Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ICC, WB||M||Biotin||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Quantitative model of cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence in primary human fibroblasts. |
Schäuble, S; Klement, K; Marthandan, S; Münch, S; Heiland, I; Schuster, S; Hemmerich, P; Diekmann, S
PloS one 7 e42150 2012
Primary human fibroblasts in tissue culture undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering a non-replicative "senescent" state. At early population doublings (PD), fibroblasts are proliferation-competent displaying exponential growth. During further cell passaging, an increasing number of cells become cell cycle arrested and finally senescent. This transition from proliferating to senescent cells is driven by a number of endogenous and exogenous stress factors. Here, we have developed a new quantitative model for the stepwise transition from proliferating human fibroblasts (P) via reversibly cell cycle arrested (C) to irreversibly arrested senescent cells (S). In this model, the transition from P to C and to S is driven by a stress function γ and a cellular stress response function F which describes the time-delayed cellular response to experimentally induced irradiation stress. The application of this model based on senescence marker quantification at the single-cell level allowed to discriminate between the cellular states P, C, and S and delivers the transition rates between the P, C and S states for different human fibroblast cell types. Model-derived quantification unexpectedly revealed significant differences in the stress response of different fibroblast cell lines. Evaluating marker specificity, we found that SA-β-Gal is a good quantitative marker for cellular senescence in WI-38 and BJ cells, however much less so in MRC-5 cells. Furthermore we found that WI-38 cells are more sensitive to stress than BJ and MRC-5 cells. Thus, the explicit separation of stress induction from the cellular stress response, and the differentiation between three cellular states P, C and S allows for the first time to quantitatively assess the response of primary human fibroblasts towards endogenous and exogenous stress during cellular ageing.
|Down-regulation of HtrA1 activates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ATM DNA damage response pathways. |
Wang, N; Eckert, KA; Zomorrodi, AR; Xin, P; Pan, W; Shearer, DA; Weisz, J; Maranus, CD; Clawson, GA
PloS one 7 e39446 2012
Expression of the serine protease HtrA1 is decreased or abrogated in a variety of human primary cancers, and higher levels of HtrA1 expression are directly related to better response to chemotherapeutics. However, the precise mechanisms leading to HtrA1 down regulation during malignant transformation are unclear. To investigate HtrA1 gene regulation in breast cancer, we characterized expression in primary breast tissues and seven human breast epithelial cell lines, including two non-tumorigenic cell lines. In human breast tissues, HtrA1 expression was prominent in normal ductal glands. In DCIS and in invasive cancers, HtrA1 expression was greatly reduced or lost entirely. HtrA1 staining was also reduced in all of the human breast cancer cell lines, compared with the normal tissue and non-tumorigenic cell line controls. Loss of HtrA1 gene expression was attributable primarily to epigenetic silencing mechanisms, with different mechanisms operative in the various cell lines. To mechanistically examine the functional consequences of HtrA1 loss, we stably reduced and/or overexpressed HtrA1 in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A cell line. Reduction of HtrA1 levels resulted in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition with acquisition of mesenchymal phenotypic characteristics, including increased growth rate, migration, and invasion, as well as expression of mesenchymal biomarkers. A concomitant decrease in expression of epithelial biomarkers and all microRNA 200 family members was also observed. Moreover, reduction of HtrA1 expression resulted in activation of the ATM and DNA damage response, whereas overexpression of HtrA1 prevented this activation. Collectively, these results suggest that HtrA1 may function as a tumor suppressor by controlling the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and may function in chemotherapeutic responsiveness by mediating DNA damage response pathways.
