Key Specifications Table
|Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 assays|
BrdU Cell Proliferation Kit SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|A fluorescence polarization based screening assay for identification of small molecule inhibitors of the PICK1 PDZ domain.|
Thor S Thorsen,Kenneth L Madsen,Tino Dyhring,Anders Bach,Dan Peters,Kristian Strømgaard,Lars Christian B Rønn,Ulrik Gether
Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening 14 2011
PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology) domains represent putative targets in several diseases including cancer, stroke, addiction and neuropathic pain. Here we describe the application of a simple and fast screening assay based on fluorescence polarization (FP) to identify inhibitors of the PDZ domain in PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1). We screened 43,380 compounds for their ability to inhibit binding of an Oregon Green labeled C-terminal dopamine transporter peptide (OrG-DAT C13) to purified PICK1 in solution. The assay was highly reliable with excellent screening assay parameters (Z'?0.7 and Z?0.6). Out of ~200 compounds that reduced FP to less than 80% of the control wells, six compounds were further characterized. The apparent affinities of the compounds were determined in FP competition binding experiments and ranged from ~5.0 µM to ~193 µM. Binding to the PICK1 PDZ domain was confirmed for five of the compounds (CSC-03, CSC-04, CSC-43, FSC-231 and FSC-240) in a non-fluorescence based assay by their ability to inhibit pull-down of PICK1 by a C-terminal DAT GST fusion protein. CSC-03 displayed the highest apparent affinity (5.0 µM) in the FP assay, and was according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments capable of inhibiting the interaction between the C-terminus of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor and PICK1 in live cells. Additional experiments suggested that CSC-03 most likely is an irreversible inhibitor but with specificity for PICK1 since it did not bind three different PDZ domains of PSD-95. Summarized, our data suggest that FP based screening assays might be a widely applicable tool in the search for small molecule inhibitors of PDZ domain interactions.
|The immunoproteasome, the 20S proteasome, and the PA28αβ proteasome regulator are oxidative stress-adaptive proteolytic complexes.|
Pickering AM, Koop AL, Teoh CY, Ermak G, Grune T, Davies KJ
Biochem J 2010
Oxidized cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins are normally degraded by proteasome, but accumulate with age and disease. We demonstrate the importance of various forms of the proteasome during transient (reversible) adaptation (hormesis), to oxidative stress in murine embryonic fibroblasts. Adaptation was achieved by 'pre-treatment' with very low concentrations of H2O2, and tested by measuring inducible resistance to a subsequent, much higher 'challenge' dose of H2O2. Following an initial direct physical activation of pre-existing proteasomes, 20S proteasome, immunoproteasome, and PA28αβ regulator, all exhibited substantially increased de novo synthesis during adaptation over 24 hours Cellular capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins increased with 20S proteasome, immunoproteasome, and PA28αβ synthesis, and was mostly blocked by 20S proteasome, immunoproteasome, and PA28 siRNA knock-down treatments. Additionally, PA28αβ knockout mutants achieved only half the H2O2 induced adaptive increase in proteolytic capacity of wild-type controls. Direct comparison of purified 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome demonstrated that immunoproteasome can selectively degrade oxidized proteins. Cell proliferation and DNA replication both decreased, and oxidized proteins accumulated, during high H2O2 challenge, but prior H2O2 adaptation was protective. Importantly, siRNA knock-down of 20S proteasome, immunoproteasome, or PA28αβ regulator blocked 50-100% of these adaptive increases in cell division and DNA replication, and immunoproteasome knock-down largely abolished protection against protein oxidation.
