Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||WB, DB, Mplex, ChIP-seq||Rb||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Cultured supernantant in 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 98 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The Epigenome of Schistosoma mansoni Provides Insight about How Cercariae Poise Transcription until Infection. |
Roquis, D; Lepesant, JM; Picard, MA; Freitag, M; Parrinello, H; Groth, M; Emans, R; Cosseau, C; Grunau, C
PLoS neglected tropical diseases 9 e0003853 2015
Chromatin structure can control gene expression and can define specific transcription states. For example, bivalent methylation of histone H3K4 and H3K27 is linked to poised transcription in vertebrate embryonic stem cells (ESC). It allows them to rapidly engage specific developmental pathways. We reasoned that non-vertebrate metazoans that encounter a similar developmental constraint (i.e. to quickly start development into a new phenotype) might use a similar system. Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminthes that are characterized by passage through two hosts: a mollusk as intermediate host and humans or rodents as definitive host. During its development, the parasite undergoes drastic changes, most notable immediately after infection of the definitive host, i.e. during the transition from the free-swimming cercariae into adult worms.We used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyze genome-wide chromatin structure of S. mansoni on the level of histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K9me3, and H3K9ac) in cercariae, schistosomula and adults (available at http://genome.univ-perp.fr). We saw striking differences in chromatin structure between the developmental stages, but most importantly we found that cercariae possess a specific combination of marks at the transcription start sites (TSS) that has similarities to a structure found in ESC. We demonstrate that in cercariae no transcription occurs, and we provide evidences that cercariae do not possess large numbers of canonical stem cells.We describe here a broad view on the epigenome of a metazoan parasite. Most notably, we find bivalent histone H3 methylation in cercariae. Methylation of H3K27 is removed during transformation into schistosomula (and stays absent in adults) and transcription is activated. In addition, shifts of H3K9 methylation and acetylation occur towards upstream and downstream of the transcriptional start site (TSS). We conclude that specific H3 modifications are a phylogenetically older and probably more general mechanism, i.e. not restricted to stem cells, to poise transcription. Since adult couples must form to cause the disease symptoms, changes in histone modifications appear to be crucial for pathogenesis and represent therefore a therapeutic target.
|Geminivirus-encoded TrAP suppressor inhibits the histone methyltransferase SUVH4/KYP to counter host defense. |
Castillo-González, C; Liu, X; Huang, C; Zhao, C; Ma, Z; Hu, T; Sun, F; Zhou, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, XJ; Zhang, X
eLife 4 e06671 2015
Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) can serve as an innate immunity against invading DNA viruses throughout Eukaryotes. Geminivirus code for TrAP protein to suppress the TGS pathway. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis H3K9me2 histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9 homolog 4/Kryptonite (SUVH4/KYP), as a bona fide cellular target of TrAP. TrAP interacts with the catalytic domain of KYP and inhibits its activity in vitro. TrAP elicits developmental anomalies phenocopying several TGS mutants, reduces the repressive H3K9me2 mark and CHH DNA methylation, and reactivates numerous endogenous KYP-repressed loci in vivo. Moreover, KYP binds to the viral chromatin and controls its methylation to combat virus infection. Notably, kyp mutants support systemic infection of TrAP-deficient Geminivirus. We conclude that TrAP attenuates the TGS of the viral chromatin by inhibiting KYP activity to evade host surveillance. These findings provide new insight on the molecular arms race between host antiviral defense and virus counter defense at an epigenetic level.
|Epigenetic synergy between decitabine and platinum derivatives. |
Qin, T; Si, J; Raynal, NJ; Wang, X; Gharibyan, V; Ahmed, S; Hu, X; Jin, C; Lu, Y; Shu, J; Estecio, MR; Jelinek, J; Issa, JP
Clinical epigenetics 7 97 2015
Aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes has been recognized as a driving force in cancer. Epigenetic drugs such as the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine reactivate genes and are effective in myeloid leukemia, but resistance often develops and efficacy in solid tumors is limited. To improve their clinical efficacy, we searched among approved anti-cancer drugs for an epigenetic synergistic combination with decitabine.We used the YB5 cell line, a clonal derivative of the SW48 colon cancer cell line that contains a single copy of a hypermethylated cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) to screen for drug-induced gene reactivation and synergy with decitabine. None of the 16 anti-cancer drugs tested had effects on their own. However, in combination with decitabine, platinum compounds showed striking synergy in activating GFP. This was dose dependent, observed both in concurrent and sequential combinations, and also seen with other alkylating agents. Clinically achievable concentrations of carboplatin at (25 μM) and decitabine reactivated GFP in 28 % of the YB5 cells as compared to 15 % with decitabine alone. Epigenetic synergy was also seen at endogenously hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes such as MLH1 and PDLIM4. Genome-wide studies showed that reactivation of hypermethylated genes by the combination was significantly better than that induced by decitabine alone or carboplatin alone. Platinum compounds did not enhance decitabine-induced hypomethylation. Rather, we found significantly inhibited HP1α expression by carboplatin and the combination. This was accompanied by increased histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation at reactivated genes (P less than 0.0001) and reduced occupancy by methyl-binding proteins including MeCP2 and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) (P less than 0.0001).Our results suggest that the combination of decitabine with platinum analogs shows epigenetic synergy that might be exploited in the treatment of different cancers.
|Quantification of histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) by high-throughput microscopy enables cellular large-scale screening for small-molecule EZH2 inhibitors. |
Luense, S; Denner, P; Fernández-Montalván, A; Hartung, I; Husemann, M; Stresemann, C; Prechtl, S
Journal of biomolecular screening 20 190-201 2015
EZH2 inhibition can decrease global histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and thereby reactivates silenced tumor suppressor genes. Inhibition of EZH2 is regarded as an option for therapeutic cancer intervention. To identify novel small-molecule (SMOL) inhibitors of EZH2 in drug discovery, trustworthy cellular assays amenable for phenotypic high-throughput screening (HTS) are crucial. We describe a reliable approach that quantifies changes in global levels of histone modification marks using high-content analysis (HCA). The approach was validated in different cell lines by using small interfering RNA and SMOL inhibitors. By automation and miniaturization from a 384-well to 1536-well plate, we demonstrated its utility in conducting phenotypic HTS campaigns and assessing structure-activity relationships (SAR). This assay enables screening of SMOL EZH2 inhibitors and can advance the mechanistic understanding of H3K27me3 suppression, which is crucial with regard to epigenetic therapy. We observed that a decrease in global H3K27me3, induced by EZH2 inhibition, comprises two distinct mechanisms: (1) inhibition of de novo DNA methylation and (II) inhibition of dynamic, replication-independent H3K27me3 turnover. This report describes an HCA assay for primary HTS to identify, profile, and optimize cellular active SMOL inhibitors targeting histone methyltransferases, which could benefit epigenetic drug discovery.
|Distinct patterns of the histone marks associated with recruitment of the methionine chain-elongation pathway from leucine biosynthesis. |
Xue, M; Long, J; Jiang, Q; Wang, M; Chen, S; Pang, Q; He, Y
Journal of experimental botany 66 805-12 2015
Aliphatic glucosinolates (GLSs) are derived from chain-elongated methionine produced by an iterative three-step process, known to be evolutionarily recruited from leucine biosynthesis. The divergence of homologous genes between two pathways is mainly linked to the alterations in biochemical features. In this study, it was discovered that a distinct pattern of histone modifications is associated with and/or contributes to the divergence of the two pathways. In general, genes involved in leucine biosynthesis were robustly associated with H3k4me2 and H3K4me3. In contrast, despite the considerable abundances of H3K4me2 observed in some of genes involved in methionine chain elongation, H3K4me3 was completely missing. This H3K4m3-depleted pattern had no effect on gene transcription, whereas it seemingly co-evolved with the entire pathway of aliphatic GLS biosynthesis. The results reveal a novel association of the epigenetic marks with plant secondary metabolism, and may help to understand the recruitment of the methionine chain-elongation pathway from leucine biosynthesis.
|Dose-dependent alcohol-induced alterations in chromatin structure persist beyond the window of exposure and correlate with fetal alcohol syndrome birth defects. |
Veazey, KJ; Parnell, SE; Miranda, RC; Golding, MC
Epigenetics & chromatin 8 39 2015
In recent years, we have come to recognize that a multitude of in utero exposures have the capacity to induce the development of congenital and metabolic defects. As most of these encounters manifest their effects beyond the window of exposure, deciphering the mechanisms of teratogenesis is incredibly difficult. For many agents, altered epigenetic programming has become suspect in transmitting the lasting signature of exposure leading to dysgenesis. However, while several chemicals can perturb chromatin structure acutely, for many agents (particularly alcohol) it remains unclear if these modifications represent transient responses to exposure or heritable lesions leading to pathology.Here, we report that mice encountering an acute exposure to alcohol on gestational Day-7 exhibit significant alterations in chromatin structure (histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation, lysine 9 acetylation, and lysine 27 trimethylation) at Day-17, and that these changes strongly correlate with the development of craniofacial and central nervous system defects. Using a neural cortical stem cell model, we find that the epigenetic changes arising as a consequence of alcohol exposure are heavily dependent on the gene under investigation, the dose of alcohol encountered, and that the signatures arising acutely differ significantly from those observed after a 4-day recovery period. Importantly, the changes observed post-recovery are consistent with those modeled in vivo, and associate with alterations in transcripts encoding multiple homeobox genes directing neurogenesis. Unexpectedly, we do not observe a correlation between alcohol-induced changes in chromatin structure and alterations in transcription. Interestingly, the majority of epigenetic changes observed occur in marks associated with repressive chromatin structure, and we identify correlative disruptions in transcripts encoding Dnmt1, Eed, Ehmt2 (G9a), EzH2, Kdm1a, Kdm4c, Setdb1, Sod3, Tet1 and Uhrf1.These observations suggest that the immediate and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on chromatin structure are distinct, and hint at the existence of a possible coordinated epigenetic response to ethanol during development. Collectively, our results indicate that alcohol-induced modifications to chromatin structure persist beyond the window of exposure, and likely contribute to the development of fetal alcohol syndrome-associated congenital abnormalities.
|Chromatin-Remodelling Complex NURF Is Essential for Differentiation of Adult Melanocyte Stem Cells. |
Koludrovic, D; Laurette, P; Strub, T; Keime, C; Le Coz, M; Coassolo, S; Mengus, G; Larue, L; Davidson, I
PLoS genetics 11 e1005555 2015
MIcrophthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) regulates melanocyte and melanoma physiology. We show that MITF associates the NURF chromatin-remodelling factor in melanoma cells. ShRNA-mediated silencing of the NURF subunit BPTF revealed its essential role in several melanoma cell lines and in untransformed melanocytes in vitro. Comparative RNA-seq shows that MITF and BPTF co-regulate overlapping gene expression programs in cell lines in vitro. Somatic and specific inactivation of Bptf in developing murine melanoblasts in vivo shows that Bptf regulates their proliferation, migration and morphology. Once born, Bptf-mutant mice display premature greying where the second post-natal coat is white. This second coat is normally pigmented by differentiated melanocytes derived from the adult melanocyte stem cell (MSC) population that is stimulated to proliferate and differentiate at anagen. An MSC population is established and maintained throughout the life of the Bptf-mutant mice, but these MSCs are abnormal and at anagen, give rise to reduced numbers of transient amplifying cells (TACs) that do not express melanocyte markers and fail to differentiate into mature melanin producing melanocytes. MSCs display a transcriptionally repressed chromatin state and Bptf is essential for reactivation of the melanocyte gene expression program at anagen, the subsequent normal proliferation of TACs and their differentiation into mature melanocytes.
|ChIP-Seq analysis of the adult male mouse brain after developmental exposure to arsenic. |
Tyler, CR; Weber, JA; Labrecque, M; Hessinger, JM; Edwards, JS; Allan, AM
Data in brief 5 248-54 2015
Exposure to the common environmental contaminant arsenic impacts the epigenetic landscape, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, of several cell types. Developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) increases acetylation and methylation of histone proteins and the protein expression of several chromatin-modifying enzymes in the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the adult male mouse brain . To complement and support these data, ChIP-Seq analysis of DNA associated with trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) derived from the adult male DG after DAE was performed. DAE induced differential H3K4me3 enrichment on genes in pathways associated with cellular development and growth, cell death and survival, and neurological disorders, particularly as they relate to cancer, in the adult male brain. Comparison of H3K4me3 enrichment in controls revealed mechanisms that are potentially lacking in arsenic-exposed animals, including neurotransmission, neuronal growth and development, hormonal regulation, protein synthesis, and cellular homeostasis. New pathways impacted by arsenic include cytoskeleton organization, cell signaling, and potential disruption of immune function and warrant further investigation using this DAE paradigm in the mouse brain.
|Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer methylomes revealed differentially methylated and expressed breast cancer genes. |
Lin, IH; Chen, DT; Chang, YF; Lee, YL; Su, CH; Cheng, C; Tsai, YC; Ng, SC; Chen, HT; Lee, MC; Chen, HW; Suen, SH; Chen, YC; Liu, TT; Chang, CH; Hsu, MT
PloS one 10 e0118453 2015
Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation.
|T-cell receptor α enhancer is inactivated in αβ T lymphocytes. |
del Blanco, B; Angulo, Ú; Krangel, MS; Hernández-Munain, C
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 E1744-53 2015
The Tcra enhancer (Eα) is essential for Tcra locus germ-line transcription and primary Vα-to-Jα recombination during thymocyte development. We found that Eα is inhibited late during thymocyte differentiation and in αβ T lymphocytes, indicating that it is not required to drive transcription of rearranged Tcra genes. Eα inactivation resulted in the disruption of functional long-range enhancer-promoter interactions and was associated with loss of Eα-dependent histone modifications at promoter and enhancer regions, and reduced expression and recruitment of E2A to the Eα enhanceosome in T cells. Enhancer activity could not be recovered by T-cell activation, by forced expression of E2A or by the up-regulation of this and other transcription factors in the context of T helper differentiation. Our results argue that the major function of Eα is to coordinate the formation of a chromatin hub that drives Vα and Jα germ-line transcription and primary rearrangements in thymocytes and imply the existence of an Eα-independent mechanism to activate transcription of the rearranged Tcra locus in αβ T cells.
|An anti-silencer- and SATB1-dependent chromatin hub regulates Rag1 and Rag2 gene expression during thymocyte development. |
Hao, B; Naik, AK; Watanabe, A; Tanaka, H; Chen, L; Richards, HW; Kondo, M; Taniuchi, I; Kohwi, Y; Kohwi-Shigematsu, T; Krangel, MS
The Journal of experimental medicine 212 809-24 2015
Rag1 and Rag2 gene expression in CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) thymocytes depends on the activity of a distant anti-silencer element (ASE) that counteracts the activity of an intergenic silencer. However, the mechanistic basis for ASE activity is unknown. Here, we show that the ASE physically interacts with the distant Rag1 and Rag2 gene promoters in DP thymocytes, bringing the two promoters together to form an active chromatin hub. Moreover, we show that the ASE functions as a classical enhancer that can potently activate these promoters in the absence of the silencer or other locus elements. In thymocytes lacking the chromatin organizer SATB1, we identified a partial defect in Tcra gene rearrangement that was associated with reduced expression of Rag1 and Rag2 at the DP stage. SATB1 binds to the ASE and Rag promoters, facilitating inclusion of Rag2 in the chromatin hub and the loading of RNA polymerase II to both the Rag1 and Rag2 promoters. Our results provide a novel framework for understanding ASE function and demonstrate a novel role for SATB1 as a regulator of Rag locus organization and gene expression in DP thymocytes.
|ZEB1-associated drug resistance in cancer cells is reversed by the class I HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat. |
Meidhof, S; Brabletz, S; Lehmann, W; Preca, BT; Mock, K; Ruh, M; Schüler, J; Berthold, M; Weber, A; Burk, U; Lübbert, M; Puhr, M; Culig, Z; Wellner, U; Keck, T; Bronsert, P; Küsters, S; Hopt, UT; Stemmler, MP; Brabletz, T
EMBO molecular medicine 7 831-47 2015
Therapy resistance is a major clinical problem in cancer medicine and crucial for disease relapse and progression. Therefore, the clinical need to overcome it, particularly for aggressive tumors such as pancreatic cancer, is very high. Aberrant activation of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and an associated cancer stem cell phenotype are considered a major cause of therapy resistance. Particularly, the EMT-activator ZEB1 was shown to confer stemness and resistance. We applied a systematic, stepwise strategy to interfere with ZEB1 function, aiming to overcome drug resistance. This led to the identification of both its target gene miR-203 as a major drug sensitizer and subsequently the class I HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat as epigenetic drug to interfere with ZEB1 function, restore miR-203 expression, repress stemness properties, and induce sensitivity against chemotherapy. Thereby, mocetinostat turned out to be more effective than other HDAC inhibitors, such as SAHA, indicating the relevance of the screening strategy. Our data encourage the application of mechanism-based combinations of selected epigenetic drugs with standard chemotherapy for the rational treatment of aggressive solid tumors, such as pancreatic cancer.
