|Application||This Donkey anti-Goat IgG Antibody, Cy3 conjugate, Species Adsorbed is validated for use in IF for the detection of Donkey Goat IgG.|
|Antibody Type||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||500 µg|
|Cy3 CONJUGATED -2689105||2689105|
|Cy3 CONJUGATED -2793671||2713671|
|Cy3 CONJUGATED AFFINITY PURIFIED -2707848||2707848|
|Cy3 CONJUGATED AFFINITY PURIFIED SECONDARY ANTIBODY||2869291|
|Cy3 Conjugated Affinity Purified Secondary Antibody||2912151|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Mesenchymal stem cells in rabbit meniscus and bone marrow exhibit a similar feature but a heterogeneous multi-differentiation potential: superiority of meniscus as a cell source for meniscus repair.|
Ding, Z; Huang, H
BMC musculoskeletal disorders 16 65 2015
The restoration of damaged meniscus has always been a challenge due to its limited healing capacity. Recently, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) provide a promising alternative to repair meniscal defects. However, BMSCs are not ideal chondroprogenitor cells for meniscus repair because they have a high propensity for cartilage hypertrophy and bone formation. Our hypothesis is that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in meniscus maintain specific traits distinct from others which may be more conducive to meniscus regeneration.MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and menisci of the rabbits. The similarities and differences between BMSCs and MMSCs were investigated in vitro by a cell culture model, ex vivo by a rabbit meniscus defect model and in vivo by a nude rat implantation model using histochemistry, immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting.Our data showed that two types of MSCs have universal stem cell characteristics including clonogenicity, multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. They both express stem cell markers including SSEA-4, Nanog, nucleostemin, strol-1, CD44 and CD90. However, MMSCs differed from BMSCs. MMSC colonies were much smaller and grew more slowly than BMSC colonies. Moreover, fewer MMSCs expressed CD34 than BMSCs. Finally, MMSCs always appeared a pronounced tendency to chondrogenic differentiation while BMSCs exhibited significantly greater osteogenic potential, whatever in vitro and in vivo.This study shows the similarities and differences between MMSCs and BMSCs for the first time. MMSCs are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells in repairing meniscus defect.
|Variable phenotypic expressivity in inbred retinal degeneration mouse lines: A comparative study of C3H/HeOu and FVB/N rd1 mice.|
van Wyk, M; Schneider, S; Kleinlogel, S
Molecular vision 21 811-27 2015
Recent advances in optogenetics and gene therapy have led to promising new treatment strategies for blindness caused by retinal photoreceptor loss. Preclinical studies often rely on the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1 or Pde6b(rd1)) retinitis pigmentosa (RP) mouse model. The rd1 founder mutation is present in more than 100 actively used mouse lines. Since secondary genetic traits are well-known to modify the phenotypic progression of photoreceptor degeneration in animal models and human patients with RP, negligence of the genetic background in the rd1 mouse model is unwarranted. Moreover, the success of various potential therapies, including optogenetic gene therapy and prosthetic implants, depends on the progress of retinal degeneration, which might differ between rd1 mice. To examine the prospect of phenotypic expressivity in the rd1 mouse model, we compared the progress of retinal degeneration in two common rd1 lines, C3H/HeOu and FVB/N.We followed retinal degeneration over 24 weeks in FVB/N, C3H/HeOu, and congenic Pde6b(+) seeing mouse lines, using a range of experimental techniques including extracellular recordings from retinal ganglion cells, PCR quantification of cone opsin and Pde6b transcripts, in vivo flash electroretinogram (ERG), and behavioral optokinetic reflex (OKR) recordings.We demonstrated a substantial difference in the speed of retinal degeneration and accompanying loss of visual function between the two rd1 lines. Photoreceptor degeneration and loss of vision were faster with an earlier onset in the FVB/N mice compared to C3H/HeOu mice, whereas the performance of the Pde6b(+) mice did not differ significantly in any of the tests. By postnatal week 4, the FVB/N mice expressed significantly less cone opsin and Pde6b mRNA and had neither ERG nor OKR responses. At 12 weeks of age, the retinal ganglion cells of the FVB/N mice had lost all light responses. In contrast, 4-week-old C3H/HeOu mice still had ERG and OKR responses, and we still recorded light responses from C3H/HeOu retinal ganglion cells until the age of 24 weeks. These results show that genetic background plays an important role in the rd1 mouse pathology.Analogous to human RP, the mouse genetic background strongly influences the rd1 phenotype. Thus, different rd1 mouse lines may follow different timelines of retinal degeneration, making exact knowledge of genetic background imperative in all studies that use rd1 models.
