|Interleukin-10 delivery via mesenchymal stem cells: a novel gene therapy approach to prevent lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. |
Manning E, Pham S, Li S, Vazquez-Padron RI, Mathew J, Ruiz P, Salgar SK
Hum Gene Ther
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is an important cause of primary graft failure in lung transplantation. In this study, viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10)-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were tested for their ability to prevent lung IR injury. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were transduced with rvIL-10-retrovirus. After 120 min of warm left lung ischemia, rats received approximately 15 x 10(6) vIL-10-engineered MSCs (MSC-vIL-10), empty vector-engineered MSCs (MSC-vec), or saline intravenously. Mean blood oxygenation (PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mmHg) was measured at 4 hr, 24 hr, 72 hr, and 7 days. As early as 4 hr post-IR injury with MSC-vIL-10 treatment, blood oxygenation was significantly (p < 0.05) improved (319 +/- 94; n = 7) compared with untreated (saline) controls (63 +/- 19; n = 6). At 24 hr post-IR injury, in the MSC-vIL-10-treated group there was a further increase in blood oxygenation (353 +/- 105; n = 10) compared with the MSC-vec group (138 +/- 86; n = 9) and saline group (87 +/- 39; n = 10). By 72 hr, oxygenation reached normal (475 +/- 55; n = 9) in the MSC-vIL-10-treated group but not in the saline-treated and MSC-vec-treated groups. At 4 hr after IR injury, lungs with MSC-vIL10 treatment had a lower (p < 0.05) injury score (0.9 +/- 0.4) compared with lungs of the untreated (saline) group (2.5 +/- 1.4) or MSC-vec-treated group (2 +/- 0.4). Lung microvascular permeability and wet-to-dry weight ratios were markedly lower in the MSC-vIL10 group compared with untreated (saline) controls. ISOL (in situ oligonucleotide ligation for DNA fragmentation detection) and caspase-3 staining demonstrated significantly (p < 0.05) fewer apoptotic cells in MSC-vIL10-treated lungs. Animals that received MSC-vIL10 therapy had fewer (p < 0.05) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with untreated control animals. A therapeutic strategy using vIL-10-engineered MSCs to prevent IR injury in lung transplantation seems promising.
|Inhibition of poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase decreases hepatocellular carcinoma growth by modulation of tumor-related gene expression. |
Rosa Quiles-Perez,José Antonio Muñoz-Gámez,Angeles Ruiz-Extremera,Francisco O'Valle,Laura Sanjuán-Nuñez,Ana Belén Martín-Alvarez,David Martín-Oliva,Trinidad Caballero,Paloma Muñoz de Rueda,Josefa León,Raúl Gonzalez,Jordi Muntané,Francisco Javier Oliver,Javier Salmerón
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a poor prognosis due to a lack of effective treatment options. In HCC a significant role is played by DNA damage and the inflammatory response. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is an important protein that regulates both these mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pharmacology PARP-1 inhibition on the reduction of tumor volume of HCC xenograft and on the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Pharmacologic PARP-1 inhibition with DPQ greatly reduces tumor xenograft volume with regard to a nontreated xenograft (394 mm(3) versus 2,942 mm(3), P < 0.05). This observation was paralleled by reductions in xenograft mitosis (P = 0.02) and tumor vasculogenesis (P = 0.007, confirmed by in vitro angiogenesis study), as well as by an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in DPQ-treated mice (P = 0.04). A substantial difference in key tumor-related gene expression (transformed 3T3 cell double minute 2 [MDM2], FLT1 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, VEGFR1], epidermal growth factor receptor [EPAS1]/hypoxia-inducible factor 2 [HIF2A], EGLN1 [PHD2], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], MYC, JUND, SPP1 [OPN], hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) was found between the control tumor xenografts and the PARP inhibitor-treated xenografts (data confirmed in HCC cell lines using PARP inhibitors and PARP-1 small interfering RNA [siRNA]). Furthermore, the results obtained in mice treated with DEN to induce hepatocarcinogenesis showed, after treatment with a PARP inhibitor (DPQ), a significant reduction both in preneoplastic foci and in the expression of preneoplastic markers and proinflammatory genes (Gstm3, Vegf, Spp1 [Opn], IL6, IL1b, and Tnf), bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and NF-kappaB activation in the initial steps of carcinogenesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that PARP inhibition is capable of controlling HCC growth and preventing tumor vasculogenesis by regulating the activation of different genes involved in tumor progression.