|MAF1 represses CDKN1A through a Pol III-dependent mechanism. |
Lee, YL; Li, YC; Su, CH; Chiao, CH; Lin, IH; Hsu, MT
eLife 4 e06283 2015
MAF1 represses Pol III-mediated transcription by interfering with TFIIIB and Pol III. Herein, we found that MAF1 knockdown induced CDKN1A transcription and chromatin looping concurrently with Pol III recruitment. Simultaneous knockdown of MAF1 with Pol III or BRF1 (subunit of TFIIIB) diminished the activation and looping effect, which indicates that recruiting Pol III was required for activation of Pol II-mediated transcription and chromatin looping. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis after MAF1 knockdown indicated enhanced binding of Pol III and BRF1, as well as of CFP1, p300, and PCAF, which are factors that mediate active histone marks, along with the binding of TATA binding protein (TBP) and POLR2E to the CDKN1A promoter. Simultaneous knockdown with Pol III abolished these regulatory events. Similar results were obtained for GDF15. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which MAF1 and Pol III regulate the activity of a protein-coding gene transcribed by Pol II.
|A Comprehensive Analysis of Replicating Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Genomes Delineates the Viral Transcription Program and Suggests a Role for mcv-miR-M1 in Episomal Persistence. |
Theiss, JM; Günther, T; Alawi, M; Neumann, F; Tessmer, U; Fischer, N; Grundhoff, A
PLoS pathogens 11 e1004974 2015
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered the etiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma and persists asymptomatically in the majority of its healthy hosts. Largely due to the lack of appropriate model systems, the mechanisms of viral replication and MCPyV persistence remain poorly understood. Using a semi-permissive replication system, we here report a comprehensive analysis of the role of the MCPyV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) mcv-miR-M1 during short and long-term replication of authentic MCPyV episomes. We demonstrate that cells harboring intact episomes express high levels of the viral miRNA, and that expression of mcv-miR-M1 limits DNA replication. Furthermore, we present RACE, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq studies which allow insight in the viral transcription program and mechanisms of miRNA expression. While our data suggest that mcv-miR-M1 can be expressed from canonical late strand transcripts, we also present evidence for the existence of an independent miRNA promoter that is embedded within early strand coding sequences. We also report that MCPyV genomes can establish episomal persistence in a small number of cells for several months, a time period during which viral DNA as well as LT-Ag and viral miRNA expression can be detected via western blotting, FISH, qPCR and southern blot analyses. Strikingly, despite enhanced replication in short term DNA replication assays, a mutant unable to express the viral miRNA was severely limited in its ability to establish long-term persistence. Our data suggest that MCPyV may have evolved strategies to enter a non- or low level vegetative stage of infection which could aid the virus in establishing and maintaining a lifelong persistence.
|A chromatin modifying enzyme, SDG8, is involved in morphological, gene expression, and epigenetic responses to mechanical stimulation. |
Cazzonelli, CI; Nisar, N; Roberts, AC; Murray, KD; Borevitz, JO; Pogson, BJ
Frontiers in plant science 5 533 2014
Thigmomorphogenesis is viewed as being a response process of acclimation to short repetitive bursts of mechanical stimulation or touch. The underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate changes in how touch signals lead to long-term morphological changes are enigmatic. Touch responsive gene expression is rapid and transient, and no transcription factor or DNA regulatory motif has been reported that could confer a genome wide mechanical stimulus. We report here on a chromatin modifying enzyme, SDG8/ASHH2, which can regulate the expression of many touch responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis. SDG8 is required for the permissive expression of touch induced genes; and the loss of function of sdg8 perturbs the maximum levels of induction on selected touch gene targets. SDG8 is required to maintain permissive H3K4 trimethylation marks surrounding the Arabidopsis touch-inducible gene TOUCH 3 (TCH3), which encodes a calmodulin-like protein (CML12). The gene neighboring was also slightly down regulated, revealing a new target for SDG8 mediated chromatin modification. Finally, sdg8 mutants show perturbed morphological response to wind-agitated mechanical stimuli, implicating an epigenetic memory-forming process in the acclimation response of thigmomorphogenesis.
|Transcriptional repression is epigenetically marked by H3K9 methylation during SV40 replication. |
Kallestad, L; Christensen, K; Woods, E; Milavetz, B
Clinical epigenetics 6 21 2014
We have recently shown that T-antigen binding to Site I results in the replication-dependent introduction of H3K9me1 into SV40 chromatin late in infection. Since H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 are also present late in infection, we determined whether their presence was also related to the status of ongoing transcription and replication. Transcription was either inhibited with 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidizole (DRB) or stimulated with sodium butyrate and the effects on histone modifications early and late in infection determined. The role of DNA replication was determined by concomitant inhibition of replication with aphidicolin.We observed that H3K9me2/me3 was specifically introduced when transcription was inhibited during active replication. The introduction of H3K9me2/me3 that occurred when transcription was inhibited was partially blocked when replication was also inhibited. The introduction of H3K9me2/me3 did not require the presence of H3K9me1 since similar results were obtained with the mutant cs1085 whose chromatin contains very little H3K9me1.Our data suggest that methylation of H3K9 can occur either as a consequence of a specific repressive event such as T-antigen binding to Site I or as a result of a general repression of transcription in the presence of active replication. The results suggest that the nonproductive generation of transcription complexes as occurs following DRB treatment may be recognized by a 'proof reading' mechanism, which leads to the specific introduction of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3.
|Variable episomal silencing of a recombinant herpesvirus renders its encoded GFP an unreliable marker of infection in primary cells. |
Ellison, TJ; Kedes, DH
PloS one 9 e111502 2014
The availability of reliable recombinant reporter virus systems has been a great boon to the study of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8). Unexpectedly, we found that expression of the ostensibly constitutive green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker was progressively lost during unselected passage in primary rat mesenchymal precursor cells (MM), despite efficient maintenance of latent viral gene expression and episomal partitioning. This repression of EF1-α promoter-driven GFP expression appeared to be passage-dependent, however, since functionally immortalized MM cells derived from long serial passage retained stable expression of GFP following rKSHV.219 infection. Chromatin analysis of cultures that we had infected in parallel demonstrated an increase in repressive H3K27 tri-methylation across the viral episome with the exception of the LANA control region in MM cells infected at early rather than late passage post-isolation. The silencing of GFP expression in the MM cells was reversible in a dose-dependent fashion by the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid, further implicating cellular silencing on incoming viral genomes, and underscoring potential differences in viral gene regulation between primary and functionally immortalized cells. Furthermore, using multispectral imaging flow cytometry, we also determined that the extent of GFP expression per cell among those that were positive did not correlate with the number of LANA dots per nucleus nor the extent of overall LANA expression per cell. This suggests a more complex mode of local gene regulation, rather than one that simply reflects the relative intracellular viral copy number. In sum, we have demonstrated the significant potential for false-negative data when using a constitutive marker gene as a sole means of evaluating herpesviral infection, especially in primary cells.
|CRISPR reveals a distal super-enhancer required for Sox2 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells. |
Li, Y; Rivera, CM; Ishii, H; Jin, F; Selvaraj, S; Lee, AY; Dixon, JR; Ren, B
PloS one 9 e114485 2014
The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by a small group of master transcription factors including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. These core factors form a regulatory circuit controlling the transcription of a number of pluripotency factors including themselves. Although previous studies have identified transcriptional regulators of this core network, the cis-regulatory DNA sequences required for the transcription of these key pluripotency factors remain to be defined. We analyzed epigenomic data within the 1.5 Mb gene-desert regions around the Sox2 gene and identified a 13kb-long super-enhancer (SE) located 100kb downstream of Sox2 in mouse ESCs. This SE is occupied by Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and the mediator complex, and physically interacts with the Sox2 locus via DNA looping. Using a simple and highly efficient double-CRISPR genome editing strategy we deleted the entire 13-kb SE and characterized transcriptional defects in the resulting monoallelic and biallelic deletion clones with RNA-seq. We showed that the SE is responsible for over 90% of Sox2 expression, and Sox2 is the only target gene along the chromosome. Our results support the functional significance of a SE in maintaining the pluripotency transcription program in mouse ESCs.
|Histone acetylation accompanied with promoter sequences displaying differential expression profiles of B-class MADS-box genes for phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis. |
Hsu, CC; Wu, PS; Chen, TC; Yu, CW; Tsai, WC; Wu, K; Wu, WL; Chen, WH; Chen, HH
PloS one 9 e106033 2014
Five B-class MADS-box genes, including four APETALA3 (AP3)-like PeMADS2∼5 and one PISTILLATA (PI)-like PeMADS6, specify the spectacular flower morphology in orchids. The PI-like PeMADS6 ubiquitously expresses in all floral organs. The four AP3-like genes, resulted from two duplication events, express ubiquitously at floral primordia and early floral organ stages, but show distinct expression profiles at late floral organ primordia and floral bud stages. Here, we isolated the upstream sequences of PeMADS2∼6 and studied the regulatory mechanism for their distinct gene expression. Phylogenetic footprinting analysis of the 1.3-kb upstream sequences of AP3-like PeMADS2∼5 showed that their promoter regions have sufficiently diverged and contributed to their subfunctionalization. The amplified promoter sequences of PeMADS2∼6 could drive beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression in all floral organs, similar to their expression at the floral primordia stage. The promoter sequence of PeMADS4, exclusively expressed in lip and column, showed a 1.6∼3-fold higher expression in lip/column than in sepal/petal. Furthermore, we noted a 4.9-fold increase in histone acetylation (H3K9K14ac) in the translation start region of PeMADS4 in lip as compared in petal. All these results suggest that the regulation via the upstream sequences and increased H3K9K14ac level may act synergistically to display distinct expression profiles of the AP3-like genes at late floral organ primordia stage for Phalaenopsis floral morphogenesis.
|MORC1 represses transposable elements in the mouse male germline. |
Pastor, WA; Stroud, H; Nee, K; Liu, W; Pezic, D; Manakov, S; Lee, SA; Moissiard, G; Zamudio, N; Bourc'his, D; Aravin, AA; Clark, AT; Jacobsen, SE
Nature communications 5 5795 2014
The Microrchidia (Morc) family of GHKL ATPases are present in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms but are of largely unknown function. Genetic screens in Arabidopsis thaliana have identified Morc genes as important repressors of transposons and other DNA-methylated and silent genes. MORC1-deficient mice were previously found to display male-specific germ cell loss and infertility. Here we show that MORC1 is responsible for transposon repression in the male germline in a pattern that is similar to that observed for germ cells deficient for the DNA methyltransferase homologue DNMT3L. Morc1 mutants show highly localized defects in the establishment of DNA methylation at specific classes of transposons, and this is associated with failed transposon silencing at these sites. Our results identify MORC1 as an important new regulator of the epigenetic landscape of male germ cells during the period of global de novo methylation.
|Nucleosome positioning and histone modifications define relationships between regulatory elements and nearby gene expression in breast epithelial cells. |
Rhie, SK; Hazelett, DJ; Coetzee, SG; Yan, C; Noushmehr, H; Coetzee, GA
BMC genomics 15 331 2014
The precise nature of how cell type specific chromatin structures at enhancer sites affect gene expression is largely unknown. Here we identified cell type specific enhancers coupled with gene expression in two different types of breast epithelial cells, HMEC (normal breast epithelial cells) and MDAMB231 (triple negative breast cancer cell line).Enhancers were defined by modified neighboring histones [using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq)] and nucleosome depletion [using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq)]. Histone modifications at enhancers were related to the expression levels of nearby genes up to 750 kb away. These expression levels were correlated with enhancer status (poised or active), defined by surrounding histone marks. Furthermore, about fifty percent of poised and active enhancers contained nucleosome-depleted regions. We also identified response element motifs enriched at these enhancer sites that revealed key transcription factors (e.g. TP63) likely involved in regulating breast epithelial enhancer-mediated gene expression. By utilizing expression data, potential target genes of more than 600 active enhancers were identified. These genes were involved in proteolysis, epidermis development, cell adhesion, mitosis, cell cycle, and DNA replication.These findings facilitate the understanding of epigenetic regulation specifically, such as the relationships between regulatory elements and gene expression and generally, how breast epithelial cellular phenotypes are determined by cell type specific enhancers.
|Histone deacetylase classes I and II regulate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus reactivation. |
Shin, HJ; DeCotiis, J; Giron, M; Palmeri, D; Lukac, DM
Journal of virology 88 1281-92 2014
In primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells infected with latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the promoter of the viral lytic switch gene, Rta, is organized into bivalent chromatin, similar to cellular developmental switch genes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) reactivate latent KSHV and dramatically remodel the viral genome topology and chromatin architecture. However, reactivation is not uniform across a population of infected cells. We sought to identify an HDACi cocktail that would uniformly reactivate KSHV and reveal the regulatory HDACs. Using HDACis with various specificities, we found that class I HDACis were sufficient to reactivate the virus but differed in potency. Valproic acid (VPA) was the most effective HDACi, inducing lytic cycle gene expression in 75% of cells, while trichostatin A (TSA) induced less widespread lytic gene expression and inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. VPA was only slightly superior to TSA in inducing histone acetylation of Rta's promoter, but only VPA induced significant production of infectious virus, suggesting that HDAC regulation after Rta expression has a dramatic effect on reactivation progression. Ectopic HDACs 1, 3, and 6 inhibited TPA-stimulated KSHV reactivation. Surprisingly, ectopic HDACs 1 and 6 stimulated reactivation independently, suggesting that the stoichiometries of HDAC complexes are critical for the switch. Tubacin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquitin-binding, proautophagic HDAC6, also inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. Immunofluorescence indicated that HDAC6 is expressed diffusely throughout latently infected cells, but its expression level and nuclear localization is increased during reactivation. Overall, our data suggest that inhibition of HDAC classes I and IIa and maintenance of HDAC6 (IIb) activity are required for optimal KSHV reactivation.
|Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. |
Perfus-Barbeoch, L; Castagnone-Sereno, P; Reichelt, M; Fneich, S; Roquis, D; Pratx, L; Cosseau, C; Grunau, C; Abad, P
Frontiers in physiology 5 211 2014
Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different life cycles and reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We established therefore a pipeline to investigate the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e., chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate if M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control. Our pipeline should allow performing similar types of studies in any non-model organism.
|NMDA receptor- and ERK-dependent histone methylation changes in the lateral amygdala bidirectionally regulate fear memory formation. |
Gupta-Agarwal, S; Jarome, TJ; Fernandez, J; Lubin, FD
Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 21 351-62 2014
It is well established that fear memory formation requires de novo gene transcription in the amygdala. We provide evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in the form of histone lysine methylation in the lateral amygdala (LA) are regulated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling and involved in gene transcription changes necessary for fear memory consolidation. Here we found increases in histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels in the LA at 1 h following auditory fear conditioning, which continued to be temporally regulated up to 25 h following behavioral training. Additionally, we demonstrate that inhibiting the H3K9me2 histone lysine methyltransferase G9a (H/KMTs-G9a) in the LA impaired fear memory, while blocking the H3K9me2 histone lysine demethylase LSD1 (H/KDM-LSD1) enhanced fear memory, suggesting that H3K9me2 in the LA can bidirectionally regulate fear memory formation. Furthermore, we show that NMDAR activity differentially regulated the recruitment of H/KMT-G9a, H/KDM-LSD1, and subsequent H3K9me2 levels at a target gene promoter. This was largely regulated by GluN2B- but not GluN2A-containing NMDARs via ERK activation. Moreover, fear memory deficits associated with NMDAR or ERK blockade were successfully rescued through pharmacologically inhibiting LSD1, suggesting that enhancements of H3K9me2 levels within the LA can rescue fear memory impairments that result from hypofunctioning NMDARs or loss of ERK signaling. Together, the present study suggests that histone lysine methylation regulation in the LA via NMDAR-ERK-dependent signaling is involved in fear memory formation.
|Influence of ND10 components on epigenetic determinants of early KSHV latency establishment. |
Günther, T; Schreiner, S; Dobner, T; Tessmer, U; Grundhoff, A
PLoS pathogens 10 e1004274 2014
We have previously demonstrated that acquisition of intricate patterns of activating (H3K4me3, H3K9/K14ac) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications is a hallmark of KSHV latency establishment. The precise molecular mechanisms that shape the latent histone modification landscape, however, remain unknown. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as mediators of innate immune responses that can limit viral gene expression via chromatin based mechanisms. Consequently, although ND10 functions thus far have been almost exclusively investigated in models of productive herpesvirus infection, it has been proposed that they also may contribute to the establishment of viral latency. Here, we report the first systematic study of the role of ND10 during KSHV latency establishment, and link alterations in the subcellular distribution of ND10 components to a temporal analysis of histone modification acquisition and host cell gene expression during the early infection phase. Our study demonstrates that KSHV infection results in a transient interferon response that leads to induction of the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but that repression by ND10 bodies is unlikely to contribute to KSHV latency establishment. Instead, we uncover an unexpected role for soluble Sp100 protein, which is efficiently and permanently relocalized from nucleoplasmic and chromatin-associated fractions into the insoluble matrix. We show that LANA expression is sufficient to induce Sp100 relocalization, likely via mediating SUMOylation of Sp100. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of soluble Sp100 occurs precisely when repressive H3K27me3 marks first accumulate on viral genomes, and that knock-down of Sp100 (but not PML or Daxx) facilitates H3K27me3 acquisition. Collectively, our data support a model in which non-ND10 resident Sp100 acts as a negative regulator of polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) recruitment, and suggest that KSHV may actively escape ND10 silencing mechanisms to promote establishment of latent chromatin.