|Stochastic loss of silencing of the imprinted Ndn/NDN allele, in a mouse model and humans with prader-willi syndrome, has functional consequences.|
Rieusset, A; Schaller, F; Unmehopa, U; Matarazzo, V; Watrin, F; Linke, M; Georges, B; Bischof, J; Dijkstra, F; Bloemsma, M; Corby, S; Michel, FJ; Wevrick, R; Zechner, U; Swaab, D; Dudley, K; Bezin, L; Muscatelli, F
PLoS genetics 9 e1003752 2013
Genomic imprinting is a process that causes genes to be expressed from one allele only according to parental origin, the other allele being silent. Diseases can arise when the normally active alleles are not expressed. In this context, low level of expression of the normally silent alleles has been considered as genetic noise although such expression has never been further studied. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disease involving imprinted genes, including NDN, which are only expressed from the paternally inherited allele, with the maternally inherited allele silent. We present the first in-depth study of the low expression of a normally silent imprinted allele, in pathological context. Using a variety of qualitative and quantitative approaches and comparing wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mice deleted for Ndn, we show that, in absence of the paternal Ndn allele, the maternal Ndn allele is expressed at an extremely low level with a high degree of non-genetic heterogeneity. The level of this expression is sex-dependent and shows transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In about 50% of mutant mice, this expression reduces birth lethality and severity of the breathing deficiency, correlated with a reduction in the loss of serotonergic neurons. In wild-type brains, the maternal Ndn allele is never expressed. However, using several mouse models, we reveal a competition between non-imprinted Ndn promoters which results in monoallelic (paternal or maternal) Ndn expression, suggesting that Ndn allelic exclusion occurs in the absence of imprinting regulation. Importantly, specific expression of the maternal NDN allele is also detected in post-mortem brain samples of PWS individuals. Our data reveal an unexpected epigenetic flexibility of PWS imprinted genes that could be exploited to reactivate the functional but dormant maternal alleles in PWS. Overall our results reveal high non-genetic heterogeneity between genetically identical individuals that might underlie the variability of the phenotype.
|Morphologic pattern of the intrinsic ganglionated nerve plexus in mouse heart.|
Rysevaite, K; Saburkina, I; Pauziene, N; Noujaim, SF; Jalife, J; Pauza, DH
Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 8 448-54 2011
Both normal and genetically modified mice are excellent models for investigating molecular mechanisms of arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases that may be associated with an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous input to the heart.The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the structural organization of the mouse cardiac neural plexus, (2) identify extrinsic neural sources and their relationship with the cardiac plexus, and (3) reveal any anatomic differences in the cardiac plexus between mouse and other species.Cardiac nerve structures were visualized using histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on whole heart and thorax-dissected preparations derived from 25 mice. To confirm the reliability of staining parasympathetic and sympathetic neural components in the mouse heart, we applied a histochemical method for AChE and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and/or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) on whole mounts preparations from six mice.Double immunohistochemical labeling of TH and ChAT on AChE-positive neural elements in mouse whole mounts demonstrated equal staining of nerves and ganglia for AChE that were positive for both TH and ChAT. The extrinsic cardiac nerves access the mouse heart at the right and left cranial veins and interblend within the ganglionated nerve plexus of the heart hilum that is persistently localized on the heart base. Nerves and bundles of nerve fibers extend epicardially from this plexus to atria and ventricles by left dorsal, dorsal right atrial, right ventral, and ventral left atrial routes or subplexuses. The right cranial vein receives extrinsic nerves that mainly originate from the right cervicothoracic ganglion and a branch of the right vagus nerve, whereas the left cranial vein is supplied by extrinsic nerves from the left cervicothoracic ganglion and the left vagus nerve. The majority of intrinsic cardiac ganglia are localized on the heart base at the roots of the pulmonary veins. These ganglia are interlinked by interganglionic nerves into the above mentioned nerve plexus of the heart hilum. In general, the examined hearts contained 19 ± 3 ganglia, giving a cumulative ganglion area of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm(2).Despite substantial anatomic differences in ganglion number and distribution, the structural organization of the intrinsic ganglionated plexus in the mouse heart corresponds in general to that of other mammalian species, including human.
|Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity.|
Zhang, J; Pan, T; Im, HJ; Fu, FH; Wang, JH
BMC medicine 9 68 2011
The human anterior cruciate ligament (hACL) and medial collateral ligament (hMCL) of the knee joint are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. It has been known that, while injuries to the MCL typically heal with conservative treatment, ACL injuries usually do not heal. As adult stem cells repair injured tissues through proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that the hACL and hMCL contain stem cells exhibiting unique properties that could be responsible for the differential healing capacity of the two ligaments.To test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry.We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs) and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs) formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. However, hACL-SCs differed from hMCL-SCs in that the size and number of hACL-SC colonies in culture were much smaller and grew more slowly than hMCL-SC colonies. Moreover, fewer hACL-SCs in cell colonies expressed stem cell markers STRO-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct-4) than hMCL-SCs. Finally, hACL-SCs had less multi-differentiation potential than hMCL-SCs, evidenced by differing extents of adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis in the respective induction media.This study shows for the first time that hACL-SCs are intrinsically different from hMCL-SCs. We suggest that the differences in their properties contribute to the known disparity in healing capabilities between the two ligaments.Full Text Article
|The Epicardial Neural Ganglionated Plexus of the Ovine Heart: Anatomical Basis for Experimental Cardiac Electrophysiology and Nerve Protective Cardiac Surgery.|
Saburkina I, Rysevaite K, Pauziene N, Mischke K, Schauerte P, Jalife J, Pauza DH
Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 2010
BACKGROUND: Sheep are routinely used in experimental cardiac electrophysiology and surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1) ascertain the topography and architecture of the ovine epicardial neural plexus (ENP), (2) determine the relationships of ENP with vagal and sympathetic cardiac nerves and ganglia, and (3) evaluate gross anatomic differences and similarities of ENP in humans, sheep, and other species. METHODS: Ovine ENP and extrinsic sympathetic and vagal nerves were stained histochemically for acetylcholinesterase in whole heart and/or thorax-dissected preparations from 23 newborn lambs, with subsequent examination by stereomicroscope. RESULTS: Intrinsic cardiac nerves extend from the venous part of the ovine heart hilum along the roots of the cranial (superior) caval and left azygos veins to both atria and ventricles via five epicardial routes: dorsal right atrial, middle dorsal, left dorsal, right ventral, and ventral left atrial nerve subplexuses. Intrinsic nerves proceeding from the arterial part of the heart hilum along the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk extend exclusively into the ventricles as the right and left coronary subplexuses. The dorsal right atrial, right ventral, and middle dorsal subplexuses receive the main extrinsic neural input from the right cervicothoracic and right thoracic sympathetic T(2) and T(3) ganglia as well as from the right vagal nerve. The left dorsal subplexus is supplied by sizeable extrinsic nerves from the left thoracic T(4)-T(6) sympathetic ganglia and the left vagal nerve. Sheep hearts contained an average of 769 +/- 52 epicardial ganglia. Cumulative areas of epicardial ganglia on the root of the cranial vena cava and on the wall of the coronary sinus were the largest of all regions (P <.05). CONCLUSION: Despite substantial interindividual variability in the morphology of ovine ENP, right-sided epicardial neural subplexuses supplying the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes are mostly concentrated at a fat pad between the right pulmonary veins and the cranial vena cava. This finding is in sharp contrast with a solely left lateral neural input to the human atrioventricular node, which extends mainly from the left dorsal and middle dorsal subplexuses. The abundance of epicardial ganglia distributed widely along the ovine ventricular nerves over respectable distances below the coronary groove implies a distinctive neural control of the ventricles in human and sheep hearts. Copyright Â© 2010 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.
|Characterization of differential properties of rabbit tendon stem cells and tenocytes.|
Zhang, J; Wang, JH
BMC musculoskeletal disorders 11 10 2010
Tendons are traditionally thought to consist of tenocytes only, the resident cells of tendons; however, a recent study has demonstrated that human and mouse tendons also contain stem cells, referred to as tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs). However, the differential properties of TSCs and tenocytes remain largely undefined. This study aims to characterize the properties of these tendon cells derived from rabbits.TSCs and tenocytes were isolated from patellar and Achilles tendons of rabbits. The differentiation potential and cell marker expression of the two types of cells were examined using histochemical, immunohistochemical, and qRT-PCR analysis as well as in vivo implantation. In addition, morphology, colony formation, and proliferation of TSCs and tenocytes were also compared.It was found that TSCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes in vitro, and form tendon-like, cartilage-like, and bone-like tissues in vivo. In contrast, tenocytes had little such differentiation potential. Moreover, TSCs expressed the stem cell markers Oct-4, SSEA-4, and nucleostemin, whereas tenocytes expressed none of these markers. Morphologically, TSCs possessed smaller cell bodies and larger nuclei than ordinary tenocytes and had cobblestone-like morphology in confluent culture whereas tenocytes were highly elongated. TSCs also proliferated more quickly than tenocytes in culture. Additionally, TSCs from patellar tendons formed more numerous and larger colonies and proliferated more rapidly than TSCs from Achilles tendons.TSCs exhibit distinct properties compared to tenocytes, including differences in cell marker expression, proliferative and differentiation potential, and cell morphology in culture. Future research should investigate the mechanobiology of TSCs and explore the possibility of using TSCs to more effectively repair or regenerate injured tendons.Full Text Article
|Expression profile of PTPIP51 in mouse brain.|
P Koch,M Viard,A Stenzinger,A Brobeil,C Tag,K Steger,M Wimmer
The Journal of comparative neurology 517 2009
This study demonstrates the expression of the novel protein protein tyrosine phophatase-interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) in mammalian brain tissue. Serial sections of the whole adult mouse brain were analyzed for PTPIP51 protein and mRNA by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. Recent investigations by Yu et al. (2008) describe PTPIP51 as being capable of activating Raf-1, thereby modulating the MAPK pathway. The role of Raf-1, as well as of 14-3-3, in neurological disorders is well established. PTPIP51 expression was confined to neurons in the following structures: the piriform cortex and their connections to the anterior commissure, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular and supraoptical nuclei, neurohypophysis, superior colliculus, genu of facialis nerve, spinal trigeminal tract, inferior cerebellar peduncle, and cerebellum. In the cerebellum, a subpopulation of Purkinje cells and their dendrites was strongly PTPIP51 positive. Moreover, PTPIP51 was found to be colocalized with vasopressin and its transport protein neurophysin II in the neuroendocrine nuclei and their connections to the neurohypophysis. The data presented here suggest a role of PTPIP51 in neuronal homeostasis, axonal growth, and transport.
