to initiate hepatic differentiation of MSC via the farnesoid X receptor and transmembrane G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 as investigated with knockout mice. Notch, hedgehog, transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenic protein family and non-canonical Wnt signalling were also essential for bile acid-mediated differentiation, whereas β-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling was able to attenuate this process. Our findings reveal bile acid-mediated signalling as an alternative way to induce hepatic differentiaion of stem cells and highlight bile acids as important signalling molecules during liver regeneration.
|The miR-199a/Brm/EGR1 axis is a determinant of anchorage-independent growth in epithelial tumor cell lines.|
Kobayashi, K; Sakurai, K; Hiramatsu, H; Inada, K; Shiogama, K; Nakamura, S; Suemasa, F; Kobayashi, K; Imoto, S; Haraguchi, T; Ito, H; Ishizaka, A; Tsutsumi, Y; Iba, H
Scientific reports 5 8428 2015
In epithelial cells, miRNA-199a-5p/-3p and Brm, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex were previously shown to form a double-negative feedback loop through EGR1, by which human cancer cell lines tend to fall into either of the steady states, types 1 [miR-199a(-)/Brm(+)/EGR1(-)] and 2 [miR-199a(+)/Brm (-)/EGR1(+)]. We show here, that type 2 cells, unlike type 1, failed to form colonies in soft agar, and that CD44, MET, CAV1 and CAV2 (miR-199a targets), all of which function as plasma membrane sensors and can co-localize in caveolae, are expressed specifically in type 1 cells. Single knockdown of any of them suppressed anchorage-independent growth of type 1 cells, indicating that the miR-199a/Brm/EGR1 axis is a determinant of anchorage-independent growth. Importantly, two coherent feedforward loops are integrated into this axis, supporting the robustness of type 1-specific gene expression and exemplifying how the miRNA-target gene relationship can be stably sustained in a variety of epithelial tumors.
|Possible role of ZPAC, zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone, during spermatogenesis in the mouse.|
Shimizu, N; Ueno, K; Kurita, E; Shin, SW; Nishihara, T; Amano, T; Anzai, M; Kishigami, S; Kato, H; Mitani, T; Hosoi, Y; Matsumoto, K
The Journal of reproduction and development 60 179-86 2014
In the mammalian testis, the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays important roles in the process that promotes the formation of mature sperm. We recently identified zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone (ZPAC), which is specifically expressed in the mouse gonads and zygote. ZPAC mediates a unique proteasome assembly pathway in the zygote, but the expression profile and function of ZPAC in the testis is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the possible role of ZPAC during mouse spermatogenesis. First, we analyzed the expression of ZPAC and 20S proteasome subunit α4/PSMA7 in the adult mouse testis. ZPAC and α4 were expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids. In elongating spermatids, ZPAC was expressed until step 10, whereas expression of α4 persisted until step 12. We then examined the expression profile of ZPAC and α4 in a mouse model of experimental unilateral cryptorchidism. Consistent with appearance of morphologically impaired germ cells following cryptorchidism, the ZPAC protein level was significantly decreased at 4 days post induction of experimental cryptorchidism (D4) compared with the intact testis, although the amount of α4 protein persisted at least until D10. Moreover, intense ZPAC staining was co-localized with staining of annexin V, an early indicator of apoptosis in mammalian cells, in germ cells of cryptorchid testis, but ZPAC was also expressed in germ cells showing no detectable expression of annexin V. These results suggest that ZPAC plays a role during spermatogenesis and raises the possibility that 20S proteasome mediated by ZPAC may be involved in the regulation of germ cell survival during spermatogenesis.
|GSE is a maternal factor involved in active DNA demethylation in zygotes.|
Hatanaka, Y; Shimizu, N; Nishikawa, S; Tokoro, M; Shin, SW; Nishihara, T; Amano, T; Anzai, M; Kato, H; Mitani, T; Hosoi, Y; Kishigami, S; Matsumoto, K
PloS one 8 e60205 2013
After fertilization, the sperm and oocyte genomes undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming to form a totipotent zygote. The dynamic epigenetic changes during early embryo development primarily involve DNA methylation and demethylation. We have previously identified Gse (gonad-specific expression gene) to be expressed specifically in germ cells and early embryos. Its encoded protein GSE is predominantly localized in the nuclei of cells from the zygote to blastocyst stages, suggesting possible roles in the epigenetic changes occurring during early embryo development. Here, we report the involvement of GSE in epigenetic reprogramming of the paternal genome during mouse zygote development. Preferential binding of GSE to the paternal chromatin was observed from pronuclear stage 2 (PN2) onward. A knockdown of GSE by antisense RNA in oocytes produced no apparent effect on the first and second cell cycles in preimplantation embryos, but caused a significant reduction in the loss of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and the accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in the paternal pronucleus. Furthermore, DNA methylation levels in CpG sites of LINE1 transposable elements, Lemd1, Nanog and the upstream regulatory region of the Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) gene were clearly increased in GSE-knockdown zygotes at mid-pronuclear stages (PN3-4), but the imprinted H19-differential methylated region was not affected. Importantly, DNA immunoprecipitation of 5mC and 5hmC also indicates that knockdown of GSE in zygotes resulted in a significant reduction of the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC on LINE1. Therefore, our results suggest an important role of maternal GSE for mediating active DNA demethylation in the zygote.
