|Description||CellASIC ONIX Complete Perfusion System|
|Application||The CellASIC ONIX Microfluidic Platform delivers precise control for live cell analysis experiments by facilitating long-term perfusion cell culture.|
|Dimensions||310 mm Wide x 257 mm Deep x 113 mm Height|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
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References | 19 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Rate of environmental change determines stress response specificity. |
Young, Jonathan W, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 110: 4140-5 (2013) Vol 110, Issue 10 4140-4145 2013
Cells use general stress response pathways to activate diverse target genes in response to a variety of stresses. However, general stress responses coexist with more specific pathways that are activated by individual stresses, provoking the fundamental question of whether and how cells control the generality or specificity of their response to a particular stress. Here we address this issue using quantitative time-lapse microscopy of the Bacillus subtilis environmental stress response, mediated by σ(B). We analyzed σ(B) activation in response to stresses such as salt and ethanol imposed at varying rates of increase. Dynamically, σ(B) responded to these stresses with a single adaptive activity pulse, whose amplitude depended on the rate at which the stress increased. This rate-responsive behavior can be understood from mathematical modeling of a key negative feedback loop in the underlying regulatory circuit. Using RNAseq we analyzed the effects of both rapid and gradual increases of ethanol and salt stress across the genome. Because of the rate responsiveness of σ(B) activation, salt and ethanol regulons overlap under rapid, but not gradual, increases in stress. Thus, the cell responds specifically to individual stresses that appear gradually, while using σ(B) to broaden the cellular response under more rapidly deteriorating conditions. Such dynamic control of specificity could be a critical function of other general stress response pathways.
|An algorithm to automate yeast segmentation and tracking. |
Doncic, Andreas, et al.
PLoS ONE, 8: e57970 (2013) 2013
Our understanding of dynamic cellular processes has been greatly enhanced by rapid advances in quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Imaging single cells has emphasized the prevalence of phenomena that can be difficult to infer from population measurements, such as all-or-none cellular decisions, cell-to-cell variability, and oscillations. Examination of these phenomena requires segmenting and tracking individual cells over long periods of time. However, accurate segmentation and tracking of cells is difficult and is often the rate-limiting step in an experimental pipeline. Here, we present an algorithm that accomplishes fully automated segmentation and tracking of budding yeast cells within growing colonies. The algorithm incorporates prior information of yeast-specific traits, such as immobility and growth rate, to segment an image using a set of threshold values rather than one specific optimized threshold. Results from the entire set of thresholds are then used to perform a robust final segmentation.
|A Mammalian-like DNA damage response of fission yeast to nucleoside analogs. |
Sabatinos SA, Mastro TL, Green MD, Forsburg SL
Genetics, 193 (1), 143-157 (Jan 2013) 2013
Nucleoside analogs are frequently used to label newly synthesized DNA. These analogs are toxic in many cells, with the exception of the budding yeast. We show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe behaves similarly to metazoans in response to analogs 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Incorporation causes DNA damage that activates the damage checkpoint kinase Chk1 and sensitizes cells to UV light and other DNA-damaging drugs. Replication checkpoint mutant cds1Δ shows increased DNA damage response after exposure. Finally, we demonstrate that the response to BrdU is influenced by the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, Spd1, suggesting that BrdU causes dNTP pool imbalance in fission yeast, as in metazoans. Consistent with this, we show that excess thymidine induces G1 arrest in wild-type fission yeast expressing thymidine kinase. Thus, fission yeast responds to nucleoside analogs similarly to mammalian cells, which has implications for their use in replication and damage research, as well as for dNTP metabolism.