|Isatis tinctoria L. combined with co-stimulatory molecules blockade prolongs survival of cardiac allografts in alloantigen-primed mice.|
Kang X, Chen J, Qin Q, Wang F, Wang Y, Lan T, Xu S, Wang F, Xia J, Ekberg H, Qi Z, Liu Z
Transpl Immunol 2010
Memory T cells present a unique challenge in transplantation. Although memory T cells express robust immune responses to invading pathogens, they may be resistant to the effects of immunosuppressive therapies used to prolong graft survival. In previous studies, we found that compound K, the synthesized analogue of highly unsaturated fatty acids from Isatis tinctoria L., reduced acute cardiac allograft rejection in mice (Wang et al., 2009 ). Here, we further investigated the effect of compound K on cardiac allograft rejection in alloantigen-primed mice. We found that compound K significantly inhibited CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In vivo, compound K combined with anti-CD154 and anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) significantly extended the survival time of heart grafts in alloantigen-primed mice with no obvious toxic side effects. Furthermore, our data suggests that compound K works by reducing the expression of both IL-2 and IFN-gamma within the graft rather than enhancing expression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Compound K can also inhibit the alloresponses of memory T cells, while increasing the proportion of CD4(+) memory T cells in the spleen of the recipients and significantly reducing the level of alloantibodies in the serum. Our study highlights the unique immune effects of compound K that may be further explored for clinical use in extending the survival of transplant grafts. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Induction of dopaminergic neurons from growth factor expanded neural stem/progenitor cell cultures derived from human first trimester forebrain.|
Nicolaj S Christophersen,Xia Meijer,Jesper R Jørgensen,Ulrica Englund,Mette Grønborg,Ake Seiger,Patrik Brundin,Lars U Wahlberg
Brain research bulletin 70 2006
Multipotent stem/progenitor cells derived from human first trimester forebrain can be expanded as free-floating aggregates, so called neurospheres. These cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In vitro differentiation protocols normally yield gamma-aminobutyric acid-immunoreactive neurons, whereas only few tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing neurons are found. The present report describes conditions under which 4-10% of the cells in the culture become TH immunoreactive (ir) neurons within 24h. Factors including acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in combination with agents that increase intracellular cyclic AMP and activate protein kinase C, in addition to a substrate that promotes neuronal differentiation appear critical for efficient TH induction. The cells remain THir after trypsinization and replating, even when their subsequent culturing takes place in the absence of inducing factors. Consistent with a dopaminergic phenotype, mRNAs encoding aromatic acid decarboxylase, but not dopamine-beta-hydroxylase were detected by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Ten weeks after the cells had been grafted into the striatum of adult rats with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions, only very few of the surviving human neurons expressed TH. Our data suggest that a significant proportion of expandable human neural progenitors can differentiate into TH-expressing cells in vitro and that they could be useful for drug and gene discovery. Additional experiments, however, are required to improve the survival and phenotypic stability of these cells before they can be considered useful for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease.
|Gene marking of human neural stem/precursor cells using green fluorescent proteins.|
Beatriz Navarro-Galve,Ana Villa,Carlos Bueno,Lachlan Thompson,Jens Johansen,Alberto Martínez-Serrano
The journal of gene medicine 7 2005
Ex vivo gene therapy and cell replacement in the nervous system may provide therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders. The development of optimal gene marking procedures for human neural stem cells (hNSCs) is crucial for the success of these strategies, in order to provide a correct understanding of the biology of transplanted cells.
|Application of triple-probe microdialysis for fast pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of dopamimetic activity of drug candidates in the rat brain.|
Pia Weikop,Börje Egestad,Jan Kehr
Journal of neuroscience methods 140 2004
The technique of microdialysis utilizing three simultaneously implanted probes in the anaesthetized rat enables monitoring of pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of a tested drug both in blood (1st probe) and brain (2nd probe) compartments and the pharmacodynamic (PD) response of neurotransmitters (3rd probe) released into, or accumulating within the brain extracellular fluid (ECF). In the present study, the PK/PD characteristics of cocaine (psychostimulant, strong abuse potential) and methylphenidate (dopamimetic drug without reinforcing properties) and two novel NeuroSearch (NS) drug candidates, NS-A and NS-B, were examined in blood and brain microdialysates from the anaesthetized rats. The extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) were monitored in the striatum or prefrontal cortex. The NS-A compound entered the brain ECF at a slightly slower rate then methylphenidate; however, both compounds showed about the same effect on the speed of accumulation of extracellular DA concentrations, which gradually increased to about 450% of the basal, predrug levels at the end of the sampling period (180 min). The NS-B compound showed more rapid PK profiles than those observed after methylphenidate and NS-A. The concentrations of NS-B reached the maximal values already 40 min after its administration, while at that time, the corresponding DA values were still unchanged. In fact, the increase in DA concentrations was about two times slower when compared to that of methylphenidate or NS-A-drugs. Faster kinetics of NS-B and its delayed effect on extracellular DA suggests that this compound is metabolized to an active intermediate product, which itself exerts stronger dopamimetic activity in the rat prefrontal cortex that the original NS-B substance. The present study illustrates the feasibility of triple-probe microdialysis to monitor the rate of extracellular accumulation of a drug candidate and DA levels in vivo and compare the resulting PK/PD profiles to those obtained for cocaine and methylphenidate. These measures may serve as initial neurochemical indicators of potential psychomimetic or reinforcing properties of the tested substances.