|Placental melatonin production and melatonin receptor expression are altered in preeclampsia: new insights into the role of this hormone in pregnancy.|
Dave Lanoix,Pascale Guérin,Cathy Vaillancourt
Journal of pineal research 53 2012
The melatonin system in preeclamptic pregnancies has been largely overlooked, especially in the placenta. We have previously documented melatonin production and expression of its receptors in normal human placentas. In addition, we and others have shown a beneficial role of melatonin in placental and fetal functions. In line with this, decreased maternal blood levels of melatonin are found in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancies. However, melatonin production and expression of its receptors in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancy placentas has never been examined. This study compares (i) melatonin-synthesizing enzyme expression and activity, (ii) melatonin and serotonin, melatonin's immediate precursor, levels and (iii) expression of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in placentas from preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Protein and mRNA expression of aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, as well as MT1 and MT2 receptors were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The activities of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes were assessed by radiometric assays while melatonin levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. There is a significant inhibition of AANAT, melatonin's rate-limiting enzyme, expression and activity in preeclamptic placentas, correlating with decreased melatonin levels. Likewise, MT1 and MT2 expression is significantly reduced in preeclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancy placentas. We propose that reduced maternal plasma melatonin levels may be an early diagnostic tool to identify pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. This study indicates a clinical utility of melatonin as a potential treatment for preeclampsia in women where reduced maternal plasma levels have been identified.
|Stability of reference proteins in human placenta: general protein stains are the benchmark.|
D Lanoix,J St-Pierre,A-A Lacasse,M Viau,J Lafond,C Vaillancourt,A A Lacasse
Placenta 33 2012
The stability of reference proteins in semi-quantitative Western blot experiments in normal and diseased placenta has never been studied. This study aims to determine the stability of five reference proteins and two general protein stains in placentas from preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and matched control pregnancies. The stability of the reference proteins was analysed using indicators of inter-group (P value) and intra-group (coefficient of variation) stability. The effect of different normalization strategies was determined by normalizing serotonin transporter (SERT) expression against the different reference protein markers. Results show significant expression variability of β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) and α-tubulin, and that amido black staining is the most stable reference protein marker. Furthermore, results show that SERT expression significantly differs according to the reference protein markers used for its normalization. The present study demonstrated the importance of using stable reference protein markers and normalization strategy in order to get correct results in semi-quantitative Western blot experiments in placental tissues.
|Fate mapping of the mouse prosencephalic neural plate.|
T Inoue, S Nakamura, N Osumi
Developmental biology 219 373-83 2000
Little is known about the behavior of cells within the anterior neural plate or tube in developing mammalian embryos in utero due to technical limitations. Here we labeled neuroepithelial cells with vital dye and traced their siblings for 1 or 2 days using the whole-embryo culture system. The results demonstrated that rostral cell movement from the midbrain to the forebrain in the mouse neural plate was restricted at the boundary by the five-somite stage. Coincident with restriction of cell intermingling, expression of a transcription factor, Pax6, and a cell adhesion molecule, cadherin-6, commmenced to demarcate the forebrain compartment. Within this compartment, we also mapped several prospective regions of the telencephalon and diencephalon to the eyes. The fate map of the mouse prosencephalic neural plate was very similar to those of other vertebrates, providing evidence that mammalian-specific brain structures, represented in the cerebral neocortex, could evenly develop along the conserved framework of neuromeres.
|DONKEY ANTI-RABBIT IGG AFFINITY PURIFIED, PEROXIDASE CONJUGATED ABSORBED FOR DUAL LABELING SECONDARY ANTIBODY - Data Sheet|