|Heritable change caused by transient transcription |
Gordon AJ, Satory D, Halliday JA, Herman C
PLoS Genetics 9 (6): e1003595 2013
Abstract Transmission of cellular identity relies on the faithful transfer of information from the mother to the daughter cell. This process includes accurate replication of the DNA, but also the correct propagation of regulatory programs responsible for cellular identity. Errors in DNA replication (mutations) and protein conformation (prions) can trigger stable phenotypic changes and cause human disease, yet the ability of transient transcriptional errors to produce heritable phenotypic change (‘epimutations’) remains an open question. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional errors made specifically in the mRNA encoding a transcription factor can promote heritable phenotypic change by reprogramming a transcriptional network, without altering DNA. We have harnessed the classical bistable switch in the lac operon, a memory-module, to capture the consequences of transient transcription errors in living Escherichia coli cells. We engineered an error-prone transcription sequence (A9 run) in the gene encoding the lac repressor and show that this ‘slippery’ sequence directly increases epigenetic switching, not mutation in the cell population. Therefore, one altered transcript within a multi-generational series of many error-free transcripts can cause long-term phenotypic consequences. Thus, like DNA mutations, transcriptional epimutations can instigate heritable changes that increase phenotypic diversity, which drives both evolution and disease.
|Mitochondrial network size scaling in budding yeast. |
Rafelski, Susanne M, et al.
Science, 338: 822-4 (2012) 2012
Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria-to-cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of the mother's age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance.
|Bacterial Virulence Proteins as tools to rewire kinase pathways in Yeast and immune cells. |
Wei P, Wong WW, Park JS, Corcoran EE, Peisajovich SG, Onuffer JJ, Weiss A, Lim WA
Nature 488, 384-388 (16 August 2012) 2012
Bacterial pathogens have evolved specific effector proteins that, by interfacing with host kinase signalling pathways, provide a mechanism to evade immune responses during infection1, 2. Although these effectors contribute to pathogen virulence, we realized that they might also serve as valuable synthetic biology reagents for engineering cellular behaviour. Here we exploit two effector proteins, the Shigella flexneri OspF protein3 and Yersinia pestis YopH protein4, to rewire kinase-mediated responses systematically both in yeast and mammalian immune cells. Bacterial effector proteins can be directed to inhibit specific mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively in yeast by artificially targeting them to pathway-specific complexes. Moreover, we show that unique properties of the effectors generate new pathway behaviours: OspF, which irreversibly inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases4, was used to construct a synthetic feedback circuit that shows novel frequency-dependent input filtering. Finally, we show that effectors can be used in T cells, either as feedback modulators to tune the T-cell response amplitude precisely, or as an inducible pause switch that can temporarily disable T-cell activation. These studies demonstrate how pathogens could provide a rich toolkit of parts to engineer cells for therapeutic or biotechnological applications.
|Continued DNA synthesis in replication checkpoint mutants leads to fork collapse. |
Sabatinos SA, Green MD, Forsburg SL
Molecular and Cellular Biology, 32 (24), 4986-4997 (Dec 2012) 2012
Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment activates the intra-S phase checkpoint proteins Cds1 and Mrc1 to prevent replication fork collapse. We found that prolonged DNA synthesis occurs in cds1Δ and mrc1Δ checkpoint mutants in the presence of HU and continues after release. This is coincident with increased DNA damage measured by phosphorylated histone H2A in whole cells during release. High-resolution live-cell imaging shows that mutants first accumulate extensive replication protein A (RPA) foci, followed by increased Rad52. Both DNA synthesis and RPA accumulation require the MCM helicase. We propose that a replication fork “collapse point” in HU-treated cells describes the point at which accumulated DNA damage and instability at individual forks prevent further replication. After this point, cds1Δ and mrc1Δ forks cannot complete genome replication. These observations establish replication fork collapse as a dynamic process that continues after release from HU block.