|RSPO1/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates oogonia differentiation and entry into meiosis in the mouse fetal ovary. |
Chassot, AA; Gregoire, EP; Lavery, R; Taketo, MM; de Rooij, DG; Adams, IR; Chaboissier, MC
PloS one 6 e25641 2011
Differentiation of germ cells into male gonocytes or female oocytes is a central event in sexual reproduction. Proliferation and differentiation of fetal germ cells depend on the sex of the embryo. In male mouse embryos, germ cell proliferation is regulated by the RNA helicase Mouse Vasa homolog gene and factors synthesized by the somatic Sertoli cells promote gonocyte differentiation. In the female, ovarian differentiation requires activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in the somatic cells by the secreted protein RSPO1. Using mouse models, we now show that Rspo1 also activates the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in germ cells. In XX Rspo1(-/-) gonads, germ cell proliferation, expression of the early meiotic marker Stra8, and entry into meiosis are all impaired. In these gonads, impaired entry into meiosis and germ cell sex reversal occur prior to detectable Sertoli cell differentiation, suggesting that β-catenin signaling acts within the germ cells to promote oogonial differentiation and entry into meiosis. Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/β-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm.
|γ-H2AX detection in peripheral blood lymphocytes, splenocytes, bone marrow, xenografts, and skin. |
Christophe E Redon,Asako J Nakamura,Olivier Sordet,Jennifer S Dickey,Ksenia Gouliaeva,Brian Tabb,Scott Lawrence,Robert J Kinders,William M Bonner,Olga A Sedelnikova
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 682 2011
Measurement of DNA double-strand break (DSB) levels in cells is useful in many research areas, including those related to DNA damage and repair, tumorigenesis, anti-cancer drug development, apoptosis, radiobiology, environmental effects, and aging, as well as in the clinic. DSBs can be detected in the nuclei of cultured cells and tissues with an antibody to H2AX phosphorylated on serine residue 139 (γ-H2AX). DSB levels can be obtained either by measuring overall γ-H2AX protein levels in a cell population or by counting γ-H2AX foci in individual nuclei. Total levels can be obtained in extracts of cell populations by immunoblot analysis, and in cell populations by flow cytometry. Furthermore, with flow cytometry, the cell cycle distribution of a population can be obtained in addition to DSB levels, which is an advantage when studying anti-cancer drugs targeting replicating tumor cells. These described methods are used in genotoxicity assays of compounds of interest or in analyzing DSB repair after exposure to drugs or radiation. Immunocyto/immunohistochemical analysis can detect γ-H2AX foci in individual cells and is very sensitive (a single DSB can be visualized), permitting the use of extremely small samples. Measurements of γ-H2AX focal numbers can reveal subtle changes found in the radiation-induced tissue bystander response, low dose radiation exposure, and in cells with mutations in genomic stability maintenance pathways. In addition, marking DNA DSBs in a nucleus with γ-H2AX is a powerful tool to identify novel DNA repair proteins by their abilities to co-localize with γ-H2AX foci at the DSB site. This chapter presents techniques for γ-H2AX detection in a variety of human and mouse samples.
|Characterization of oxidative guanine damage and repair in mammalian telomeres. |
Wang, Z; Rhee, DB; Lu, J; Bohr, CT; Zhou, F; Vallabhaneni, H; de Souza-Pinto, NC; Liu, Y
PLoS genetics 6 e1000951 2010
8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) are among the most common oxidative DNA lesions and are substrates for 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)-initiated DNA base excision repair (BER). Mammalian telomeres consist of triple guanine repeats and are subject to oxidative guanine damage. Here, we investigated the impact of oxidative guanine damage and its repair by OGG1 on telomere integrity in mice. The mouse cells were analyzed for telomere integrity by telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomere-FISH), by chromosome orientation-FISH (CO-FISH), and by indirect immunofluorescence in combination with telomere-FISH and for oxidative base lesions by Fpg-incision/Southern blot assay. In comparison to the wild type, telomere lengthening was observed in Ogg1 null (Ogg1(-/-)) mouse tissues and primary embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cultivated in hypoxia condition (3% oxygen), whereas telomere shortening was detected in Ogg1(-/-) mouse hematopoietic cells and primary MEFs cultivated in normoxia condition (20% oxygen) or in the presence of an oxidant. In addition, telomere length abnormalities were accompanied by altered telomere sister chromatid exchanges, increased telomere single- and double-strand breaks, and preferential telomere lagging- or G-strand losses in Ogg1(-/-) mouse cells. Oxidative guanine lesions were increased in telomeres in Ogg1(-/-) mice with aging and primary MEFs cultivated in 20% oxygen. Furthermore, oxidative guanine lesions persisted at high level in Ogg1(-/-) MEFs after acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, while they rapidly returned to basal level in wild-type MEFs. These findings indicate that oxidative guanine damage can arise in telomeres where it affects length homeostasis, recombination, DNA replication, and DNA breakage repair. Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining telomere integrity in mammals.