|Plague in San Francisco: an essay review.|
Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences 59 2004
|Effect of mutant alpha-synuclein on dopamine homeostasis in a new human mesencephalic cell line.|
Julie Lotharius,Sebastian Barg,Pia Wiekop,Cecilia Lundberg,Heather K Raymon,Patrik Brundin
The Journal of biological chemistry 277 2002
Mutations in alpha-synuclein have been linked to rare, autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson's disease. Despite its ubiquitous expression, mutant alpha-synuclein primarily leads to the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. alpha-Synuclein is a presynaptic nerve terminal protein of unknown function, although several studies suggest it is important for synaptic plasticity and maintenance. The present study utilized a new human mesencephalic cell line, MESC2.10, to study the effect of A53T mutant alpha-synuclein on dopamine homeostasis. In addition to expressing markers of mature dopamine neurons, differentiated MESC2.10 cells are electrically active, produce dopamine, and express wild-type human alpha-synuclein. Lentivirus-induced overexpression of A53T mutant alpha-synuclein in differentiated MESC2.10 cells resulted in down-regulation of the vesicular dopamine transporter (VMAT2), decreased potassium-induced and increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release, enhanced cytoplasmic dopamine immunofluorescence, and increased intracellular levels of superoxide. These results suggest that mutant alpha-synuclein leads to an impairment in vesicular dopamine storage and consequent accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol, a pathogenic mechanism that underlies the toxicity of the psychostimulant amphetamine and the parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Interestingly, cells expressing A53T mutant alpha-synuclein were resistant to amphetamine-induced toxicity. Because extravesicular, cytoplasmic dopamine can be easily oxidized into reactive oxygen species and other toxic metabolites, mutations in alpha-synuclein might lead to Parkinson's disease by triggering protracted, low grade dopamine toxicity resulting in terminal degeneration and ultimately cell death.
|Designing new metal affinity peptides by random mutagenesis of a natural metal-binding site.|
M M Enzelberger, S Minning, R D Schmid
Journal of chromatography. A 898 83-94 2000
The metal-binding site of a Helicobacter pylori ATPase 439 (heli(WT)-tag) was successfully used as a new fusion peptide for immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). It produced higher yields than the frequently used his6-tag. Due to stronger binding of the peptide to metal ions, harsher elution conditions were, however, necessary. This undesired side-effect was overcome by modifying the heli(WT)-tag by polymerase chain reaction-directed mutagenesis. The modified tags were screened by an automated high-throughput IMAC system, leading to a heliM14-tag peptide that could be eluted under conditions similar to those of the his6-tag but at the same time produced 20% higher yields of the desired protein.
|Novel HY peptide antigens presented by HLA-B27.|
W A Simmons,S G Summerfield,D C Roopenian,C A Slaughter,A R Zuberi,S J Gaskell,R S Bordoli,J Hoyes,C R Moomaw,R A Colbert,L Y Leong,G W Butcher,R E Hammer,J D Taurog
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 159 1997
We have identified two peptides corresponding to the male-specific HY minor histocompatibility Ags presented by HLA-B27 in transgenic rodents, isolated from whole cell extracts and from immunoprecipitated B27 molecules of male B27 rat spleen cells. HPLC peptide fractions that sensitized female B27 targets for lysis by B27-restricted anti-HY CTL were analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry using a new highly sensitive quadrupole/time-of-flight instrument. Two peptide sequences were obtained, KQYQKSTER and AVLNKSNREVR. Synthetic peptides corresponding to these sequences bound B27 in vitro and were recognized by distinct B27-restricted anti-HY CTL populations. Neither peptide sequence entirely matches known protein sequences or shows a resemblance to known Y chromosome genes, but both show homology to known autosomally encoded proteins. Both peptides were shown to be controlled by the Sxr(b) segment of the short arm of the mouse Y chromosome, a segment known to contain all previously identified HY Ags. Taken together, these findings suggest that the two peptides arise as a result of Y chromosome-regulated control of one or more autosomal gene products. Although arginine at position 2 is a dominant anchor residue for peptides bound to B27, neither B27-presented HY sequence contains this residue. These studies, employing sensitive new methodology for identification of MHC-bound peptides, significantly extend the complexity of the genetic basis of HY Ags and expand the repertoire of antigenically active peptides bound to B27.
|A Comparative Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured in a Variety of Media Conditions|
|BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay 200 Tests|