|Commitment to a cellular transition precedes genome-wide trasncriptional change. |
Doncic A, Falleur-Fettig M, Skotheim J
Molecular Cell Vol. 43, Issue 4, 515-527 (Aug 2011) 2011
In budding yeast, commitment to cell division corresponds to activating the positive feedback loop of G1 cyclins controlled by the transcription factors SBF and MBF. This pair of transcription factors has over 200 targets, implying that cell-cycle commitment coincides with genome-wide changes in transcription. Here, we find that genes within this regulon have a well-defined distribution of transcriptional activation times. Combinatorial use of SBF and MBF results in a logical OR function for gene expression and partially explains activation timing. Activation of G1 cyclin expression precedes the activation of the bulk of the G1/S regulon, ensuring that commitment to cell division occurs before large-scale changes in transcription. Furthermore, we find similar positive feedback-first regulation in the yeasts S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae, as well as human cells. The widespread use of the feedback-first motif in eukaryotic cell-cycle control, implemented by nonorthologous proteins, suggests its frequent deployment at cellular transitions.
|Distinct interactions select and maintain a specific cell fate. |
Doncic A, Falleur-Fettig M, Skotheim J
Molecular Cell Vol. 43, Issue 4, 528-539 (Aug 2011) 2011
The ability to specify and maintain discrete cell fates is essential for development. However, the dynamics underlying selection and stability of distinct cell types remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a quantitative single-cell analysis of commitment dynamics during the mating-mitosis switch in budding yeast. Commitment to division corresponds precisely to activating the G1 cyclin positive feedback loop in competition with the cyclin inhibitor Far1. Cyclin-dependent phosphorylation and inhibition of the mating pathway scaffold Ste5 are required to ensure exclusive expression of the mitotic transcriptional program after cell cycle commitment. Failure to commit exclusively results in coexpression of both cell cycle and pheromone-induced genes, and a morphologically mixed inviable cell fate. Thus, specification and maintenance of a cellular state are performed by distinct interactions, which are likely a consequence of disparate reaction rates and may be a general feature of the interlinked regulatory networks responsible for selecting cell fates
|Optical sensors for measuring dynamic changes of cytosolic metabolite levels in yeast. |
Clara Bermejo, Farzad Haerizadeh, Hitomi Takanaga, Diane Chermak, Wolf Frommer
Nature Protocols 6, 1806-1817 (2011) 2011
Optical sensors allow dynamic quantification of metabolite levels with subcellular resolution. Here we describe protocols for analyzing cytosolic glucose levels in yeast using genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors. FRET glucose sensors with different glucose affinities (Kd) covering the low nano- to mid- millimolar range can be targeted genetically to the cytosol or to subcellular compartments. The sensors detect the glucose-induced conformational change in the bacterial periplasmic glucose/galactose binding protein MglB using FRET between two fluorescent protein variants. Measurements can be performed with a single sensor or multiple sensors in parallel. In one approach, cytosolic glucose accumulation is measured in yeast cultures in a 96-well plate using a fluorimeter. Upon excitation of the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), emission intensities of CFP and YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) are captured before and after glucose addition. FRET sensors provide temporally resolved quantitative data of glucose for the compartment of interest. In a second approach, reversible changes of cytosolic free glucose are measured in individual yeast cells trapped in a microfluidic platform, allowing perfusion of different solutions while FRET changes are monitored in a microscope setup. By using the microplate fluorimeter protocol, 96 cultures can be measured in less than 1 h; analysis of single cells of a single genotype can be completed in <2 h. FRET-based analysis has been performed with glucose, maltose, ATP and zinc sensors, and it can easily be adapted for high-throughput screening using a wide spectrum of sensors.