|Exposure to hycanthone alters chromatin structure around specific gene functions and specific repeats in Schistosoma mansoni. |
Roquis, D; Lepesant, JM; Villafan, E; Boissier, J; Vieira, C; Cosseau, C; Grunau, C
Frontiers in genetics 5 207 2014
Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic plathyhelminth responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis (or bilharzia), a disease affecting 67 million people worldwide and causing an important economic burden. The schistosomicides hycanthone, and its later proxy oxamniquine, were widely used for treatments in endemic areas during the twentieth century. Recently, the mechanism of action, as well as the genetic origin of a stably and Mendelian inherited resistance for both drugs was elucidated in two strains. However, several observations suggested early on that alternative mechanisms might exist, by which resistance could be induced for these two drugs in sensitive lines of schistosomes. This induced resistance appeared rapidly, within the first generation, but was metastable (not stably inherited). Epigenetic inheritance could explain such a phenomenon and we therefore re-analyzed the historical data with our current knowledge of epigenetics. In addition, we performed new experiments such as ChIP-seq on hycanthone treated worms. We found distinct chromatin structure changes between sensitive worms and induced resistant worms from the same strain. No specific pathway was discovered, but genes in which chromatin structure modifications were observed are mostly associated with transport and catabolism, which makes sense in the context of the elimination of the drug. Specific differences were observed in the repetitive compartment of the genome. We finally describe what types of experiments are needed to understand the complexity of heritability that can be based on genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms for drug resistance in schistosomes.
|TAF4, a subunit of transcription factor II D, directs promoter occupancy of nuclear receptor HNF4A during post-natal hepatocyte differentiation. |
Alpern, D; Langer, D; Ballester, B; Le Gras, S; Romier, C; Mengus, G; Davidson, I
eLife 3 e03613 2014
The functions of the TAF subunits of mammalian TFIID in physiological processes remain poorly characterised. In this study, we describe a novel function of TAFs in directing genomic occupancy of a transcriptional activator. Using liver-specific inactivation in mice, we show that the TAF4 subunit of TFIID is required for post-natal hepatocyte maturation. TAF4 promotes pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation at post-natal expressed liver function genes and down-regulates a subset of embryonic expressed genes by increased RNA polymerase II pausing. The TAF4-TAF12 heterodimer interacts directly with HNF4A and in vivo TAF4 is necessary to maintain HNF4A-directed embryonic gene expression at post-natal stages and promotes HNF4A occupancy of functional cis-regulatory elements adjacent to the transcription start sites of post-natal expressed genes. Stable HNF4A occupancy of these regulatory elements requires TAF4-dependent PIC formation highlighting that these are mutually dependent events. Local promoter-proximal HNF4A-TFIID interactions therefore act as instructive signals for post-natal hepatocyte differentiation.
|Phosphorylation and arginine methylation mark histone H2A prior to deposition during Xenopus laevis development. |
Wang, WL; Anderson, LC; Nicklay, JJ; Chen, H; Gamble, MJ; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, DF; Shechter, D
Epigenetics & chromatin 7 22 2014
Stored, soluble histones in eggs are essential for early development, in particular during the maternally controlled early cell cycles in the absence of transcription. Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) direct and regulate chromatin-templated transactions, so understanding the nature and function of pre-deposition maternal histones is essential to deciphering mechanisms of regulation of development, chromatin assembly, and transcription. Little is known about histone H2A pre-deposition modifications nor known about the transitions that occur upon the onset of zygotic control of the cell cycle and transcription at the mid-blastula transition (MBT).We isolated histones from staged Xenopus laevis oocytes, eggs, embryos, and assembled pronuclei to identify changes in histone H2A modifications prior to deposition and in chromatin. Soluble and chromatin-bound histones from eggs and embryos demonstrated distinct patterns of maternal and zygotic H2A PTMs, with significant pre-deposition quantities of S1ph and R3me1, and R3me2s. We observed the first functional distinction between H2A and H4 S1 phosphorylation, as we showed that H2A and H2A.X-F (also known as H2A.X.3) serine 1 (S1) is phosphorylated concomitant with germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) while H4 serine 1 phosphorylation occurs post-MBT. In egg extract H2A/H4 S1 phosphorylation is independent of the cell cycle, chromatin assembly, and DNA replication. H2AS1ph is highly enriched on blastula chromatin during repression of zygotic gene expression while H4S1ph is correlated with the beginning of maternal gene expression and the lengthening of the cell cycle, consistent with distinct biological roles for H2A and H4 S1 phosphorylation. We isolated soluble H2A and H2A.X-F from the egg and chromatin-bound in pronuclei and analyzed them by mass spectrometry analysis to quantitatively determine abundances of S1ph and R3 methylation. We show that H2A and H4 S1ph, R3me1 and R3me2s are enriched on nucleosomes containing both active and repressive histone PTMs in human A549 cells and Xenopus embryos.Significantly, we demonstrated that H2A phosphorylation and H4 arginine methylation form a new class of bona fide pre-deposition modifications in the vertebrate embryo. We show that S1ph and R3me containing chromatin domains are not correlated with H3 regulatory PTMs, suggesting a unique role for phosphorylation and arginine methylation.
|Transcription factor Sp3 represses expression of p21CIP¹ via inhibition of productive elongation by RNA polymerase II. |
Valin, A; Ouyang, J; Gill, G
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1582-93 2013
Like that of many protein-coding genes, expression of the p21(CIP1) cell cycle inhibitor is regulated at the level of transcription elongation. While many transcriptional activators have been shown to stimulate elongation, the mechanisms by which promoter-specific repressors regulate pausing and elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII) are not well described. Here we report that the transcription factor Sp3 inhibits basal p21(CIP1) gene expression by promoter-bound RNA PolII. Knockdown of Sp3 led to increased p21(CIP1) mRNA levels and reduced occupancy of the negative elongation factor (NELF) at the p21(CIP1) promoter, although the level of binding of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) kinase was not increased. Sp3 depletion correlated with increased H3K36me3 and H2Bub1, two histone modifications associated with transcription elongation. Further, Sp3 was shown to promote the binding of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the p21(CIP1) promoter, leading to reduced H3S10 phosphorylation, a finding consistent with Sp3-dependent regulation of the local balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. Analysis of other targets of Sp3-mediated repression suggests that, in addition to previously described SUMO modification-dependent chromatin-silencing mechanisms, inhibition of the transition of paused RNA PolII to productive elongation, described here for p21(CIP1), is a general mechanism by which transcription factor Sp3 fine-tunes gene expression.
|New insights into somatic embryogenesis: leafy cotyledon1, baby boom1 and WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 are epigenetically regulated in Coffea canephora. |
Nic-Can, GI; López-Torres, A; Barredo-Pool, F; Wrobel, K; Loyola-Vargas, VM; Rojas-Herrera, R; De-la-Peña, C
PloS one 8 e72160 2013
Plant cells have the capacity to generate a new plant without egg fertilization by a process known as somatic embryogenesis (SE), in which differentiated somatic cells can form somatic embryos able to generate a functional plant. Although there have been advances in understanding the genetic basis of SE, the epigenetic mechanism that regulates this process is still unknown. Here, we show that the embryogenic development of Coffea canephora proceeds through a crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modifications during the earliest embryogenic stages of SE. We found that low levels of DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and H3K27me3 change according to embryo development. Moreover, the expression of LEAFY cotyledon1 (LEC1) and BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) are only observed after SE induction, whereas WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 (WOX4) decreases its expression during embryo maturation. Using a pharmacological approach, it was found that 5-Azacytidine strongly inhibits the embryogenic response by decreasing both DNA methylation and gene expression of LEC1 and BBM1. Therefore, in order to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated, we used Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. It was found that WOX4 is regulated by the repressive mark H3K9me2, while LEC1 and BBM1 are epigenetically regulated by H3K27me3. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays an important role during somatic embryogenic development, and a molecular mechanism for SE is proposed.
|The G2/M regulator histone demethylase PHF8 is targeted for degradation by the anaphase-promoting complex containing CDC20. |
Lim, HJ; Dimova, NV; Tan, MK; Sigoillot, FD; King, RW; Shi, Y
Molecular and cellular biology 33 4166-80 2013
Monomethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1) is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. The H4K20me1 demethylase PHF8 transcriptionally regulates many cell cycle genes and is therefore predicted to play key roles in the cell cycle. Here, we show that PHF8 protein levels are the highest during G2 phase and mitosis, and we found PHF8 protein stability to be regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Purification of the PHF8 complex led to the identification of many subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) associated with PHF8. We showed that PHF8 interacts with the CDC20-containing APC (APC(cdc20)) primarily during mitosis. In addition, we defined a novel, KEN- and D-box-independent, LXPKXLF motif on PHF8 that is required for binding to CDC20. Through various in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrate that mutations of the LXPKXLF motif abrogate polyubiquitylation of PHF8 by the APC. APC substrates are typically cell cycle regulators, and consistent with this, the loss of PHF8 leads to prolonged G2 phase and defective mitosis. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PHF8 plays an important role in transcriptional activation of key G2/M genes during G2 phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that PHF8 is regulated by APC(cdc20) and plays an important role in the G2/M transition.
|The shared genomic architecture of human nucleolar organizer regions. |
Floutsakou, I; Agrawal, S; Nguyen, TT; Seoighe, C; Ganley, AR; McStay, B
Genome research 23 2003-12 2013
The short arms of the five acrocentric human chromosomes harbor sequences that direct the assembly and function of the nucleolus, one of the key functional domains of the nucleus, yet they are absent from the current human genome assembly. Here we describe the genomic architecture of these human nucleolar organizers. Sequences distal and proximal to ribosomal gene arrays are conserved among the acrocentric chromosomes, suggesting they are sites of frequent recombination. Although previously believed to be heterochromatic, characterization of these two flanking regions reveals that they share a complex genomic architecture similar to other euchromatic regions of the genome, but they have distinct genomic characteristics. Proximal sequences are almost entirely segmentally duplicated, similar to the regions bordering centromeres. In contrast, the distal sequence is predominantly unique to the acrocentric short arms and is dominated by a very large inverted repeat. We show that the distal element is localized to the periphery of the nucleolus, where it appears to anchor the ribosomal gene repeats. This, combined with its complex chromatin structure and transcriptional activity, suggests that this region is involved in nucleolar organization. Our results provide a platform for investigating the role of NORs in nucleolar formation and function, and open the door for determining the role of these regions in the well-known empirical association of nucleoli with pathology.
|Dynamic chromatin remodeling mediated by polycomb proteins orchestrates pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. |
Xie, R; Everett, LJ; Lim, HW; Patel, NA; Schug, J; Kroon, E; Kelly, OG; Wang, A; D'Amour, KA; Robins, AJ; Won, KJ; Kaestner, KH; Sander, M
Cell stem cell 12 224-37 2013
Embryonic development is characterized by dynamic changes in gene expression, yet the role of chromatin remodeling in these cellular transitions remains elusive. To address this question, we profiled the transcriptome and select chromatin modifications at defined stages during pancreatic endocrine differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. We identify removal of Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated repression on stage-specific genes as a key mechanism for the induction of developmental regulators. Furthermore, we discover that silencing of transitory genes during lineage progression associates with reinstatement of PcG-dependent repression. Significantly, in vivo- but not in vitro-differentiated endocrine cells exhibit close similarity to primary human islets in regard to transcriptome and chromatin structure. We further demonstrate that endocrine cells produced in vitro do not fully eliminate PcG-mediated repression on endocrine-specific genes, probably contributing to their malfunction. These studies reveal dynamic chromatin remodeling during developmental lineage progression and identify possible strategies for improving cell differentiation in culture.
|A Common histone modification code on C4 genes in maize and its conservation in Sorghum and Setaria italica. |
Heimann, L; Horst, I; Perduns, R; Dreesen, B; Offermann, S; Peterhansel, C
Plant physiology 162 456-69 2013
C4 photosynthesis evolved more than 60 times independently in different plant lineages. Each time, multiple genes were recruited into C4 metabolism. The corresponding promoters acquired new regulatory features such as high expression, light induction, or cell type-specific expression in mesophyll or bundle sheath cells. We have previously shown that histone modifications contribute to the regulation of the model C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C4-Pepc) promoter in maize (Zea mays). We here tested the light- and cell type-specific responses of three selected histone acetylations and two histone methylations on five additional C4 genes (C4-Ca, C4-Ppdk, C4-Me, C4-Pepck, and C4-RbcS2) in maize. Histone acetylation and nucleosome occupancy assays indicated extended promoter regions with regulatory upstream regions more than 1,000 bp from the transcription initiation site for most of these genes. Despite any detectable homology of the promoters on the primary sequence level, histone modification patterns were highly coregulated. Specifically, H3K9ac was regulated by illumination, whereas H3K4me3 was regulated in a cell type-specific manner. We further compared histone modifications on the C4-Pepc and C4-Me genes from maize and the homologous genes from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Setaria italica. Whereas sorghum and maize share a common C4 origin, C4 metabolism evolved independently in S. italica. The distribution of histone modifications over the promoters differed between the species, but differential regulation of light-induced histone acetylation and cell type-specific histone methylation were evident in all three species. We propose that a preexisting histone code was recruited into C4 promoter control during the evolution of C4 metabolism.
|Coordinate changes in histone modifications, mRNA levels, and metabolite profiles in clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells accompany functional adaptations to lipotoxicity. |
Malmgren, S; Spégel, P; Danielsson, AP; Nagorny, CL; Andersson, LE; Nitert, MD; Ridderstråle, M; Mulder, H; Ling, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 11973-87 2013
Lipotoxicity is a presumed pathogenetic process whereby elevated circulating and stored lipids in type 2 diabetes cause pancreatic β-cell failure. To resolve the underlying molecular mechanisms, we exposed clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate for 48 h. We observed elevated basal insulin secretion but impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in palmitate-exposed cells. Glucose utilization was unchanged, palmitate oxidation was increased, and oxygen consumption was impaired. Halting exposure of the clonal INS-1 832/13 β-cells to palmitate largely recovered all of the lipid-induced functional changes. Metabolite profiling revealed profound but reversible increases in cellular lipids. Glucose-induced increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were attenuated by exposure to palmitate. Analysis of gene expression by microarray showed increased expression of 982 genes and decreased expression of 1032 genes after exposure to palmitate. Increases were seen in pathways for steroid biosynthesis, cell cycle, fatty acid metabolism, DNA replication, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids; decreases occurred in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis pathway. The activity of histone-modifying enzymes and histone modifications of differentially expressed genes were reversibly altered upon exposure to palmitate. Thus, Insig1, Lss, Peci, Idi1, Hmgcs1, and Casr were subject to epigenetic regulation. Our analyses demonstrate that coordinate changes in histone modifications, mRNA levels, and metabolite profiles accompanied functional adaptations of clonal β-cells to lipotoxicity. It is highly likely that these changes are pathogenetic, accounting for loss of glucose responsiveness and perturbed insulin secretion.
|Alcohol-induced epigenetic alterations to developmentally crucial genes regulating neural stemness and differentiation. |
Veazey, KJ; Carnahan, MN; Muller, D; Miranda, RC; Golding, MC
Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 37 1111-22 2013
From studies using a diverse range of model organisms, we now acknowledge that epigenetic changes to chromatin structure provide a plausible link between environmental teratogens and alterations in gene expression leading to disease. Observations from a number of independent laboratories indicate that ethanol (EtOH) has the capacity to act as a powerful epigenetic disruptor and potentially derail the coordinated processes of cellular differentiation. In this study, we sought to examine whether primary neurospheres cultured under conditions maintaining stemness were susceptible to alcohol-induced alterations in the histone code. We focused our studies on trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27, as these are 2 of the most prominent posttranslational histone modifications regulating stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation.Primary neurosphere cultures were maintained under conditions promoting the stem cell state and treated with EtOH for 5 days. Control and EtOH-treated cellular extracts were examined using a combination of quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques.We find that the regulatory regions of genes controlling both neural precursor cell identity and processes of differentiation exhibited significant declines in the enrichment of the chromatin marks examined. Despite these widespread changes in chromatin structure, only a small subset of genes including Dlx2, Fabp7, Nestin, Olig2, and Pax6 displayed EtOH-induced alterations in transcription. Unexpectedly, the majority of chromatin-modifying enzymes examined including members of the Polycomb Repressive Complex displayed minimal changes in expression and localization. Only transcripts encoding Dnmt1, Uhrf1, Ehmt1, Ash2 l, Wdr5, and Kdm1b exhibited significant differences.Our results indicate that primary neurospheres maintained as stem cells in vitro are susceptible to alcohol-induced perturbation of the histone code and errors in the epigenetic program. These observations indicate that alterations to chromatin structure may represent a crucial component of alcohol teratogenesis and progress toward a better understanding of the developmental origins of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
|Novel long noncoding RNAs are regulated by angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cells. |
Leung, A; Trac, C; Jin, W; Lanting, L; Akbany, A; Sætrom, P; Schones, DE; Natarajan, R
Circulation research 113 266-78 2013
Misregulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) actions can lead to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Evaluating transcriptomic responses to Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is important to understand the gene networks regulated by Ang II, which might uncover previously unidentified mechanisms and new therapeutic targets.To identify all transcripts, including novel protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs, differentially expressed in response to Ang II in rat VSMCs using transcriptome and epigenome profiling.De novo assembly of transcripts from RNA-sequencing revealed novel protein-coding and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). The majority of the genomic loci of these novel transcripts are enriched for histone H3 lysine-4-trimethylation and histone H3 lysine-36-trimethylation, 2 chromatin modifications found at actively transcribed regions, providing further evidence that these are bonafide transcripts. Analysis of transcript abundance identified all protein-coding and lncRNAs regulated by Ang II. We further discovered that an Ang II-regulated lncRNA functions as the host transcript for miR-221 and miR-222, 2 microRNAs implicated in cell proliferation. Additionally, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Lnc-Ang362 reduced proliferation of VSMCs.These data provide novel insights into the epigenomic and transcriptomic effects of Ang II in VSMCs. They provide the first identification of Ang II-regulated lncRNAs, which suggests functional roles for these lncRNAs in mediating cellular responses to Ang II. Furthermore, we identify an Ang II-regulated lncRNA that is responsible for the production of 2 microRNAs implicated in VSMC proliferation. These newly identified noncoding transcripts could be exploited as novel therapeutic targets for Ang II-associated cardiovascular diseases.