|Quantification of lipid droplets and associated proteins in cellular models of obesity via high-content/high-throughput microscopy and automated image analysis.|
McDonough, PM; Agustin, RM; Ingermanson, RS; Loy, PA; Buehrer, BM; Nicoll, JB; Prigozhina, NL; Mikic, I; Price, JH
Assay and drug development technologies 7 440-60 2009
Intracellular lipid droplets are associated with a myriad of afflictions including obesity, fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, and infectious diseases (eg, HCV and tuberculosis). To develop high-content analysis (HCA) techniques to analyze lipid droplets and associated proteins, primary human preadipocytes were plated in 96-well dishes in the presence of rosiglitazone (rosi), a PPAR-(c) agonist that promotes adipogenesis. The cells were then labeled for nuclei, lipid droplets, and proteins such as perilipin, protein kinase C (PKC), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). The cells were imaged via automated digital microscopy and algorithms were developed to quantify lipid droplet (Lipid Droplet algorithm) and protein expression and colocalization (Colocalization algorithm). The algorithms, which were incorporated into Vala Science Inc's CyteSeer((R)) image cytometry program, quantified the rosi-induced increases in lipid droplet number, size, and intensity, and the expression of perilipin with exceptional consistency (Z' values of 0.54-0.71). Regarding colocalization with lipid droplets, Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.38 (highly colocalized), 0.16 (moderate), and -0.0010 (random) were found for perilipin, PKC, and HSL, respectively. For hepatocytes (AML12, HuH-7, and primary cells), the algorithms also quantified the stimulatory and inhibitory effect of oleic acid and triacsin C on lipid droplets (Z's greater than 0.50) and ADFP expression/colocalization. Oleic acid-induced lipid droplets in HeLa cells and macrophages (THP-1) were also well quantified. The results suggest that HCA techniques can be utilized to quantify lipid droplets and associated proteins in many cell models relevant to a variety of diseases.
|Phosphorylated Smad2/3 immunoreactivity in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its mouse model.|
Masataka Nakamura,Hidefumi Ito,Reika Wate,Satoshi Nakano,Asao Hirano,Hirofumi Kusaka
Acta neuropathologica 115 2008
Phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3), the central mediators of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling, were recently identified in tau-positive inclusions in certain neurodegenerative disorders. To clarify whether the localization of pSmad2/3 is altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we immunohistochemically examined spinal cords from sporadic ALS (SALS), from familial ALS (FALS) patients with the A4V mutation in their Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene, and from G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic (mSOD1 Tg) mice. In control spinal cords, pSmad2/3 immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in neuronal and glial nuclei. In SALS and FALS patients the nuclei showed increased immunoreactivity for pSmad2/3. Noticeably, round hyaline inclusions (RHIs) and skein-like inclusions of SALS patients were immunoreactive for pSmad2/3. Double immunofluorescence staining for pSmad2/3 and transactive response-DNA-binding protein (TDP)-43 revealed co-localization of these proteins within RHIs. In contrast, Bunina bodies in SALS and Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions (LBHIs) in FALS were devoid of labeling for pSmad2/3. Similarly, in the mSOD1 Tg mice pSmad2/3 immunoreactivity was increased in the nuclei, while LBHIs were not labeled. These findings suggest increased TGF-beta-Smad signaling in SALS, FALS, and mSOD1 Tg mice, as well as impaired TGF-beta signal transduction in RHI-bearing neurons of SALS patients, presumably at the step of pSmad2/3 translocation into the nucleus. The pathomechanisms, including the process of inclusion development, appears to be different between SALS and mSOD1-related FALS or Tg mice.
|Cy3 CONJUGATED AFFINITY PURIFIED SECONDARY ANTIBODY - Data Sheet|