|The DNA damage checkpoint regulates a transition between yeast and hyphal growth in schizosaccharomyces japonicus. |
Kanji Furuya, Hironori Niki
Molecular Cell Biology vol. 30 no. 12, 2909-2917 (June 2010) 2010
Dimorphic yeasts change between unicellular growth and filamentous growth. Many dimorphic yeasts species are pathogenic for humans and plants, being infectious as invasive hypha. We have studied the determinants of the dimorphic switch in the nonpathogenic fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, which is evolutionarily close to the well-characterized fission yeast S. pombe. We report that camptothecin, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I, reversibly induced the unicellular to hyphal transition in S. japonicus at low concentrations of camptothecin that did not induce checkpoint arrest and the transition required the DNA checkpoint kinase Chk1. Furthermore, a mutation of chk1 induced hyphal transition without camptothecin. Thus, we identify a second function for Chk1 distinct from its role in checkpoint arrest. Activation of the switch from single cell bipolar growth to monopolar filamentous growth may assist cells to evade the source of DNA damage.
|Cytosolic pH is a second messenger for glucose and regulates the PKA pathway through V-ATPase. |
Reinhard Dechant, Matteo Binda, Sung Sik Lee, Serge Pelet, Joris Winderickx and Matthias Peter
The EMBO Journal 29, 2515-2526 (2010) 2010
Glucose is the preferred carbon source for most cell types and a major determinant of cell growth. In yeast and certain mammalian cells, glucose activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), but the mechanisms of PKA activation remain unknown. Here, we identify cytosolic pH as a second messenger for glucose that mediates activation of the PKA pathway in yeast. We find that cytosolic pH is rapidly and reversibly regulated by glucose metabolism and identify the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a proton pump required for the acidification of vacuoles, as a sensor of cytosolic pH. V-ATPase assembly is regulated by cytosolic pH and is required for full activation of the PKA pathway in response to glucose, suggesting that it mediates, at least in part, the pH signal to PKA. Finally, V-ATPase is also regulated by glucose in the Min6 β-cell line and contributes to PKA activation and insulin secretion. Thus, these data suggest a novel and potentially conserved glucose-sensing pathway and identify a mechanism how cytosolic pH can act as a signal to promote cell growth.
|Oscillations in CDC14 release and sequestration reveal a circuit underlying mitotic exit. |
Romilde Manzoni, Francesca Montani, Clara Visintin, Fabrice Caudron, Andres Ciliberto, and Rosella Visintin
JCB vol. 190 no. 2, 209-222 (July 2010) 2010
In budding yeast, the phosphatase Cdc14 orchestrates progress through anaphase and mitotic exit, thereby resetting the cell cycle for a new round of cell division. Two consecutive pathways, Cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) and mitotic exit network (MEN), contribute to the progressive activation of Cdc14 by regulating its release from the nucleolus, where it is kept inactive by Cfi1. In this study, we show that Cdc14 activation requires the polo-like kinase Cdc5 together with either Clb–cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) or the MEN kinase Dbf2. Once active, Cdc14 triggers a negative feedback loop that, in the presence of stable levels of mitotic cyclins, generates periodic cycles of Cdc14 release and sequestration. Similar phenotypes have been described for yeast bud formation and centrosome duplication. A common theme emerges where events that must happen only once per cycle, although intrinsically capable of oscillations, are limited to one occurrence by the cyclin–Cdk cell cycle engine.
|Dynamic analysis of cytosolic glucose and ATP levels in yeast using optical sensors. |
Bermejo C, Haerizadeh F, Takanaga H, Chermak D, Frommer WB
Biochem J 432(2), 399-406 (Dec 2010) 2010
Precise and dynamic measurement of intracellular metabolite levels has been hampered by difficulties in differentiating between adsorbed and imported fractions and the subcellular distribution between cytosol, endomembrane compartments and mitochondria. In the present study, genetically encoded FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer)-based sensors were deployed for dynamic measurements of free cytosolic glucose and ATP with varying external supply and in glucose-transport mutants. Moreover, by using the FRET sensors in a microfluidic platform, we were able to monitor in vivo changes of intracellular free glucose in individual yeast cells. We demonstrate the suitability of the FRET sensors for gaining physiological insight by demonstrating that free intracellular glucose and ATP levels are reduced in a hxt5Ä hexose-transporter mutant compared with wild-type and other hxtÄ strains.
