Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications|
|Vrt||WB, ChIP, ChIP-seq, DB, Mplex|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt.
Aliquot upon initial thaw, avoid freeze thaw cycles.
|Material Size||25 assays|
|Material Package||25 assays per kit, ~2μg per chromatin immunoprecipitation|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Deletion of a conserved cis-element in the Ifng locus highlights the role of acute histone acetylation in modulating inducible gene transcription.|
Balasubramani, A; Winstead, CJ; Turner, H; Janowski, KM; Harbour, SN; Shibata, Y; Crawford, GE; Hatton, RD; Weaver, CT
PLoS genetics 10 e1003969 2014
Differentiation-dependent regulation of the Ifng cytokine gene locus in T helper (Th) cells has emerged as an excellent model for functional study of distal elements that control lineage-specific gene expression. We previously identified a cis-regulatory element located 22 kb upstream of the Ifng gene (Conserved Non-coding Sequence -22, or CNS-22) that is a site for recruitment of the transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, NF-κB and STAT4, which act to regulate transcription of the Ifng gene in Th1 cells. Here, we report the generation of mice with a conditional deletion of CNS-22 that has enabled us to define the epigenetic and functional consequences of its absence. Deletion of CNS-22 led to a defect in induction of Ifng by the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18, with a more modest effect on induction via T-cell receptor activation. To better understand how CNS-22 and other Ifng CNSs regulated Ifng transcription in response to these distinct stimuli, we examined activation-dependent changes in epigenetic modifications across the extended Ifng locus in CNS-22-deficient T cells. We demonstrate that in response to both cytokine and TCR driven activation signals, CNS-22 and other Ifng CNSs recruit increased activity of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) that transiently enhance levels of histones H3 and H4 acetylation across the extended Ifng locus. We also demonstrate that activation-responsive increases in histone acetylation levels are directly linked to the ability of Ifng CNSs to acutely enhance Pol II recruitment to the Ifng promoter. Finally, we show that impairment in IL-12+IL-18 dependent induction of Ifng stems from the importance of CNS-22 in coordinating locus-wide levels of histone acetylation in response to these cytokines. These findings identify a role for acute histone acetylation in the enhancer function of distal conserved cis-elements that regulate of Ifng gene expression.
|Glucagon regulates gluconeogenesis through KAT2B- and WDR5-mediated epigenetic effects.|
Ravnskjaer, K; Hogan, MF; Lackey, D; Tora, L; Dent, SY; Olefsky, J; Montminy, M
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 4318-28 2013
Circulating pancreatic glucagon is increased during fasting and maintains glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon triggering of the cAMP pathway upregulates the gluconeogenic program through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the dephosphorylation of the CREB coactivator CRTC2. Hormonal and nutrient signals are also thought to modulate gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting epigenetic changes that facilitate assembly of the transcriptional machinery. However, the nature of these modifications is unclear. Using mouse models and in vitro assays, we show that histone H3 acetylation at Lys 9 (H3K9Ac) was elevated over gluconeogenic genes and contributed to increased hepatic glucose production during fasting and in diabetes. Dephosphorylation of CRTC2 promoted increased H3K9Ac through recruitment of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B) and WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a core subunit of histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. KAT2B and WDR5 stimulated the gluconeogenic program through a self-reinforcing cycle, whereby increases in H3K9Ac further potentiated CRTC2 occupancy at CREB binding sites. Depletion of KAT2B or WDR5 decreased gluconeogenic gene expression, consequently breaking the cycle. Administration of a small-molecule KAT2B antagonist lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations in insulin resistance, suggesting that this enzyme may be a useful target for diabetes treatment.
|Antisilencing role of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway and a histone acetyltransferase in Arabidopsis.|
Li, X; Qian, W; Zhao, Y; Wang, C; Shen, J; Zhu, JK; Gong, Z
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 11425-30 2012
REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a DNA demethylation enzyme that was previously identified during a genetic screen for the silencing of both RD29A-LUC and 35S-NPTII transgenes on a T-DNA construct. Here we performed a genetic screen to identify additional mutants in which the 35S-NPTII transgene is silenced. We identified several alleles of ros1 and of the following components of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway: NRPD1 (the largest subunit of polymerase IV), RDR2, NRPE1 (the largest subunit of polymerase V), NRPD2, AGO4, and DMS3. Our results show that the silencing of 35S-NPTII in the RdDM pathway mutants is due to the reduced expression of ROS1 in the mutants. We also identified a putative histone acetyltransferase (ROS4) from the genetic screen. The acetyltransferase contains a PHD-finger domain that binds to unmethylated histone H3K4. The mutation in ROS4 led to reduction of H3K18 and H3K23 acetylation levels. We show that the silencing of 35S-NPTII and some transposable element genes was released by the ddm1 mutation but that this also required ROS4. Our study identifies a unique antisilencing factor, and reveals that the RdDM pathway has an antisilencing function due to its role in maintaining ROS1 expression.
|HDA6 directly interacts with DNA methyltransferase MET1 and maintains transposable element silencing in Arabidopsis.|
Liu, X; Yu, CW; Duan, J; Luo, M; Wang, K; Tian, G; Cui, Y; Wu, K
Plant physiology 158 119-29 2012
The molecular mechanism of how the histone deacetylase HDA6 participates in maintaining transposable element (TE) silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is not yet defined. In this study, we show that a subset of TEs was transcriptionally reactivated and that TE reactivation was associated with elevated histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as increased H3K4Me3 and H3K4Me2 in hda6 mutants. Decreased DNA methylation of the TEs was also detected in hda6 mutants, suggesting that HDA6 silences the TEs by regulating histone acetylation and methylation as well as the DNA methylation status of the TEs. Similarly, transcripts of some of these TEs were also increased in the methyltransferase1 (met1) mutant, with decreased DNA methylation. Furthermore, H4 acetylation, H3K4Me3, H3K4Me2, and H3K36Me2 were enriched at the coregulated TEs in the met1 and hda6 met1 mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that HDA6 physically interacts with MET1 in vitro and in vivo, and further deletion analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 and the bromo-adjacent homology domain of MET1 were responsible for the interaction. These results suggested that HDA6 and MET1 interact directly and act together to silence TEs by modulating DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation status.Full Text Article
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|ChIPAb+ Dimethyl-Histone H3 (Lys4) ChIP-seq Analysis|
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