|Dynamic changes in genomic histone association and modification during activation of the ASNS and ATF3 genes by amino acid limitation. |
Balasubramanian, MN; Shan, J; Kilberg, MS
The Biochemical journal 449 219-29 2013
Amino acid deprivation of mammalian cells triggers several signalling pathways, the AAR (amino acid response), that results in transcriptional activation. For the ASNS (asparagine synthetase) and ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) genes, increased transcription occurs in conjunction with recruitment of ATF4 to the gene. In HepG2 cells, analysis of the ASNS and ATF3 genes during AAR activation revealed increases in histone H3K4me3 (histone 3 trimethylated Lys4) and H4Ac (acetylated histone 4) levels, marks associated with active transcription, but a concurrent loss of total H3 protein near the promoter. The dynamic nature of AAR-regulated transcription was illustrated by a decline in ASNS transcription activity within minutes after removal of the AAR stress and a return to basal levels by 2 h. Reversal of ASNS transcription occurred in parallel with decreased promoter-associated H4Ac and ATF4 binding. However, the reduction in histone H3 and increase in H3K4me3 were not reversed. In yeast, persistence of H3K4me3 has been proposed to be a 'memory' mark of gene activity that alters the responsiveness of the gene, but the time course and magnitude of ASNS induction was unaffected when cells were challenged with a second round of AAR activation. The results of the present study document changes in gene-associated nucleosome abundance and histone modifications in response to amino-acid-dependent transcription.
|Sumoylation at chromatin governs coordinated repression of a transcriptional program essential for cell growth and proliferation. |
Neyret-Kahn, H; Benhamed, M; Ye, T; Le Gras, S; Cossec, JC; Lapaquette, P; Bischof, O; Ouspenskaia, M; Dasso, M; Seeler, J; Davidson, I; Dejean, A
Genome research 23 1563-79 2013
Despite numerous studies on specific sumoylated transcriptional regulators, the global role of SUMO on chromatin in relation to transcription regulation remains largely unknown. Here, we determined the genome-wide localization of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3, as well as of UBC9 (encoded by UBE2I) and PIASY (encoded by PIAS4), two markers for active sumoylation, along with Pol II and histone marks in proliferating versus senescent human fibroblasts together with gene expression profiling. We found that, whereas SUMO alone is widely distributed over the genome with strong association at active promoters, active sumoylation occurs most prominently at promoters of histone and protein biogenesis genes, as well as Pol I rRNAs and Pol III tRNAs. Remarkably, these four classes of genes are up-regulated by inhibition of sumoylation, indicating that SUMO normally acts to restrain their expression. In line with this finding, sumoylation-deficient cells show an increase in both cell size and global protein levels. Strikingly, we found that in senescent cells, the SUMO machinery is selectively retained at histone and tRNA gene clusters, whereas it is massively released from all other unique chromatin regions. These data, which reveal the highly dynamic nature of the SUMO landscape, suggest that maintenance of a repressive environment at histone and tRNA loci is a hallmark of the senescent state. The approach taken in our study thus permitted the identification of a common biological output and uncovered hitherto unknown functions for active sumoylation at chromatin as a key mechanism that, in dynamically marking chromatin by a simple modifier, orchestrates concerted transcriptional regulation of a network of genes essential for cell growth and proliferation.
|In vivo epigenomic profiling of germ cells reveals germ cell molecular signatures. |
Ng, JH; Kumar, V; Muratani, M; Kraus, P; Yeo, JC; Yaw, LP; Xue, K; Lufkin, T; Prabhakar, S; Ng, HH
Developmental cell 24 324-33 2013
The limited number of in vivo germ cells poses an impediment to genome-wide studies. Here, we applied a small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) method on purified mouse fetal germ cells to generate genome-wide maps of four histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K27ac, and H2BK20ac). Comparison of active chromatin state between somatic, embryonic stem, and germ cells revealed promoters and enhancers needed for stem cell maintenance and germ cell development. We found the nuclear receptor Nr5a2 motif to be enriched at a subset of germ cell cis-regulatory regions, and our results implicate Nr5a2 in germ cell biology. Interestingly, in germ cells, the H3K27me3 histone modification occurs more frequently at regions that are enriched for retrotransposons and MHC genes, indicating that these loci are specifically silenced in germ cells. Together, our study provides genome-wide histone modification maps of in vivo germ cells and reveals the molecular chromatin signatures of germ cells.
|Epigenetic changes in renal genes dysregulated in mouse and rat models of type 1 diabetes. |
Komers, R; Mar, D; Denisenko, O; Xu, B; Oyama, TT; Bomsztyk, K
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 93 543-52 2013
Epigenetic processes are increasingly being recognized as factors in the pathophysiology of diabetes complications, but few chromatin studies have been done in diabetic nephropathy (DN). We hypothesized that changes in mRNA expression of DN-related genes are associated with epigenetic alterations and aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes. RT-PCR and a matrix-chromatin immunoprecipitation platform were used to examine renal mRNA expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment, and epigenetic marks at DN-related genes in the mouse (OVE26) and streptozotocin-induced rat models of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes induced renal expression of Cox2, S100A4/FSP-1, and vimentin genes in both the mouse and the rat models of DN. Mcp-1 and laminin γ1 (Lamc1) expression were increased in diabetic mice but not in rats. Comparison of mRNA and Pol II levels suggested that the diabetes-induced expression of these transcripts is mediated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes. Decreases in histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27m3, silencing mark) and increases in H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4m2, activating mark) levels were the most consistent epigenetic alterations in the tested genes. In agreement with these results, immunoblot analysis showed increased protein abundance of renal H3K27m2/3 demethylase KDM6A, but no changes in cognate methyltransferase Ezh2 in kidneys of the OVE26 mice compared with controls. In diabetic rats, Ezh2 expression was higher without changes in KDM6A, demonstrating that mechanisms of DN-induced H3K27m3 loss could be species specific. In summary, we show that altered mRNA expression of some DN-related genes is associated with changes in Pol II recruitment and a corresponding decrease in repressive H3K27m3 at the selected loci, and at least in mice with equivalent changes in renal expression of cognate histone-modifying enzymes. This pattern could contribute to diabetes-mediated transitions in chromatin that facilitate transcriptional changes in the diabetic kidney.
|Transcription and replication result in distinct epigenetic marks following repression of early gene expression. |
Kallestad, L; Woods, E; Christensen, K; Gefroh, A; Balakrishnan, L; Milavetz, B
Frontiers in genetics 4 140 2013
Simian virus 40 (SV40) early transcription is repressed when the product of early transcription, T-antigen, binds to its cognate regulatory sequence, Site I, in the promoter of the SV40 minichromosome. Because SV40 minichromosomes undergo replication and transcription potentially repression could occur during active transcription or during DNA replication. Since repression is frequently epigenetically marked by the introduction of specific forms of methylated histone H3, we characterized the methylation of H3 tails during transcription and replication in wild-type SV40 minichromosomes and mutant minichromosomes which did not repress T-antigen expression. While repressed minichromosomes following replication were clearly marked with H3K9me1 and H3K4me1, minichromosomes repressed during early transcription were not similarly marked. Instead repression of early transcription was marked by a significant reduction in the level of H3K9me2. The replication dependent introduction of H3K9me1 and H3K4me1 into wild-type SV40 minichromosomes was also observed when replication was inhibited with aphidicolin. The results indicate that the histone modifications associated with repression can differ significantly depending upon whether the chromatin being repressed is undergoing transcription or replication.
|Endogenous mammalian histone H3.3 exhibits chromatin-related functions during development. |
Bush, Kelly M, et al.
Epigenetics Chromatin, 6: 7 (2013) 2013
The histone variant H3.3 plays key roles in regulating chromatin states and transcription. However, the role of endogenous H3.3 in mammalian cells and during development has been less thoroughly investigated. To address this gap, we report the production and phenotypic analysis of mice and cells with targeted disruption of the H3.3-encoding gene, H3f3b.
|Germinal center dysregulation by histone methyltransferase EZH2 promotes lymphomagenesis. |
Caganova, M; Carrisi, C; Varano, G; Mainoldi, F; Zanardi, F; Germain, PL; George, L; Alberghini, F; Ferrarini, L; Talukder, AK; Ponzoni, M; Testa, G; Nojima, T; Doglioni, C; Kitamura, D; Toellner, KM; Su, IH; Casola, S
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 5009-22 2013
Protection against deadly pathogens requires the production of high-affinity antibodies by B cells, which are generated in germinal centers (GCs). Alteration of the GC developmental program is common in many B cell malignancies. Identification of regulators of the GC response is crucial to develop targeted therapies for GC B cell dysfunctions, including lymphomas. The histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is highly expressed in GC B cells and is often constitutively activated in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). The function of EZH2 in GC B cells remains largely unknown. Herein, we show that Ezh2 inactivation in mouse GC B cells caused profound impairment of GC responses, memory B cell formation, and humoral immunity. EZH2 protected GC B cells against activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutagenesis, facilitated cell cycle progression, and silenced plasma cell determinant and tumor suppressor B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1). EZH2 inhibition in NHL cells induced BLIMP1, which impaired tumor growth. In conclusion, EZH2 sustains AID function and prevents terminal differentiation of GC B cells, which allows antibody diversification and affinity maturation. Dysregulation of the GC reaction by constitutively active EZH2 facilitates lymphomagenesis and identifies EZH2 as a possible therapeutic target in NHL and other GC-derived B cell diseases.
|Interplay between active chromatin marks and RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. |
Greenberg, MV; Deleris, A; Hale, CJ; Liu, A; Feng, S; Jacobsen, SE
PLoS genetics 9 e1003946 2013
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is associated with transcriptional repression of transposable elements and protein-coding genes. Conversely, transcriptionally active regulatory regions are strongly correlated with histone 3 lysine 4 di- and trimethylation (H3K4m2/m3). We previously showed that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with mutations in the H3K4m2/m3 demethylase JUMONJI 14 (JMJ14) exhibit a mild reduction in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) that is associated with an increase in H3K4m2/m3 levels. To determine whether this incomplete RdDM reduction was the result of redundancy with other demethylases, we examined the genetic interaction of JMJ14 with another class of H3K4 demethylases: lysine-specific demethylase 1-like 1 and lysine-specific demethylase 1-like 2 (LDL1 and LDL2). Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses reveal that both families cooperate to maintain RdDM patterns. ChIP-seq experiments show that regions that exhibit an observable DNA methylation decrease are co-incidental with increases in H3K4m2/m3. Interestingly, the impact on DNA methylation was stronger at DNA-methylated regions adjacent to H3K4m2/m3-marked protein-coding genes, suggesting that the activity of H3K4 demethylases may be particularly crucial to prevent spreading of active epigenetic marks. Finally, RNA sequencing analyses indicate that at RdDM targets, the increase of H3K4m2/m3 is not generally associated with transcriptional de-repression. This suggests that the histone mark itself--not transcription--impacts the extent of RdDM.
|Biphasic euchromatin-to-heterochromatin transition on the KSHV genome following de novo infection. |
Toth, Z; Brulois, K; Lee, HR; Izumiya, Y; Tepper, C; Kung, HJ; Jung, JU
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003813 2013
The establishment of latency is an essential step for the life-long persistent infection and pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). While the KSHV genome is chromatin-free in the virions, the viral DNA in latently infected cells has a chromatin structure with activating and repressive histone modifications that promote latent gene expression but suppress lytic gene expression. Here, we report a comprehensive epigenetic study of the recruitment of chromatin regulatory factors onto the KSHV genome during the pre-latency phase of KSHV infection. This demonstrates that the KSHV genome undergoes a biphasic chromatinization following de novo infection. Initially, a transcriptionally active chromatin (euchromatin), characterized by high levels of the H3K4me3 and acetylated H3K27 (H3K27ac) activating histone marks, was deposited on the viral episome and accompanied by the transient induction of a limited number of lytic genes. Interestingly, temporary expression of the RTA protein facilitated the increase of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac occupancy on the KSHV episome during de novo infection. Between 24-72 hours post-infection, as the levels of these activating histone marks declined on the KSHV genome, the levels of the repressive H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub histone marks increased concomitantly with the decline of lytic gene expression. Importantly, this transition to heterochromatin was dependent on both Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and 2. In contrast, upon infection of human gingiva-derived epithelial cells, the KSHV genome underwent a transcription-active euchromatinization, resulting in efficient lytic gene expression. Our data demonstrate that the KSHV genome undergoes a temporally-ordered biphasic euchromatin-to-heterochromatin transition in endothelial cells, leading to latent infection, whereas KSHV preferentially adopts a transcriptionally active euchromatin in oral epithelial cells, resulting in lytic gene expression. Our results suggest that the differential epigenetic modification of the KSHV genome in distinct cell types is a potential determining factor for latent infection versus lytic replication of KSHV.
|MBD3 localizes at promoters, gene bodies and enhancers of active genes. |
Shimbo, T; Du, Y; Grimm, SA; Dhasarathy, A; Mav, D; Shah, RR; Shi, H; Wade, PA
PLoS genetics 9 e1004028 2013
The Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex is a multiprotein machine proposed to regulate chromatin structure by nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation activities. Recent reports describing localization of NuRD provide new insights that question previous models on NuRD action, but are not in complete agreement. Here, we provide location analysis of endogenous MBD3, a component of NuRD complex, in two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using two independent genomic techniques: DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) and ChIP-seq. We observed concordance of the resulting genomic localization, suggesting that these studies are converging on a robust map for NuRD in the cancer cell genome. MBD3 preferentially associated with CpG rich promoters marked by H3K4me3 and showed cell-type specific localization across gene bodies, peaking around the transcription start site. A subset of sites bound by MBD3 was enriched in H3K27ac and was in physical proximity to promoters in three-dimensional space, suggesting function as enhancers. MBD3 enrichment was also noted at promoters modified by H3K27me3. Functional analysis of chromatin indicated that MBD3 regulates nucleosome occupancy near promoters and in gene bodies. These data suggest that MBD3, and by extension the NuRD complex, may have multiple roles in fine tuning expression for both active and silent genes, representing an important step in defining regulatory mechanisms by which NuRD complex controls chromatin structure and modification status.
|Epigenetic expansion of VHL-HIF signal output drives multiorgan metastasis in renal cancer. |
Vanharanta, S; Shu, W; Brenet, F; Hakimi, AA; Heguy, A; Viale, A; Reuter, VE; Hsieh, JJ; Scandura, JM; Massagué, J
Nature medicine 19 50-6 2013
Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene, VHL, is an archetypical tumor-initiating event in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) that leads to the activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). However, VHL mutation status in ccRCC is not correlated with clinical outcome. Here we show that during ccRCC progression, cancer cells exploit diverse epigenetic alterations to empower a branch of the VHL-HIF pathway for metastasis, and the strength of this activation is associated with poor clinical outcome. By analyzing metastatic subpopulations of VHL-deficient ccRCC cells, we discovered an epigenetically altered VHL-HIF response that is specific to metastatic ccRCC. Focusing on the two most prominent pro-metastatic VHL-HIF target genes, we show that loss of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-dependent histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) activates HIF-driven chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression in support of chemotactic cell invasion, whereas loss of DNA methylation enables HIF-driven cytohesin 1 interacting protein (CYTIP) expression to protect cancer cells from death cytokine signals. Thus, metastasis in ccRCC is based on an epigenetically expanded output of the tumor-initiating pathway.
|Histone deacetylase HDA6 is functionally associated with AS1 in repression of KNOX genes in arabidopsis. |
Luo, M; Yu, CW; Chen, FF; Zhao, L; Tian, G; Liu, X; Cui, Y; Yang, JY; Wu, K
PLoS genetics 8 e1003114 2012
ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 (AS1) is a MYB-type transcription repressor that controls leaf development by regulating KNOX gene expression, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that AS1 can interact with the histone deacetylase HDA6 in vitro and in vivo. The KNOX genes were up-regulated and hyperacetylated in the hda6 mutant, axe1-5, indicating that HDA6 may regulate KNOX expression through histone deacetylation. Compared with the single mutants, the as1-1/axe1-5 and as2-1/axe1-5 double mutants displayed more severe serrated leaf and short petiole phenotypes. In addition, the frequencies of leaf lobes and leaflet-like structures were also increased in as1-1/axe1-5 and as2-1/axe1-5 double mutants, suggesting that HDA6 acts together with AS1 and AS2 in regulating leaf development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HDA6 and AS1 bound directly to KNAT1, KNAT2, and KNATM chromatin. Taken together, these data indicate that HDA6 is a part of the AS1 repressor complex to regulate the KNOX expression in leaf development.
|Virion-mediated transfer of SV40 epigenetic information. |
Milavetz, B; Kallestad, L; Gefroh, A; Adams, N; Woods, E; Balakrishnan, L
Epigenetics 7 528-34 2012
In eukaryotes, epigenetic information can be encoded in parental cells through modification of histones and subsequently passed on to daughter cells in a process known as transgenerational epigenetic regulation. Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a well-characterized virus whose small circular DNA genome is organized into chromatin and, as a consequence, undergoes many of the same biological processes observed in cellular chromatin. In order to determine whether SV40 is capable of transgenerational epigenetic regulation, we have analyzed SV40 chromatin from minichromosomes and virions for the presence of modified histones using various ChIP techniques and correlated these modifications with specific biological effects on the SV40 life cycle. Our results demonstrate that, like its cellular counterpart, SV40 chromatin is capable of passing biologically relevant transgenerational epigenetic information between infections.