|Spinning-disk confocal microscopy of yeast. |
Methods in Enzymology, Volume 470, 581-602 (2010) 2010
Spinning-disk confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that combines the out-of-focus light rejection of confocal microscopy with the high sensitivity of wide-field microscopy. Because of its unique features, it is well suited to high-resolution imaging of yeast and other small cells. Elimination of out-of-focus light significantly improves the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio, making it easier to resolve and quantitate small, dim structures in the cell. These features make spinning-disk confocal microscopy an excellent technique for studying protein localization and dynamics in yeast. In this review, I describe the rationale behind using spinning-disk confocal imaging for yeast, hardware considerations when assembling a spinning-disk confocal scope, and methods for strain preparation and imaging. In particular, I discuss choices of objective lens and camera, choice of fluorescent proteins for tagging yeast genes, and methods for sample preparation.
|Atg8 regulates vacuolar membrane dynamics in a lipidation-independent manner in Pichia pastoris. |
Naoki Tamura, Masahide Oku, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Journal of Cell Science 123, 4107-4116 (Dec 2010) 2010
Atg8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that is required, along with its lipidation system, for autophagy in all eukaryotic cells. The lipidated form of Atg8 is anchored on the autophagosomal membrane during autophagy. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown role for Atg8 in vacuolar membrane dynamics. In the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, vacuoles were found to fuse to become a single spherical vacuole during adaptation from glucose- to methanol-containing medium. Atg8 is responsible for the vacuolar fusion in P. pastoris during this adaptation to methanol. Although vacuole fusion required processing of Atg8 at the C-terminus, it did not require lipidation of Atg8 for autophagy. This is the first report of the function of any Atg8 protein family member in a process other than autophagy that is independent of lipidation.
|Dynamic cell culture: a microfluidic function generator for live cell microscopy. |
Philip Lee, Terry Gaige, Paul Hung
Lab on a Chip, 9, 164-166 (2009) 2009
We present a microfluidic system for time-lapsed, live cell microscopy with the ability to control solution exchange via a dynamic flow controller. The application specific microfluidic plates are designed to maintain adherent and non-adherent cell types for multiple days with continuous medium perfusion. Upstream channels with flow controlled via custom software allow the delivery of unique exposure profiles to the cultured cells, such as square waves, step functions, ramps, etc.
|Epigenetic and conventional regulation is distributed among activators of FLO11 allowing tuning of population-level heterogeneity in its expression. |
Octavio, LM; Gedeon, K; Maheshri, N
PLoS genetics 5 e1000673 2009
Epigenetic switches encode their state information either locally, often via covalent modification of DNA or histones, or globally, usually in the level of a trans-regulatory factor. Here we examine how the regulation of cis-encoded epigenetic switches controls the extent of heterogeneity in gene expression, which is ultimately tied to phenotypic diversity in a population. We show that two copies of the FLO11 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae switch between a silenced and competent promoter state in a random and independent fashion, implying that the molecular event leading to the transition occurs locally at the promoter, in cis. We further quantify the effect of trans regulators both on the slow epigenetic transitions between a silenced and competent promoter state and on the fast promoter transitions associated with conventional regulation of FLO11. We find different classes of regulators affect epigenetic, conventional, or both forms of regulation. Distributing kinetic control of epigenetic silencing and conventional gene activation offers cells flexibility in shaping the distribution of gene expression and phenotype within a population.
|A microfluidic system for dynamic yeast cell imaging. |
Philip Lee, Noah Helman, Wendell Lim, Paul Hung
Biotechniques, 44 (1), 91-95 (2008) 2008
The investigation of cellular processes and gene regulatory networks within living cells requires the development of improved technology for dynamic, single cell imaging. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic system capable of mechanical trapping of yeast cells with continuous flow and flow switching capability during time-lapse high magnification fluorescence imaging. The novel functionality of the system was validated by observing the response of pheromone-induced expression of GFP in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.