|Phosphorylation of H2AX at short telomeres in T cells and fibroblasts. |
Hao, LY; Strong, MA; Greider, CW
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 45148-54 2004
Eukaryotic cells undergo arrest and enter apoptosis in response to short telomeres. T cells from late generation mTR(-/-) mice that lack telomerase show increased apoptosis when stimulated to enter the cell cycle. The increased apoptosis was not inhibited by colcemid, indicating that the response did not result from breakage of dicentric chromosomes at mitosis. The damage response protein gamma-H2AX localized to telomeres in metaphases from T cells and fibroblasts from mTR(-/-) cells with short telomeres. These data suggest that the major mechanism for induction of apoptosis in late generation mTR(-/-) cells is independent of chromosome segregation and that loss of telomere function through progressive telomere shortening in the absence of telomerase leads to recognition of telomeres as DNA breaks.
|Characterisation of cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by the topoisomerase II-directed bisdioxopiperazine anti-cancer agent ICRF-187 (dexrazoxane) in yeast and mammalian cells. |
Jensen, LH; Dejligbjerg, M; Hansen, LT; Grauslund, M; Jensen, PB; Sehested, M
BMC pharmacology 4 31 2004
Bisdioxopiperazine anti-cancer agents are inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II, sequestering this protein as a non-covalent protein clamp on DNA. It has been suggested that such complexes on DNA represents a novel form of DNA damage to cells. In this report, we characterise the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by the bisdioxopiperazine ICRF-187 by a combination of genetic and molecular approaches. In addition, the well-established topoisomerase II poison m-AMSA is used for comparison.By utilizing a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-gene deletion strains, homologous recombination was identified as the most important DNA repair pathway determining the sensitivity towards ICRF-187. However, sensitivity towards m-AMSA depended much more on this pathway. In contrast, disrupting the post replication repair pathway only affected sensitivity towards m-AMSA. Homologous recombination (HR) defective irs1SF chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells showed increased sensitivity towards ICRF-187, while their sensitivity towards m-AMSA was increased even more. Furthermore, complementation of the XRCC3 deficiency in irs1SF cells fully abrogated hypersensitivity towards both drugs. DNA-PKcs deficient V3-3 CHO cells having reduced levels of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) showed slightly increased sensitivity to both drugs. While exposure of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) OC-NYH cells to m-AMSA strongly induced gammaH2AX, exposure to ICRF-187 resulted in much less induction, showing that ICRF-187 generates fewer DNA double strand breaks than m-AMSA. Accordingly, when yeast cells were exposed to equitoxic concentrations of ICRF-187 and m-AMSA, the expression of DNA damage-inducible genes showed higher levels of induction after exposure to m-AMSA as compared to ICRF-187. Most importantly, ICRF-187 stimulated homologous recombination in SPD8 hamster lung fibroblast cells to lower levels than m-AMSA at all cytotoxicity levels tested, showing that the mechanism of action of bisdioxopiperazines differs from that of classical topoisomerase II poisons in mammalian cells.Our results point to important differences in the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by bisdioxopiperazines and topoisomerase II poisons, and suggest that bisdioxopiperazines kill cells by a combination of DNA break-related and DNA break-unrelated mechanisms.