|A companion cell-dominant and developmentally regulated H3K4 demethylase controls flowering time in Arabidopsis via the repression of FLC expression. |
Yang, H; Han, Z; Cao, Y; Fan, D; Li, H; Mo, H; Feng, Y; Liu, L; Wang, Z; Yue, Y; Cui, S; Chen, S; Chai, J; Ma, L
PLoS genetics 8 e1002664 2012
Flowering time relies on the integration of intrinsic developmental cues and environmental signals. FLC and its downstream target FT are key players in the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Here, we characterized the expression pattern and function of JMJ18, a novel JmjC domain-containing histone H3K4 demethylase gene in Arabidopsis. JMJ18 was dominantly expressed in companion cells; its temporal expression pattern was negatively and positively correlated with that of FLC and FT, respectively, during vegetative development. Mutations in JMJ18 resulted in a weak late-flowering phenotype, while JMJ18 overexpressors exhibited an obvious early-flowering phenotype. JMJ18 displayed demethylase activity toward H3K4me3 and H3K4me2, and bound FLC chromatin directly. The levels of H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in chromatins of FLC clade genes and the expression of FLC clade genes were reduced, whereas FT expression was induced and the protein expression of FT increased in JMJ18 overexpressor lines. The early-flowering phenotype caused by the overexpression of JMJ18 was mainly dependent on the functional FT. Our findings suggest that the companion cell-dominant and developmentally regulated JMJ18 binds directly to the FLC locus, reducing the level of H3K4 methylation in FLC chromatin and repressing the expression of FLC, thereby promoting the expression of FT in companion cells to stimulate flowering.
|The nuclear envelope protein emerin binds directly to histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and activates HDAC3 activity. |
Demmerle, J; Koch, AJ; Holaska, JM
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 22080-8 2012
Organization of the genome is critical for maintaining cell-specific gene expression, ensuring proper cell function. It is well established that the nuclear lamina preferentially associates with repressed chromatin. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying repressive chromatin formation and maintenance at the nuclear lamina remain poorly understood. Here we show that emerin binds directly to HDAC3, the catalytic subunit of the nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) complex, and recruits HDAC3 to the nuclear periphery. Emerin binding stimulated the catalytic activity of HDAC3, and emerin-null cells exhibit increased H4K5 acetylation, which is the preferred target of the NCoR complex. Emerin-null cells exhibit an epigenetic signature similar to that seen in HDAC3-null cells. Emerin-null cells also had significantly less HDAC3 at the nuclear lamina. Collectively, these data support a model whereby emerin facilitates repressive chromatin formation at the nuclear periphery by increasing the catalytic activity of HDAC3.
|Chromatin structural changes around satellite repeats on the female sex chromosome in Schistosoma mansoni and their possible role in sex chromosome emergence. |
Lepesant, JM; Cosseau, C; Boissier, J; Freitag, M; Portela, J; Climent, D; Perrin, C; Zerlotini, A; Grunau, C
Genome biology 13 R14 2012
In the leuphotrochozoan parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni, male individuals are homogametic (ZZ) whereas females are heterogametic (ZW). To elucidate the mechanisms that led to the emergence of sex chromosomes, we compared the genomic sequence and the chromatin structure of male and female individuals. As for many eukaryotes, the lower estimate for the repeat content is 40%, with an unknown proportion of domesticated repeats. We used massive sequencing to de novo assemble all repeats, and identify unambiguously Z-specific, W-specific and pseudoautosomal regions of the S. mansoni sex chromosomes.We show that 70 to 90% of S. mansoni W and Z are pseudoautosomal. No female-specific gene could be identified. Instead, the W-specific region is composed almost entirely of 36 satellite repeat families, of which 33 were previously unknown. Transcription and chromatin status of female-specific repeats are stage-specific: for those repeats that are transcribed, transcription is restricted to the larval stages lacking sexual dimorphism. In contrast, in the sexually dimorphic adult stage of the life cycle, no transcription occurs. In addition, the euchromatic character of histone modifications around the W-specific repeats decreases during the life cycle. Recombination repression occurs in this region even if homologous sequences are present on both the Z and W chromosomes.Our study provides for the first time evidence for the hypothesis that, at least in organisms with a ZW type of sex chromosomes, repeat-induced chromatin structure changes could indeed be the initial event in sex chromosome emergence.
|Systematic dissection of roles for chromatin regulators in a yeast stress response. |
Weiner, A; Chen, HV; Liu, CL; Rahat, A; Klien, A; Soares, L; Gudipati, M; Pfeffner, J; Regev, A; Buratowski, S; Pleiss, JA; Friedman, N; Rando, OJ
PLoS biology 10 e1001369 2012
Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, we find that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles during gene induction/repression than they do in steady-state expression. Furthermore, by jointly analyzing the substrates (histone mutants) and enzymes (chromatin modifier deletions) we identify specific interactions between histone modifications and their regulators. Combining these functional results with genome-wide mapping of several histone marks in the same time course, we systematically investigated the correspondence between histone modification occurrence and function. We followed up on one pathway, finding that Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation primarily acts as a gene repressor during multiple stresses, specifically at genes involved in ribosome biosynthesis. Set1-dependent repression of ribosomal genes occurs via distinct pathways for ribosomal protein genes and ribosomal biogenesis genes, which can be separated based on genetic requirements for repression and based on chromatin changes during gene repression. Together, our dynamic studies provide a rich resource for investigating chromatin regulation, and identify a significant role for the "activating" mark H3K4me3 in gene repression.
|Cyclin D3 coordinates the cell cycle during differentiation to regulate erythrocyte size and number. |
Sankaran, VG; Ludwig, LS; Sicinska, E; Xu, J; Bauer, DE; Eng, JC; Patterson, HC; Metcalf, RA; Natkunam, Y; Orkin, SH; Sicinski, P; Lander, ES; Lodish, HF
Genes & development 26 2075-87 2012
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a genetic variant of moderate effect size at 6p21.1 associated with erythrocyte traits in humans. We show that this variant affects an erythroid-specific enhancer of CCND3. A Ccnd3 knockout mouse phenocopies these erythroid phenotypes, with a dramatic increase in erythrocyte size and a concomitant decrease in erythrocyte number. By examining human and mouse primary erythroid cells, we demonstrate that the CCND3 gene product cyclin D3 regulates the number of cell divisions that erythroid precursors undergo during terminal differentiation, thereby controlling erythrocyte size and number. We illustrate how cell type-specific specialization can occur for general cell cycle components-a finding resulting from the biological follow-up of unbiased human genetic studies.
|Effects of chronic exposure to arsenic and estrogen on epigenetic regulatory genes expression and epigenetic code in human prostate epithelial cells. |
Treas, JN; Tyagi, T; Singh, KP
PloS one 7 e43880 2012
Chronic exposures to arsenic and estrogen are known risk factors for prostate cancer. Though the evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic or estrogens can disrupt normal DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications, the mechanisms by which these chemicals induce epigenetic changes are not fully understood. Moreover, the epigenetic effects of co-exposure to these two chemicals are not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to arsenic and estrogen, both alone and in combination, on the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, their consequences on DNA methylation, and histone modifications. Human prostate epithelial cells, RWPE-1, chronically exposed to arsenic and estrogen alone and in combination were used for analysis of epigenetic regulatory genes expression, global DNA methylation changes, and histone modifications at protein level. The result of this study revealed that exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combination alters the expression of epigenetic regulatory genes and changes global DNA methylation and histone modification patterns in RWPE-1 cells. These changes were significantly greater in arsenic and estrogen combination treated group than individually treated group. The findings of this study will help explain the epigenetic mechanism of arsenic- and/or estrogen-induced prostate carcinogenesis.
|KNOX1 is expressed and epigenetically regulated during in vitro conditions in Agave spp. |
De-la-Peña, C; Nic-Can, G; Ojeda, G; Herrera-Herrera, JL; López-Torres, A; Wrobel, K; Robert-Díaz, ML
BMC plant biology 12 203 2012
The micropropagation is a powerful tool to scale up plants of economical and agronomical importance, enhancing crop productivity. However, a small but growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, can be affected under the in vitro conditions characteristic of micropropagation. Here, we tested whether the adaptation to different in vitro systems (Magenta boxes and Bioreactors) modified epigenetically different clones of Agave fourcroydes and A. angustifolia. Furthermore, we assessed whether these epigenetic changes affect the regulatory expression of KNOTTED1-like HOMEOBOX (KNOX) transcription factors.To gain a better understanding of epigenetic changes during in vitro and ex vitro conditions in Agave fourcroydes and A. angustifolia, we analyzed global DNA methylation, as well as different histone modification marks, in two different systems: semisolid in Magenta boxes (M) and temporary immersion in modular Bioreactors (B). No significant difference was found in DNA methylation in A. fourcroydes grown in either M or B. However, when A. fourcroydes was compared with A. angustifolia, there was a two-fold difference in DNA methylation between the species, independent of the in vitro system used. Furthermore, we detected an absence or a low amount of the repressive mark H3K9me2 in ex vitro conditions in plants that were cultured earlier either in M or B. Moreover, the expression of AtqKNOX1 and AtqKNOX2, on A. fourcroydes and A. angustifolia clones, is affected during in vitro conditions. Therefore, we used Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) to know whether these genes were epigenetically regulated. In the case of AtqKNOX1, the H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 were affected during in vitro conditions in comparison with AtqKNOX2.Agave clones plants with higher DNA methylation during in vitro conditions were better adapted to ex vitro conditions. In addition, A. fourcroydes and A. angustifolia clones displayed differential expression of the KNOX1 gene during in vitro conditions, which is epigenetically regulated by the H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 marks. The finding of an epigenetic regulation in key developmental genes will make it important in future studies to identify factors that help to find climate-resistant micropropagated plants.
|Polycomb-like 3 promotes polycomb repressive complex 2 binding to CpG islands and embryonic stem cell self-renewal. |
Hunkapiller, J; Shen, Y; Diaz, A; Cagney, G; McCleary, D; Ramalho-Santos, M; Krogan, N; Ren, B; Song, JS; Reiter, JF
PLoS genetics 8 e1002576 2012
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) to regulate gene expression during diverse biological transitions in development, embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation, and cancer. Here, we show that Polycomb-like 3 (Pcl3) is a component of PRC2 that promotes ESC self-renewal. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Pcl3 as a Suz12 binding partner and confirmed Pcl3 interactions with core PRC2 components by co-immunoprecipitation. Knockdown of Pcl3 in ESCs increases spontaneous differentiation, yet does not affect early differentiation decisions as assessed in teratomas and embryoid bodies, indicating that Pcl3 has a specific role in regulating ESC self-renewal. Consistent with Pcl3 promoting PRC2 function, decreasing Pcl3 levels reduces H3K27me3 levels while overexpressing Pcl3 increases H3K27me3 levels. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) reveal that Pcl3 co-localizes with PRC2 core component, Suz12, and depletion of Pcl3 decreases Suz12 binding at over 60% of PRC2 targets. Mutation of conserved residues within the Pcl3 Tudor domain, a domain implicated in recognizing methylated histones, compromises H3K27me3 formation, suggesting that the Tudor domain of Pcl3 is essential for function. We also show that Pcl3 and its paralog, Pcl2, exist in different PRC2 complexes but bind many of the same PRC2 targets, particularly CpG islands regulated by Pcl3. Thus, Pcl3 is a component of PRC2 critical for ESC self-renewal, histone methylation, and recruitment of PRC2 to a subset of its genomic sites.
|MeCP2 binds to nucleosome free (linker DNA) regions and to H3K9/H3K27 methylated nucleosomes in the brain. |
Thambirajah, AA; Ng, MK; Frehlick, LJ; Li, A; Serpa, JJ; Petrotchenko, EV; Silva-Moreno, B; Missiaen, KK; Borchers, CH; Adam Hall, J; Mackie, R; Lutz, F; Gowen, BE; Hendzel, M; Georgel, PT; Ausió, J
Nucleic acids research 40 2884-97 2012
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a chromatin-binding protein that mediates transcriptional regulation, and is highly abundant in brain. The nature of its binding to reconstituted templates has been well characterized in vitro. However, its interactions with native chromatin are less understood. Here we show that MeCP2 displays a distinct distribution within fractionated chromatin from various tissues and cell types. Artificially induced global changes in DNA methylation by 3-aminobenzamide or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, do not significantly affect the distribution or amount of MeCP2 in HeLa S3 or 3T3 cells. Most MeCP2 in brain is chromatin-bound and localized within highly nuclease-accessible regions. We also show that, while in most tissues and cell lines, MeCP2 forms stable complexes with nucleosome, in brain, a fraction of it is loosely bound to chromatin, likely to nucleosome-depleted regions. Finally, we provide evidence for novel associations of MeCP2 with mononucleosomes containing histone H2A.X, H3K9me(2) and H3K27me(3) in different chromatin fractions from brain cortex and in vitro. We postulate that the functional compartmentalization and tissue-specific distribution of MeCP2 within different chromatin types may be directed by its association with nucleosomes containing specific histone variants, and post-translational modifications.
|Integration of Elf-4 into stem/progenitor and erythroid regulatory networks through locus-wide chromatin studies coupled with in vivo functional validation. |
Smith, AM; Calero-Nieto, FJ; Schütte, J; Kinston, S; Timms, RT; Wilson, NK; Hannah, RL; Landry, JR; Göttgens, B
Molecular and cellular biology 32 763-73 2012
The ETS transcription factor Elf-4 is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and T cell homeostasis. To gain insights into the transcriptional circuitry within which Elf-4 operates, we used comparative sequence analysis coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) assays for specific chromatin marks to identify three promoters and two enhancers active in hematopoietic and endothelial cell lines. Comprehensive functional validation of each of these regulatory regions in transgenic mouse embryos identified a tissue-specific enhancer (-10E) that displayed activity in fetal liver, dorsal aorta, vitelline vessels, yolk sac, and heart. Integration of a ChIP-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data set for 10 key stem cell transcription factors showed Pu.1, Fli-1, and Erg were bound to the -10E element, and mutation of three highly conserved ETS sites within the enhancer abolished its activity. Finally, the transcriptional repressor Gfi1b was found to bind to and repress one of the Elf-4 promoters (-30P), and we show that this repression of Elf-4 is important for the maturation of primary fetal liver erythroid cells. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of the transcriptional control of Elf-4 within the hematopoietic system and, thus, integrate Elf-4 into the wider transcriptional regulatory networks that govern hematopoietic development.
|HDA6 directly interacts with DNA methyltransferase MET1 and maintains transposable element silencing in Arabidopsis. |
Liu, X; Yu, CW; Duan, J; Luo, M; Wang, K; Tian, G; Cui, Y; Wu, K
Plant physiology 158 119-29 2012
The molecular mechanism of how the histone deacetylase HDA6 participates in maintaining transposable element (TE) silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is not yet defined. In this study, we show that a subset of TEs was transcriptionally reactivated and that TE reactivation was associated with elevated histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as increased H3K4Me3 and H3K4Me2 in hda6 mutants. Decreased DNA methylation of the TEs was also detected in hda6 mutants, suggesting that HDA6 silences the TEs by regulating histone acetylation and methylation as well as the DNA methylation status of the TEs. Similarly, transcripts of some of these TEs were also increased in the methyltransferase1 (met1) mutant, with decreased DNA methylation. Furthermore, H4 acetylation, H3K4Me3, H3K4Me2, and H3K36Me2 were enriched at the coregulated TEs in the met1 and hda6 met1 mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that HDA6 physically interacts with MET1 in vitro and in vivo, and further deletion analysis demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 and the bromo-adjacent homology domain of MET1 were responsible for the interaction. These results suggested that HDA6 and MET1 interact directly and act together to silence TEs by modulating DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation status.Full Text Article
|Overexpression of a histone H3K4 demethylase, JMJ15, accelerates flowering time in Arabidopsis. |
Hongchun Yang,Huixian Mo,Di Fan,Ying Cao,Sujuan Cui,Ligeng Ma
Plant cell reports 31 2012
The methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) is essential for gene activation. Flowering Locus C (FLC), an important flowering repressor, quantitatively regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis and its expression level is coincident with H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) dynamics. The methylation state of FLC chromatin is determined by the balance between methylation and demethylation, which is mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases, respectively. However, little is known about the role of histone demethylase(s) in FLC regulation. Here, we characterized the biochemical activity and biological function of a novel JmjC domain-containing H3K4 demethylase, JMJ15, in Arabidopsis. JMJ15, which is a member of the H3K4 demethylase JARID1 family, displayed H3K4me3 demethylase activity both in vitro and in vivo. The mutation of JMJ15 did not produce an obvious phenotype; however, overexpression JMJ15 resulted in an obvious early flowering phenotype, which was associated with the repression of FLC level and reduction in H3K4me3 at the FLC locus, resulting in increased FT expression. Our results suggest that JMJ15 is a novel H3K4 demethylase, involved in the control of flowering time by demethylating H3K4me3 at FLC chromatin when it was overexpressed in Arabidopsis. KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of a histone H3K4 demethylase, JMJ15, represses FLC expression by decreasing its chromatin H3K4me3 level, thereby controlling flowering time in Arabidopsis.
|ATF4-dependent regulation of the JMJD3 gene during amino acid deprivation can be rescued in Atf4-deficient cells by inhibition of deacetylation. |
Shan, J; Fu, L; Balasubramanian, MN; Anthony, T; Kilberg, MS
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 36393-403 2012
Following amino acid deprivation, the amino acid response (AAR) induces transcription from specific genes through a collection of signaling mechanisms, including the GCN2-eIF2-ATF4 pathway. The present report documents that the histone demethylase JMJD3 is an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent target gene. The JMJD3 gene contains two AAR-induced promoter activities and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that the AAR leads to enhanced ATF4 recruitment to the C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE) upstream of Promoter-1. AAR-induced histone modifications across the JMJD3 gene locus occur upon ATF4 binding. Jmjd3 transcription is not induced in Atf4-knock-out cells, but the AAR-dependent activation was rescued by inhibition of histone deacetylation with trichostatin A (TSA). The TSA rescue of AAR activation in the absence of Atf4 also occurred for the Atf3 and C/EBP homology protein (Chop) genes, but not for the asparagine synthetase gene. ChIP analysis of the Jmjd3, Atf3, and Chop genes in Atf4 knock-out cells documented that activation of the AAR in the presence of TSA led to specific changes in acetylation of histone H4. The results suggest that a primary function of ATF4 is to recruit histone acetyltransferase activity to a sub-set of AAR target genes. Thus, absolute binding of ATF4 to these particular genes is not required and no ATF4 interaction with the general transcription machinery is necessary. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ATF4 functions as a pioneer factor to alter chromatin structure and thus, enhance transcription in a gene-specific manner.
|Juxtaposition of heterochromatic and euchromatic regions by chromosomal translocation mediates a heterochromatic long-range position effect associated with a severe neurological phenotype. |
Finelli, P; Sirchia, SM; Masciadri, M; Crippa, M; Recalcati, MP; Rusconi, D; Giardino, D; Monti, L; Cogliati, F; Faravelli, F; Natacci, F; Zoccante, L; Bernardina, BD; Russo, S; Larizza, L
Molecular cytogenetics 5 16 2012
The term "position effect" is used when the expression of a gene is deleteriously affected by an alteration in its chromosomal environment even though the integrity of the protein coding sequences is maintained. We describe a patient affected by epilepsy and severe neurodevelopment delay carrying a balanced translocation t(15;16)(p11.2;q12.1)dn that we assume caused a position effect as a result of the accidental juxtaposition of heterochromatin in the euchromatic region.FISH mapped the translocation breakpoints (bkps) to 15p11.2 within satellite III and the 16q12.1 euchromatic band within the ITFG1 gene. The expression of the genes located on both sides of the translocation were tested by means of real-time PCR and three, all located on der(16), were found to be variously perturbed: the euchromatic gene NETO2/BTCL2 was silenced, whereas VPS35 and SHCBP1, located within the major heterochromatic block of chromosome 16q11.2, were over-expressed. Pyrosequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation of NETO2/BTCL2 and VPS35 confirmed the expression findings. Interphase FISH analysis showed that der(16) localised to regions occupied by the beta satellite heterochromatic blocks more frequently than der(15).To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a heterochromatic position effect in humans caused by the juxtaposition of euchromatin/heterochromatin as a result of chromosomal rearrangement. The overall results are fully in keeping with the observations in Drosophila and suggest the occurrence of a human heterochromatin position effect associated with the nuclear repositioning of the der(16) and its causative role in the patient's syndromic phenotype.
|G9a/GLP histone lysine dimethyltransferase complex activity in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex is required for gene activation and silencing during memory consolidation. |
Gupta-Agarwal, S; Franklin, AV; Deramus, T; Wheelock, M; Davis, RL; McMahon, LL; Lubin, FD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 5440-53 2012
Learning triggers alterations in gene transcription in brain regions such as the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex (EC) that are necessary for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Here, we identify an essential role for the G9a/G9a-like protein (GLP) lysine dimethyltransferase complex and the histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) marks it catalyzes, in the transcriptional regulation of genes in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus and the EC during memory consolidation. Contextual fear learning increased global levels of H3K9me2 in area CA1 and the EC, with observable changes at the Zif268, DNMT3a, BDNF exon IV, and cFOS gene promoters, which occurred in concert with mRNA expression. Inhibition of G9a/GLP in the EC, but not in the hippocampus, enhanced contextual fear conditioning relative to control animals. The inhibition of G9a/GLP in the EC induced several histone modifications that include not only methylation but also acetylation. Surprisingly, we found that downregulation of G9a/GLP activity in the EC enhanced H3K9me2 in area CA1, resulting in transcriptional silencing of the non-memory permissive gene COMT in the hippocampus. In addition, synaptic plasticity studies at two distinct EC-CA1 cellular pathways revealed that G9a/GLP activity is critical for hippocampus-dependent long-term potentiation initiated in the EC via the perforant pathway, but not the temporoammonic pathway. Together, these data demonstrate that G9a/GLP differentially regulates gene transcription in the hippocampus and the EC during memory consolidation. Furthermore, these findings support the possibility of a role for G9a/GLP in the regulation of cellular and molecular cross talk between these two brain regions during LTM formation.
|Identification of core DNA elements that target somatic hypermutation. |
Kohler, KM; McDonald, JJ; Duke, JL; Arakawa, H; Tan, S; Kleinstein, SH; Buerstedde, JM; Schatz, DG
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 5314-26 2012
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) diversifies the V region of Ig genes and underlies the process of affinity maturation, in which B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are generated and selected. SHM is triggered in activated B cells by deamination of deoxycytosine residues mediated by activation-induced deaminase (AID). Whereas mistargeting of SHM and AID results in mutations and DNA damage in many non-Ig genes, they act preferentially at Ig loci. The mechanisms responsible for preferential targeting of SHM and AID activity to Ig loci are poorly understood. Using an assay involving an SHM reporter cassette inserted into the Ig L chain locus (IgL) of chicken DT40 B cells, we have identified a 1.9-kb DIVAC (diversification activator) element derived from chicken IgL that supports high levels of AID-dependent mutation activity. Systematic deletion analysis reveals that targeting activity is spread throughout much of the sequence and identifies two core regions that are particularly critical for function: a 200-bp region within the IgL enhancer, and a 350-bp 3' element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that whereas DIVAC does not alter levels of several epigenetic marks in the mutation cassette, it does increase levels of serine-5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II in the mutation target region, consistent with an effect on transcriptional elongation/pausing. We propose that multiple, dispersed DNA elements collaborate to recruit and activate the mutational machinery at Ig gene variable regions during SHM.
|IBM1, a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, is involved in the regulation of RNA-directed DNA methylation through the epigenetic control of RDR2 and DCL3 expression in Arabidopsis. |
Fan, D; Dai, Y; Wang, X; Wang, Z; He, H; Yang, H; Cao, Y; Deng, XW; Ma, L
Nucleic acids research 40 8905-16 2012
Small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important epigenetic pathway in Arabidopsis that controls the expression of multiple genes and several developmental processes. RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and DICER-LIKE 3 (DCL3) are necessary factors in 24-nt small interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis, which is part of the RdDM pathway. Here, we found that Increase in BONSAI Methylation 1 (IBM1), a conserved JmjC family histone demethylase, is directly associated with RDR2 and DCL3 chromatin. The mutation of IBM1 induced the hypermethylation of H3K9 and DNA non-CG sites within RDR2 and DCL3, which repressed their expression. A genome-wide analysis suggested that the reduction in RDR2 and DCL3 expression affected siRNA biogenesis in a locus-specific manner and disrupted RdDM-directed gene repression. Together, our results suggest that IBM1 regulates gene expression through two distinct pathways: direct association to protect genes from silencing by preventing the coupling of histone and DNA methylation, and indirect silencing of gene expression through RdDM-directed repression.
|Epigenetic reprogramming as a key contributor to melanocyte malignant transformation. |
Molognoni, F; Cruz, AT; Meliso, FM; Morais, AS; Souza, CF; Xander, P; Bischof, JM; Costa, FF; Soares, MB; Liang, G; Jones, PA; Jasiulionis, MG
Epigenetics 6 450-64 2011
Melanoma progression requires deregulation of gene expression by currently uncharacterized epigenetic mechanisms. A mouse model based on changes in cell microenvironment was developed by our group to study melanocyte malignant transformation. Melanoma cell lines (4C11- and 4C11+) were obtained as result of 5 sequential anchorage blockades of non-tumorigenic melan-a melanocytes. Melan-a cells submitted to 4 de-adhesion cycles were also established (4C), are non-tumorigenic and represent an intermediary phase of tumor progression. The aim of this work was to identify factors contributing to epigenetic modifications in early and later phases of malignant transformation induced by anchorage impediment. Epigenetic alterations occur early in tumorigenesis; 4C cell line shows changes in global and gene-specific DNA methylation and histone marks. Many histone modifications differ between melan-a, 4C, 4C11- (non-metastatic melanoma cell line) and 4C11+ (metastatic melanoma cell line) which could be associated with changes in gene and microRNA expression. These epigenetic alterations seem to play a key role in malignant transformation since melanocytes treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine before each anchorage blockade do not transform. Some epigenetic changes seem to be also responsible for the maintenance of malignant phenotype, since melanoma cell lines (4C11- and 4C11+) treated in vitro with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine or Trichostatin A showed reduction of tumor growth in vivo. Changes in gene expression reflecting cell adaptation to new environment were also observed. We propose a model in which sustained microenvironmental stress in melanocytes results in epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, after adaptation, cells may acquire epigenetic marks that could contribute to the establishment of a malignant phenotype.
|Nucleolar protein Spindlin1 recognizes H3K4 methylation and stimulates the expression of rRNA genes. |
Wang W, Chen Z, Mao Z, Zhang H, Ding X, Chen S, Zhang X, Xu R, Zhu B.
EMBO reports 12 1160-6 2011
The tandem Tudor-like domain-containing protein Spindlin1 has been reported to be a meiotic spindle-associated protein. Here we report that Spindlin1 is not associated with the spindle in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells during mitotic divisions. In interphase cells, Spindlin1 specifically localizes to the nucleoli. Moreover, Spindlin1 is a histone methylation effector protein that specifically recognizes H3K4 methylation. Finally, Spindlin1 localizes to the active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats, and Spindlin1 facilitates the expression of rRNA genes.
|Long-distance regulation of fetal V(δ) gene segment TRDV4 by the Tcrd enhancer. |
Hao, B; Krangel, MS
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 187 2484-91 2011
Murine Tcra and Tcrd gene segments are organized into a single genetic locus (Tcra/Tcrd locus) that undergoes V(D)J recombination in CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) thymocytes to assemble Tcrd genes and in CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive thymocytes to assemble Tcra genes. Recombination events are regulated by two developmental stage-specific enhancers, E(δ) and E(α). Effects of E(α) on Trca/Tcrd locus chromatin have been well documented, but effects of E(δ) have not. In this regard, E(α) acts over long distances to activate many V(α) and J(α) segments for recombination in double-positive thymocytes. However, in DN thymocytes, it is unclear whether E(δ) functions over long distances to regulate V(δ) gene segments or functions only locally to regulate D(δ) and J(δ) gene segments. In this study, we analyzed germline transcription, histone modifications, and recombination on wild-type and E(δ)-deficient alleles in adult and fetal thymocytes. We found that E(δ) functions as a local enhancer whose influence is limited to no more than ∼10 kb in either direction (including D(δ), J(δ), and TRDV5 gene segments) in adult DN thymocytes. However, we identified a unique long-distance role for E(δ) promoting accessibility and recombination of fetal V(δ) gene segment TRDV4, over a distance of 55 kb, in fetal thymocytes. TRDV4 recombination is specifically repressed in adult thymocytes. We found that this repression is enforced by a developmentally regulated loss of histone acetylation. Constitutively high levels of a suppressive modification, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, may contribute to repression as well.
|Targeted bisulfite sequencing by solution hybrid selection and massively parallel sequencing. |
Lee, EJ; Pei, L; Srivastava, G; Joshi, T; Kushwaha, G; Choi, JH; Robertson, KD; Wang, X; Colbourne, JK; Zhang, L; Schroth, GP; Xu, D; Zhang, K; Shi, H
Nucleic acids research 39 e127 2011
We applied a solution hybrid selection approach to the enrichment of CpG islands (CGIs) and promoter sequences from the human genome for targeted high-throughput bisulfite sequencing. A single lane of Illumina sequences allowed accurate and quantitative analysis of ~1 million CpGs in more than 21,408 CGIs and more than 15,946 transcriptional regulatory regions. Of the CpGs analyzed, 77-84% fell on or near capture probe sequences; 69-75% fell within CGIs. More than 85% of capture probes successfully yielded quantitative DNA methylation information of targeted regions. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified in the 5'-end regulatory regions, as well as the intra- and intergenic regions, particularly in the X-chromosome among the three breast cancer cell lines analyzed. We chose 46 candidate loci (762 CpGs) for confirmation with PCR-based bisulfite sequencing and demonstrated excellent correlation between two data sets. Targeted bisulfite sequencing of three DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) knockout cell lines and the wild-type HCT116 colon cancer cell line revealed a significant decrease in CpG methylation for the DNMT1 knockout and DNMT1, 3B double knockout cell lines, but not in DNMT3B knockout cell line. We demonstrated the targeted bisulfite sequencing approach to be a powerful method to uncover novel aberrant methylation in the cancer epigenome. Since all targets were captured and sequenced as a pool through a series of single-tube reactions, this method can be easily scaled up to deal with a large number of samples.
|Repeat expansion affects both transcription initiation and elongation in friedreich ataxia cells. |
Kumari, D; Biacsi, RE; Usdin, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 4209-15 2011
Expansion of a GAA · TTC repeat in the first intron of the frataxin (FXN) gene causes an mRNA deficit that results in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). The region flanking the repeat on FRDA alleles is associated with more extensive DNA methylation than is seen on normal alleles and histone modifications typical of repressed genes. However, whether these changes are responsible for the mRNA deficit is controversial. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and cell lines from affected and unaffected individuals, we show that certain marks of active chromatin are also reduced in the promoter region of the FXN gene in patient cells. Thus, the promoter chromatin may be less permissive for transcription initiation than it is on normal alleles. Furthermore, we show that the initiating form of RNA polymerase II and histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4, a chromatin mark tightly linked to transcription initiation, are both present at lower levels on FRDA alleles. In addition, a mark of transcription elongation, trimethylated H3K36, shows a reduced rate of accumulation downstream of the repeat. Our data thus suggest that repeat expansion reduces both transcription initiation and elongation in FRDA cells. Our findings may have implications for understanding the mechanism responsible for FRDA as well as for therapeutic approaches to reverse the transcription deficit.
|Chromatin disruption in the promoter of bovine leukemia virus during transcriptional activation. |
Colin, L; Dekoninck, A; Reichert, M; Calao, M; Merimi, M; Van den Broeke, A; Vierendeel, V; Cleuter, Y; Burny, A; Rohr, O; Van Lint, C
Nucleic acids research 39 9559-73 2011
Bovine leukemia virus expression relies on its chromatin organization after integration into the host cell genome. Proviral latency, which results from transcriptional repression in vivo, represents a viral strategy to escape the host immune system and likely allows for tumor progression. Here, we discriminated two types of latency: an easily reactivable latent state of the YR2 provirus and a 'locked' latent state of the L267 provirus. The defective YR2 provirus was characterized by the presence of nuclease hypersensitive sites at the U3/R junction and in the R/U5 region of the 5'-long terminal repeat (5'-LTR), whereas the L267 provirus displayed a closed chromatin configuration at the U3/R junction. Reactivation of viral expression in YR2 cells by the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin combination was accompanied by a rapid but transient chromatin remodeling in the 5'-LTR, leading to an increased PU.1 and USF-1/USF-2 recruitment in vivo sustained by PMA/ionomycin-mediated USF phosphorylation. In contrast, viral expression was not reactivated by PMA/ionomycin in L267 cells, because the 5'-LTR U3/R region remained inaccessible to nucleases and hypermethylated at CpG dinucleotides. Remarkably, we elucidated the BLV 5'-LTR chromatin organization in PBMCs isolated from BLV-infected cows, thereby depicting the virus hiding in vivo in its natural host.
|Functional and epigenetic studies reveal multistep differentiation and plasticity of in vitro-generated and in vivo-derived follicular T helper cells. |
Lu, KT; Kanno, Y; Cannons, JL; Handon, R; Bible, P; Elkahloun, AG; Anderson, SM; Wei, L; Sun, H; O'Shea, JJ; Schwartzberg, PL
Immunity 35 622-32 2011
Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells provide critical help to B cells for germinal center (GC) formation. Mutations affecting SLAM-associated protein (SAP) prevent GC formation because of defective T cell-B cell interactions, yet effects on Tfh cell differentiation remain unclear. We describe the in vitro differentiation of functionally competent "Tfh-like" cells that expressed interleukin-21, Tfh cell markers, and Bcl6 and rescued GC formation in SAP-deficient hosts better than other T helper (Th) cells. SAP-deficient Tfh-like cells appeared virtually indistinguishable from wild-type, yet failed to support GCs in vivo. Interestingly, both Tfh-like and in vivo-derived Tfh cells could produce effector cytokines in response to polarizing conditions. Moreover, Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells could be reprogrammed to obtain Tfh cell characteristics. ChIP-Seq analyses revealed positive epigenetic markings on Tbx21, Gata3, and Rorc in Tfh-like and ex vivo Tfh cells and on Bcl6 in non-Tfh cells, supporting the concept of plasticity between Tfh and other Th cell populations.
|Dynamic BRG1 recruitment during T helper differentiation and activation reveals distal regulatory elements. |
De, S; Wurster, AL; Precht, P; Wood, WH; Becker, KG; Pazin, MJ
Molecular and cellular biology 31 1512-27 2011
T helper cell differentiation and activation require specific transcriptional programs accompanied by changes in chromatin structure. However, little is known about the chromatin remodeling enzymes responsible. We performed genome-wide analysis to determine the general principles of BRG1 binding, followed by analysis of specific genes to determine whether these general rules were typical of key T cell genes. We found that binding of the remodeling protein BRG1 was programmed by both lineage and activation signals. BRG1 binding positively correlated with gene activity at protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) genes. BRG1 binding was found at promoters and distal regions, including both novel and previously validated distal regulatory elements. Distal BRG1 binding correlated with expression, and novel distal sites in the Gata3 locus possessed enhancer-like activity, suggesting a general role for BRG1 in long-distance gene regulation. BRG1 recruitment to distal sites in Gata3 was impaired in cells lacking STAT6, a transcription factor that regulates lineage-specific genes. Together, these findings suggest that BRG1 interprets both differentiation and activation signals and plays a causal role in gene regulation, chromatin structure, and cell fate. Our findings suggest that BRG1 binding is a useful marker for identifying active cis-regulatory regions in protein-coding and miRNA genes.
|The opposing transcriptional functions of Sin3a and c-Myc are required to maintain tissue homeostasis. |
Nascimento, EM; Cox, CL; MacArthur, S; Hussain, S; Trotter, M; Blanco, S; Suraj, M; Nichols, J; Kübler, B; Benitah, SA; Hendrich, B; Odom, DT; Frye, M
Nature cell biology 13 1395-405 2011
How the proto-oncogene c-Myc balances the processes of stem-cell self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation in adult tissues is largely unknown. We explored c-Myc's transcriptional roles at the epidermal differentiation complex, a locus essential for skin maturation. Binding of c-Myc can simultaneously recruit (Klf4, Ovol-1) and displace (Cebpa, Mxi1 and Sin3a) specific sets of differentiation-specific transcriptional regulators to epidermal differentiation complex genes. We found that Sin3a causes deacetylation of c-Myc protein to directly repress c-Myc activity. In the absence of Sin3a, genomic recruitment of c-Myc to the epidermal differentiation complex is enhanced, and re-activation of c-Myc-target genes drives aberrant epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Simultaneous deletion of c-Myc and Sin3a reverts the skin phenotype to normal. Our results identify how the balance of two transcriptional key regulators can maintain tissue homeostasis through a negative feedback loop.
|A barrier-type insulator forms a boundary between active and inactive chromatin at the murine TCRβ locus. |
Carabana, J; Watanabe, A; Hao, B; Krangel, MS
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 3556-62 2011
In CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, the murine Tcrb locus is composed of alternating blocks of active and inactive chromatin containing Tcrb gene segments and trypsinogen genes, respectively. Although chromatin structure is appreciated to be critical for regulated recombination and expression of Tcrb gene segments, the molecular mechanisms that maintain the integrity of these differentially regulated Tcrb locus chromatin domains are not understood. We localized a boundary between active and inactive chromatin by mapping chromatin modifications across the interval extending from Prss2 (the most 3' trypsinogen gene) to D(β)1. This boundary, located 6 kb upstream of D(β)1, is characterized by a transition from repressive (histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation [H3K9me2]) to active (histone H3 acetylation [H3ac]) chromatin and is marked by a peak of histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) that colocalizes with a retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR). Histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation is retained and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation fails to spread past the LTR even on alleles lacking the Tcrb enhancer (E(β)) suggesting that these features may be determined by the local DNA sequence. Notably, we found that LTR-containing DNA functions as a barrier-type insulator that can protect a transgene from negative chromosomal position effects. We propose that, in vivo, the LTR blocks the spread of heterochromatin, and thereby helps to maintain the integrity of the E(β)-regulated chromatin domain. We also identified low-abundance, E(β)-dependent transcripts that initiate at the border of the LTR and an adjacent long interspersed element. We speculate that this transcription, which extends across D(β), J(β) and C(β) gene segments, may play an additional role promoting initial opening of the E(β)-regulated chromatin domain.
|Expression of P. falciparum var genes involves exchange of the histone variant H2A.Z at the promoter. |
Petter, M; Lee, CC; Byrne, TJ; Boysen, KE; Volz, J; Ralph, SA; Cowman, AF; Brown, GV; Duffy, MF
PLoS pathogens 7 e1001292 2011
Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z) colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS) in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var genes are silenced, but PfH2A.Z remains enriched at the TSS of var genes; in contrast, PfH2A.Z is lost from the TSS of de-repressed var genes in mature Sir2B knock out parasites. This result indicates that PfH2A.Z occupancy at the active var promoter is antagonized by PfSir2A during the intraerythrocytic life cycle. We conclude that PfH2A.Z contributes to the nucleosome architecture at promoters and is regulated dynamically in active var genes.
|HISTONE DEACETYLASE6 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS D and regulates flowering in Arabidopsis. |
Yu, CW; Liu, X; Luo, M; Chen, C; Lin, X; Tian, G; Lu, Q; Cui, Y; Wu, K
Plant physiology 156 173-84 2011
Histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in epigenetic controls of gene expression. HISTONE DEACETYLASE6 (HDA6) is a REDUCED POTASSIUM DEPENDENCY3-type histone deacetylase, and the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hda6 mutant axe1-5 displayed a late-flowering phenotype. axe1-5/flc-3 double mutants flowered earlier than axe1-5 plants, indicating that the late-flowering phenotype of axe1-5 was FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) dependent. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, in vitro pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed the protein-protein interaction between HDA6 and the histone demethylase FLD. It was found that the SWIRM domain in the amino-terminal region of FLD and the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 are responsible for the interaction between these two proteins. Increased levels of histone H3 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation at FLC, MAF4, and MAF5 were found in both axe1-5 and fld-6 plants, suggesting functional interplay between histone deacetylase and demethylase in flowering control. These results support a scenario in which histone deacetylation and demethylation cross talk are mediated by physical association between HDA6 and FLD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that HDA6 bound to the chromatin of several potential target genes, including FLC and MAF4. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that, in addition to genes related to flowering, genes involved in gene silencing and stress response were also affected in hda6 mutants, revealing multiple functions of HDA6. Furthermore, a subset of transposons was up-regulated and displayed increased histone hyperacetylation, suggesting that HDA6 can also regulate transposons through deacetylating histone.
|Epigenetic switch involved in activation of pioneer factor FOXA1-dependent enhancers. |
Sérandour, AA; Avner, S; Percevault, F; Demay, F; Bizot, M; Lucchetti-Miganeh, C; Barloy-Hubler, F; Brown, M; Lupien, M; Métivier, R; Salbert, G; Eeckhoute, J
Genome research 21 555-65 2011
Transcription factors (TFs) bind specifically to discrete regions of mammalian genomes called cis-regulatory elements. Among those are enhancers, which play key roles in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Despite the recognized central regulatory role exerted by chromatin in control of TF functions, much remains to be learned regarding the chromatin structure of enhancers and how it is established. Here, we have analyzed on a genomic-scale enhancers that recruit FOXA1, a pioneer transcription factor that triggers transcriptional competency of these cis-regulatory sites. Importantly, we found that FOXA1 binds to genomic regions showing local DNA hypomethylation and that its cell-type-specific recruitment to chromatin is linked to differential DNA methylation levels of its binding sites. Using neural differentiation as a model, we showed that induction of FOXA1 expression and its subsequent recruitment to enhancers is associated with DNA demethylation. Concomitantly, histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is induced at these enhancers. These epigenetic changes may both stabilize FOXA1 binding and allow for subsequent recruitment of transcriptional regulatory effectors. Interestingly, when cloned into reporter constructs, FOXA1-dependent enhancers were able to recapitulate their cell type specificity. However, their activities were inhibited by DNA methylation. Hence, these enhancers are intrinsic cell-type-specific regulatory regions of which activities have to be potentiated by FOXA1 through induction of an epigenetic switch that includes notably DNA demethylation.
|Regulation of TCRβ allelic exclusion by gene segment proximity and accessibility. |
Kondilis-Mangum, HD; Shih, HY; Mahowald, G; Sleckman, BP; Krangel, MS
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 187 6374-81 2011
Ag receptor loci are regulated to promote allelic exclusion, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Assembly of a functional TCR β-chain gene triggers feedback inhibition of V(β)-to-DJ(β) recombination in double-positive (DP) thymocytes, which correlates with reduced V(β) chromatin accessibility and a locus conformational change that separates V(β) from DJ(β) gene segments. We previously generated a Tcrb allele that maintained V(β) accessibility but was still subject to feedback inhibition in DP thymocytes. We have now further analyzed the contributions of chromatin accessibility and locus conformation to feedback inhibition using two novel TCR alleles. We show that reduced V(β) accessibility and increased distance between V(β) and DJ(β) gene segments both enforce feedback inhibition in DP thymocytes.
|Epigenetic inactivation of the miR-124-1 in haematological malignancies. |
Wong, KY; So, CC; Loong, F; Chung, LP; Lam, WW; Liang, R; Li, GK; Jin, DY; Chim, CS
PloS one 6 e19027 2011
miR-124-1 is a tumour suppressor microRNA (miR). Epigenetic deregulation of miRs is implicated in carcinogenesis. Promoter DNA methylation and histone modification of miR-124-1 was studied in 5 normal marrow controls, 4 lymphoma, 8 multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, 230 diagnostic primary samples of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), MM, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and 53 MM samples at stable disease or relapse. Promoter of miR-124-1 was unmethylated in normal controls but homozygously methylated in 4 of 4 lymphoma and 4 of 8 myeloma cell lines. Treatment of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine led to miR-124-1 demethylation and re-expression of mature miR-124, which also associated with emergence of euchromatic trimethyl H3K4 and consequent downregulation of CDK6 in myeloma cells harboring homozygous miR-124-1 methylation. In primary samples at diagnosis, miR-124-1 methylation was absent in CML but detected in 2% each of MM at diagnosis and relapse/progression, 5% ALL, 15% AML, 14% CLL and 58.1% of NHL (pless than 0.001). Amongst lymphoid malignancies, miR-124-1 was preferentially methylated in NHL than MM, CLL or ALL. In primary lymphoma samples, miR-124-1 was preferentially hypermethylated in B- or NK/T-cell lymphomas and associated with reduced miR-124 expression. In conclusion, miR-124-1 was hypermethylated in a tumour-specific manner, with a heterochromatic histone configuration. Hypomethylation led to partial restoration of euchromatic histone code and miR re-expression. Infrequent miR-124-1 methylation detected in diagnostic and relapse MM samples showed an unimportant role in MM pathogenesis, despite frequent methylation found in cell lines. Amongst haematological cancers, miR-124-1 was more frequently hypermethylated in NHL, and hence warrants further study.Full Text Article
|A region of the nucleosome required for multiple types of transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Prescott, ET; Safi, A; Rusche, LN
Genetics 188 535-48 2011
Extended heterochromatin domains, which are repressive to transcription and help define centromeres and telomeres, are formed through specific interactions between silencing proteins and nucleosomes. This study reveals that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same nucleosomal surface is critical for the formation of multiple types of heterochromatin, but not for local repression mediated by a related transcriptional repressor. Thus, this region of the nucleosome may be generally important to long-range silencing. In S. cerevisiae, the Sir proteins perform long-range silencing, whereas the Sum1 complex acts locally to repress specific genes. A mutant form of Sum1p, Sum1-1p, achieves silencing in the absence of Sir proteins. A genetic screen identified mutations in histones H3 and H4 that disrupt Sum1-1 silencing and fall in regions of the nucleosome previously known to disrupt Sir silencing and rDNA silencing. In contrast, no mutations were identified that disrupt wild-type Sum1 repression. Mutations that disrupt silencing fall in two regions of the nucleosome, the tip of the H3 tail and a surface of the nucleosomal core (LRS domain) and the adjacent base of the H4 tail. The LRS/H4 tail region interacts with the Sir3p bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain to facilitate Sir silencing. By analogy, this study is consistent with the LRS/H4 tail region interacting with Orc1p, a paralog of Sir3p, to facilitate Sum1-1 silencing. Thus, the LRS/H4 tail region of the nucleosome may be relatively accessible and facilitate interactions between silencing proteins and nucleosomes to stabilize long-range silencing.
|Genome-wide DNA methylation maps in follicular lymphoma cells determined by methylation-enriched bisulfite sequencing. |
Choi, JH; Li, Y; Guo, J; Pei, L; Rauch, TA; Kramer, RS; Macmil, SL; Wiley, GB; Bennett, LB; Schnabel, JL; Taylor, KH; Kim, S; Xu, D; Sreekumar, A; Pfeifer, GP; Roe, BA; Caldwell, CW; Bhalla, KN; Shi, H
PloS one 5 2010
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that arises from germinal center (GC) B-cells. Despite the significant advances in immunotherapy, FL is still not curable. Beyond transcriptional profiling and genomics datasets, there currently is no epigenome-scale dataset or integrative biology approach that can adequately model this disease and therefore identify novel mechanisms and targets for successful prevention and treatment of FL.We performed methylation-enriched genome-wide bisulfite sequencing of FL cells and normal CD19(+) B-cells using 454 sequencing technology. The methylated DNA fragments were enriched with methyl-binding proteins, treated with bisulfite, and sequenced using the Roche-454 GS FLX sequencer. The total number of bases covered in the human genome was 18.2 and 49.3 million including 726,003 and 1.3 million CpGs in FL and CD19(+) B-cells, respectively. 11,971 and 7,882 methylated regions of interest (MRIs) were identified respectively. The genome-wide distribution of these MRIs displayed significant differences between FL and normal B-cells. A reverse trend in the distribution of MRIs between the promoter and the gene body was observed in FL and CD19(+) B-cells. The MRIs identified in FL cells also correlated well with transcriptomic data and ChIP-on-Chip analyses of genome-wide histone modifications such as tri-methyl-H3K27, and tri-methyl-H3K4, indicating a concerted epigenetic alteration in FL cells.This study is the first to provide a large scale and comprehensive analysis of the DNA methylation sequence composition and distribution in the FL epigenome. These integrated approaches have led to the discovery of novel and frequent targets of aberrant epigenetic alterations. The genome-wide bisulfite sequencing approach developed here can be a useful tool for profiling DNA methylation in clinical samples.
|A Method to Study the Epigenetic Chromatin States of Rare Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells; MiniChIP-Chip. |
Weishaupt, H; Attema, JL
Biological procedures online 12 1-17 2010
Dynamic chromatin structure is a fundamental property of gene transcriptional regulation, and has emerged as a critical modulator of physiological processes during cellular differentiation and development. Analysis of chromatin structure using molecular biology and biochemical assays in rare somatic stem and progenitor cells is key for understanding these processes but poses a great challenge because of their reliance on millions of cells. Through the development of a miniaturized genome-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation method (miniChIP-chip), we have documented the genome-wide chromatin states of low abundant populations that comprise hematopoietic stem cells and immediate progeny residing in murine bone marrow. In this report, we describe the miniChIP methodology that can be used for increasing an understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function. Application of this method will reveal the contribution of dynamic chromatin structure in regulating the function of other somatic stem cell populations, and how this process becomes perturbed in pathological conditions.
|Transcriptional regulation of Elf-1: locus-wide analysis reveals four distinct promoters, a tissue-specific enhancer, control by PU.1 and the importance of Elf-1 downregulation for erythroid maturation. |
Calero-Nieto, FJ; Wood, AD; Wilson, NK; Kinston, S; Landry, JR; Göttgens, B
Nucleic acids research 38 6363-74 2010
Ets transcription factors play important roles during the development and maintenance of the haematopoietic system. One such factor, Elf-1 (E74-like factor 1) controls the expression of multiple essential haematopoietic regulators including Scl/Tal1, Lmo2 and PU.1. However, to integrate Elf-1 into the wider regulatory hierarchies controlling haematopoietic development and differentiation, regulatory elements as well as upstream regulators of Elf-1 need to be identified. Here, we have used locus-wide comparative genomic analysis coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) assays which resulted in the identification of five distinct regulatory regions directing expression of Elf-1. Further, ChIP-chip assays followed by functional validation demonstrated that the key haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 is a major upstream regulator of Elf-1. Finally, overexpression studies in a well-characterized erythroid differentiation assay from primary murine fetal liver cells demonstrated that Elf-1 downregulation is necessary for terminal erythroid differentiation. Given the known activation of PU.1 by Elf-1 and our newly identified reciprocal activation of Elf-1 by PU.1, identification of an inhibitory role for Elf-1 has significant implications for our understanding of how PU.1 controls myeloid-erythroid differentiation. Our findings therefore not only represent the first report of Elf-1 regulation but also enhance our understanding of the wider regulatory networks that control haematopoiesis.
|The epigenetic landscape of latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genomes. |
Günther, T; Grundhoff, A
PLoS pathogens 6 e1000935 2010
Herpesvirus latency is generally thought to be governed by epigenetic modifications, but the dynamics of viral chromatin at early timepoints of latent infection are poorly understood. Here, we report a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of DNA methylation and histone modifications during latent infection with Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiologic agent of Kaposi Sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). By use of high resolution tiling microarrays in conjunction with immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA (MeDIP) or modified histones (chromatin IP, ChIP), our study revealed highly distinct landscapes of epigenetic modifications associated with latent KSHV infection in several tumor-derived cell lines as well as de novo infected endothelial cells. We find that KSHV genomes are subject to profound methylation at CpG dinucleotides, leading to the establishment of characteristic global DNA methylation patterns. However, such patterns evolve slowly and thus are unlikely to control early latency. In contrast, we observed that latency-specific histone modification patterns were rapidly established upon a de novo infection. Our analysis furthermore demonstrates that such patterns are not characterized by the absence of activating histone modifications, as H3K9/K14-ac and H3K4-me3 marks were prominently detected at several loci, including the promoter of the lytic cycle transactivator Rta. While these regions were furthermore largely devoid of the constitutive heterochromatin marker H3K9-me3, we observed rapid and widespread deposition of H3K27-me3 across latent KSHV genomes, a bivalent modification which is able to repress transcription in spite of the simultaneous presence of activating marks. Our findings suggest that the modification patterns identified here induce a poised state of repression during viral latency, which can be rapidly reversed once the lytic cycle is induced.
|Epigenetic analysis of KSHV latent and lytic genomes. |
Toth, Z; Maglinte, DT; Lee, SH; Lee, HR; Wong, LY; Brulois, KF; Lee, S; Buckley, JD; Laird, PW; Marquez, VE; Jung, JU
PLoS pathogens 6 e1001013 2010
Epigenetic modifications of the herpesviral genome play a key role in the transcriptional control of latent and lytic genes during a productive viral lifecycle. In this study, we describe for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide ChIP-on-Chip analysis of the chromatin associated with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome during latency and lytic reactivation. Depending on the gene expression class, different combinations of activating [acetylated H3 (AcH3) and H3K4me3] and repressive [H3K9me3 and H3K27me3] histone modifications are associated with the viral latent genome, which changes upon reactivation in a manner that is correlated with their expression. Specifically, both the activating marks co-localize on the KSHV latent genome, as do the repressive marks. However, the activating and repressive histone modifications are mutually exclusive of each other on the bulk of the latent KSHV genome. The genomic region encoding the IE genes ORF50 and ORF48 possesses the features of a bivalent chromatin structure characterized by the concomitant presence of the activating H3K4me3 and the repressive H3K27me3 marks during latency, which rapidly changes upon reactivation with increasing AcH3 and H3K4me3 marks and decreasing H3K27me3. Furthermore, EZH2, the H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase of the Polycomb group proteins (PcG), colocalizes with the H3K27me3 mark on the entire KSHV genome during latency, whereas RTA-mediated reactivation induces EZH2 dissociation from the genomic regions encoding IE and E genes concurrent with decreasing H3K27me3 level and increasing IE/E lytic gene expression. Moreover, either the inhibition of EZH2 expression by a small molecule inhibitor DZNep and RNAi knockdown, or the expression of H3K27me3-specific histone demethylases apparently induced the KSHV lytic gene expression cascade. These data indicate that histone modifications associated with the KSHV latent genome are involved in the regulation of latency and ultimately in the control of the temporal and sequential expression of the lytic gene cascade. In addition, the PcG proteins play a critical role in the control of KSHV latency by maintaining a reversible heterochromatin on the KSHV lytic genes. Thus, the regulation of the spatial and temporal association of the PcG proteins with the KSHV genome may be crucial for propagating the KSHV lifecycle.
|Chromatin interaction analysis using paired-end tag sequencing. |
Melissa J Fullwood,Yuyuan Han,Chia-Lin Wei,Xiaoan Ruan,Yijun Ruan
Current protocols in molecular biology / edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et al.] Chapter 21 2010
Chromatin Interaction Analysis using Paired-End Tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) is a technique developed for large-scale, de novo analysis of higher-order chromatin structures. Cells are treated with formaldehyde to cross-link chromatin interactions, DNA segments bound by protein factors are enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and interacting DNA fragments are then captured by proximity ligation. The Paired-End Tag (PET) strategy is applied to the construction of ChIA-PET libraries, which are sequenced by high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. Finally, raw PET sequences are subjected to bioinformatics analysis, resulting in a genome-wide map of binding sites and chromatin interactions mediated by the protein factor under study. This unit describes ChIA-PET for genome-wide analysis of chromatin interactions in mammalian cells, with the application of Roche/454 and Illumina sequencing technologies.
|KMT1E Mediated H3K9 Methylation Is Required for the Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cells by Repressing Trophectoderm Differentiation. |
F Lohmann, J Loureiro, H Su, Q Fang, H Lei, T Lewis, Y Yang, M Labow, E Li, T Chen, S Kadam
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 28 201-12 2010
Dynamic regulation of histone methylation by methyltransferases and demethylases plays a central role in regulating the fate of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The histone H3K9 methyltransferase KMT1E, formerly known as ESET or Setdb1, is essential to embryonic development as the ablation of the Setdb1 gene results in peri-implantation lethality and prevents the propagation of ES cells. However, Setdb1-null blastocysts do not display global changes in H3K9 methylation or DNA methylation, arguing against a genome-wide defect. Here we show that conditional deletion of the Setdb1 gene in ES cells results in the upregulation of lineage differentiation markers, especially trophectoderm-specific factors, similar to effects observed upon loss of Oct3/4 expression in ES cells. We demonstrate that KMT1E deficiency in ES cells leads to a decrease in histone H3K9 methylation at and derepression of trophoblast-associated genes such as Cdx2. Furthermore, we find genes that are derepressed upon Setdb1 deletion to overlap with known targets of polycomb mediated repression, suggesting that KMT1E mediated H3K9 methylation acts in concert with polycomb controlled H3K27 methylation. Our studies thus demonstrate an essential role for KMT1E in the control of developmentally regulated gene expression programs in ES cells. STEM CELLS 2010;28:201-212.
|Senescence and dysfunction of proximal tubular cells are associated with activated p53 expression by indoxyl sulfate. |
Shimizu H, Bolati D, Adijiang A, Enomoto A, Nishijima F, Dateki M, Niwa T
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299 C1110-7. Epub 2010 Aug 18. 2010
Various uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and one of them is indoxyl sulfate, which accelerates the progression of CRF through unknown mechanisms. The present study investigates how indoxyl sulfate promotes CRF using the proximal tubular cell line HK-2 and CRF rats. Indoxyl sulfate inhibited serum-induced cell proliferation and promoted the activation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of fibrosis, through inducing p53 expression and phosphorylation. Pifithrin-α, p-nitro, a p53 inhibitor, blocked these effects. Indoxyl sulfate evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced p53 expression and phosphorylation, as well as indoxyl sulfate-induced α-SMA expression. We previously demonstrated that although cellular senescence and fibrosis are detectable in the kidneys of CRF rats, the oral adsorbent AST-120 repressed these effects. Here, we found that β-galactosidase, p53 and α-SMA were expressed and colocalized in the renal tubules of CRF rats, whereas AST-120 decreased the expression of these genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that indoxyl sulfate induces the expression and phosphorylation of p53 though ROS production, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cellular senescence and renal fibrosis.
|Transcriptional activation by pRB and its coordination with SWI/SNF recruitment. |
Flowers, S; Beck, GR; Moran, E
Cancer research 70 8282-7 2010
A central question in cancer biology is why most tumor susceptibility genes are linked with only limited types of cancer. Human germ-line mutation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene Rb1 is closely linked with just retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, although the gene is universally expressed. Functional analysis of pRB and its close relatives, p107 and p130, has largely focused on their roles in repression of proliferation across all tissue types, but genetic evidence indicates an active requirement for pRB in osteoblast differentiation that correlates more directly with osteosarcoma susceptibility. Still, potential promoter targets of pRB and its role in normally differentiating osteoblasts remain insufficiently characterized. Here, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, is identified as a direct promoter activation target of pRB. One role of pRB on this promoter is to displace the histone lysine demethylase KDM5A, thereby favoring trimethylation of H3K4, a promoter activation mark. A major new aspect of pRB-mediated transcriptional activation revealed in this promoter analysis is its role in recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF is a critical coordinator of tissue-specific gene expression. In osteoblasts, SWI/SNF complexes containing the BRM ATPase repress osteoblast-specific genes to maintain the precursor state, whereas the alternative ATPase BRG1 distinguishes an activating SWI/SNF complex necessary for RNA polymerase-II recruitment. A switch from BRM to BRG1 on the alkaline phosphatase promoter marks the onset of differentiation and is accomplished in a precise two-step mechanism. Dissociation of BRM-containing SWI/SNF depends on p300, and association of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF depends on pRB.Full Text Article
|Cell-specific occupancy of an extended repertoire of CREM and CREB binding loci in male germ cells. |
Martianov, I; Choukrallah, MA; Krebs, A; Ye, T; Legras, S; Rijkers, E; Van Ijcken, W; Jost, B; Sassone-Corsi, P; Davidson, I
BMC genomics 11 530 2010
CREB and CREM are closely related factors that regulate transcription in response to various stress, metabolic and developmental signals. The CREMτ activator isoform is selectively expressed in haploid spermatids and plays an essential role in murine spermiogenesis.We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (ChIP-seq) to map CREM and CREB target loci in round spermatids from adult mouse testis and spermatogonia derived GC1-spg cells respectively. We identify more than 9000 genomic loci most of which are cell-specifically occupied. Despite the fact that round spermatids correspond to a highly specialised differentiated state, our results show that they have a remarkably accessible chromatin environment as CREM occupies more than 6700 target loci corresponding not only to the promoters of genes selectively expressed in spermiogenesis, but also of genes involved in functions specific to other cell types. The expression of only a small subset of these target genes are affected in the round spermatids of CREM knockout animals. We also identify a set of intergenic binding loci some of which are associated with H3K4 trimethylation and elongating RNA polymerase II suggesting the existence of novel CREB and CREM regulated transcripts.We demonstrate that CREM and CREB occupy a large number of promoters in highly cell specific manner. This is the first study of CREM target promoters directly in a physiologically relevant tissue in vivo and represents the most comprehensive experimental analysis of CREB/CREM regulatory potential to date.
|Heterochromatin formation in the mouse embryo requires critical residues of the histone variant H3.3. |
Santenard, Angèle, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 12: 853-62 (2010) 2010
In mammals, oocyte fertilization by sperm initiates development. This is followed by epigenetic reprogramming of both parental genomes, which involves the de novo establishment of chromatin domains. In the mouse embryo, methylation of histone H3 establishes an epigenetic asymmetry and is predominant in the maternal pronucleus. However, the roles of differential incorporation of histone H3 variants in the parental chromatin, and of modified residues within specific histone variants, have not been addressed. Here we show that the histone variant H3.3, and in particular lysine 27, is required for the establishment of heterochromatin in the mouse embryo. H3.3 localizes to paternal pericentromeric chromatin during S phase at the time of transcription of pericentromeric repeats. Mutation of H3.3 K27, but not of H3.1 K27, results in aberrant accumulation of pericentromeric transcripts, HP1 mislocalization, dysfunctional chromosome segregation and developmental arrest. This phenotype is rescued by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from pericentromeric transcripts, indicating a functional link between H3.3K27 and the silencing of such regions by means of an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway. Our work demonstrates a role for a modifiable residue within a histone-variant-specific context during reprogramming and identifies a novel function for mammalian H3.3 in the initial formation of dsRNA-dependent heterochromatin.
|N-Myc regulates expression of pluripotency genes in neuroblastoma including lif, klf2, klf4, and lin28b. |
Cotterman, R; Knoepfler, PS
PloS one 4 e5799 2009
myc genes are best known for causing tumors when overexpressed, but recent studies suggest endogenous myc regulates pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. For example, N-myc is associated with a number of tumors including neuroblastoma, but also plays a central role in the function of normal neural stem and precursor cells (NSC). Both c- and N-myc also enhance the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and are linked to neural tumor stem cells. The mechanisms by which myc regulates normal and neoplastic stem-related functions remain largely open questions. Here from a global, unbiased search for N-Myc bound genes using ChIP-chip assays in neuroblastoma, we found lif as a putative N-Myc bound gene with a number of strong N-Myc binding peaks in the promoter region enriched for E-boxes. Amongst putative N-Myc target genes in expression microarray studies in neuroblastoma we also found lif and three additional important embryonic stem cell (ESC)-related factors that are linked to production of iPSC: klf2, klf4, and lin28b. To examine the regulation of these genes by N-Myc, we measured their expression using neuroblastoma cells that contain a Tet-regulatable N-myc transgene (TET21N) as well as NSC with a nestin-cre driven N-myc knockout. N-myc levels closely correlated with the expression of all of these genes in neuroblastoma and all but lif in NSC. Direct ChIP assays also indicate that N-Myc directly binds the lif promoter. N-Myc regulates trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 in the promoter of lif and possibly in the promoters of several other stem-related genes. Together these findings indicate that N-Myc regulates overlapping stem-related gene expression programs in neuroblastoma and NSC, supporting a novel model by which amplification of the N-myc gene may drive formation of neuroblastoma. They also suggest mechanisms by which Myc proteins more generally contribute to maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of ESC as well as to iPSC formation.Full Text Article
|Mass spectrometry analysis of the variants of histone H3 and H4 of soybean and their post-translational modifications. |
Wu, T; Yuan, T; Tsai, SN; Wang, C; Sun, SM; Lam, HM; Ngai, SM
BMC plant biology 9 98 2009
Histone modifications and histone variants are of importance in many biological processes. To understand the biological functions of the global dynamics of histone modifications and histone variants in higher plants, we elucidated the variants and post-translational modifications of histones in soybean, a legume plant with a much bigger genome than that of Arabidopsis thaliana.In soybean leaves, mono-, di- and tri-methylation at Lysine 4, Lysine 27 and Lysine 36, and acetylation at Lysine 14, 18 and 23 were detected in HISTONE H3. Lysine 27 was prone to being mono-methylated, while tri-methylation was predominant at Lysine 36. We also observed that Lysine 27 methylation and Lysine 36 methylation usually excluded each other in HISTONE H3. Although methylation at HISTONE H3 Lysine 79 was not reported in A. thaliana, mono- and di-methylated HISTONE H3 Lysine 79 were detected in soybean. Besides, acetylation at Lysine 8 and 12 of HISTONE H4 in soybean were identified. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and nano-liquid chromatography, two variants of HISTONE H3 were detected and their modifications were determined. They were different at positions of A31F41S87S90 (HISTONE variant H3.1) and T31Y41H87L90 (HISTONE variant H3.2), respectively. The methylation patterns in these two HISTONE H3 variants also exhibited differences. Lysine 4 and Lysine 36 methylation were only detected in HISTONE H3.2, suggesting that HISTONE variant H3.2 might be associated with actively transcribing genes. In addition, two variants of histone H4 (H4.1 and H4.2) were also detected, which were missing in other organisms. In the histone variant H4.1 and H4.2, the amino acid 60 was isoleucine and valine, respectively.This work revealed several distinct variants of soybean histone and their modifications that were different from A. thaliana, thus providing important biological information toward further understanding of the histone modifications and their functional significance in higher plants.
|Antagonistic Roles for BRM and BRG1 SWI/SNF Complexes in Differentiation. |
Stephen Flowers, Norman G Nagl, George R Beck, Elizabeth Moran, Stephen Flowers, Norman G Nagl, George R Beck, Elizabeth Moran, Stephen Flowers, Norman G Nagl, George R Beck, Elizabeth Moran
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 10067-75 2009
The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex is essential for the multiple changes in gene expression that occur during differentiation. However, the basis within the complex for specificity in effecting positive versus negative changes in gene expression has only begun to be elucidated. The catalytic core of the complex can be either of two closely related ATPases, BRM or BRG1, with the potential that the choice of alternative subunits is a key determinant of specificity. Short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of the ATPases was used to explore their respective roles in the well characterized multistage process of osteoblast differentiation. The results reveal an unexpected role for BRM-specific complexes. Instead of impeding differentiation as was seen with BRG1 depletion, depletion of BRM caused accelerated progression to the differentiation phenotype. Multiple tissue-specific differentiation markers, including the tightly regulated late stage marker osteocalcin, become constitutively up-regulated in BRM-depleted cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the osteocalcin promoter as a model for the behavior of the complexes indicates that the promoter is a direct target of both BRM- and BRG1-containing complexes. BRG1 complexes, which are required for activation, are associated with the promoter well before induction, but the concurrent presence of BRM-specific complexes overrides their activation function. BRM-specific complexes are present only on the repressed promoter and are required for association of the co-repressor HDAC1. These findings reveal an unanticipated degree of specialization of function linked with the choice of ATPase and suggest a new paradigm for the roles of the alternative subunits during differentiation.Full Text Article
|Molecular regulation of H3K4 trimethylation by Wdr82, a component of human Set1/COMPASS. |
Wu, M; Wang, PF; Lee, JS; Martin-Brown, S; Florens, L; Washburn, M; Shilatifard, A
Molecular and cellular biology 28 7337-44 2008
In yeast, the macromolecular complex Set1/COMPASS is capable of methylating H3K4, a posttranslational modification associated with actively transcribed genes. There is only one Set1 in yeast; yet in mammalian cells there are multiple H3K4 methylases, including Set1A/B, forming human COMPASS complexes, and MLL1-4, forming human COMPASS-like complexes. We have shown that Wdr82, which associates with chromatin in a histone H2B ubiquitination-dependent manner, is a specific component of Set1 complexes but not that of MLL1-4 complexes. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Wdr82 results in a reduction in the H3K4 trimethylation levels, although these cells still possess active MLL complexes. Comprehensive in vitro enzymatic studies with Set1 and MLL complexes demonstrated that the Set1 complex is a more robust H3K4 trimethylase in vitro than the MLL complexes. Given our in vivo and in vitro observations, it appears that the human Set1 complex plays a more widespread role in H3K4 trimethylation than do the MLL complexes in mammalian cells.