Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Dr, Po, Sn, Su, M, A Broad Range Of Species||WB, IF, DB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1κ in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 protein is polyglycylated by a tubulin tyrosine ligase-like member and deglycylated by two metallocarboxypeptidases. |
Lalle, Marco, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 286: 4471-84 (2011) 2011
The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a parasite of the upper part of the small intestine of mammals, including humans, and an interesting biological model. Giardia harbors a single 14-3-3 isoform, a multifunctional protein family, that is modified at the C terminus by polyglycylation, an unusual post-translational modification consisting of the covalent addition of one or multiple glycines on the γ-carboxyl groups of specific glutamic acids. Polyglycylation affects the intracellular localization of g14-3-3, as the shortening of the polyglycine chain is correlated with a partial relocalization of 14-3-3 inside the nuclei during encystation. In this work we demonstrate that the gTTLL3, a member of the tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family, is the enzyme responsible for the 14-3-3 polyglycylation. We also identify two metallopeptidases of the M20 family, here termed gDIP1 (giardial dipeptidase 1) and gDIP2, as enzymes able to shorten the g14-3-3 polyglycine tail both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we show that the ectopic expression of gDIP2 alters the g14-3-3 localization and strongly hampers the cyst formation. In conclusion, we have identified a polyglycylase and two deglycylases that act in concert to modulate the stage-dependent glycylation status of the multifunctional regulatory g14-3-3 protein in G. duodenalis.
|Evolutionary divergence of enzymatic mechanisms for posttranslational polyglycylation. |
Rogowski, Krzysztof, et al.
Cell, 137: 1076-87 (2009) 2009
Polyglycylation is a posttranslational modification that generates glycine side chains on proteins. Here we identify a family of evolutionarily conserved glycine ligases that modify tubulin using different enzymatic mechanisms. In mammals, two distinct enzyme types catalyze the initiation and elongation steps of polyglycylation, whereas Drosophila glycylases are bifunctional. We further show that the human elongating glycylase has lost enzymatic activity due to two amino acid changes, suggesting that the functions of protein glycylation could be sufficiently fulfilled by monoglycylation. Depletion of a glycylase in Drosophila using RNA interference results in adult flies with strongly decreased total glycylation levels and male sterility associated with defects in sperm individualization and axonemal maintenance. A more severe RNAi depletion is lethal at early developmental stages, indicating that protein glycylation is essential. Together with the observation that multiple proteins are glycylated, our functional data point towards a general role of glycylation in protein functions.
|TTLL3 Is a tubulin glycine ligase that regulates the assembly of cilia. |
Wloga, Dorota, et al.
Dev. Cell, 16: 867-76 (2009) 2009
In most ciliated cell types, tubulin is modified by glycylation, a posttranslational modification of unknown function. We show that the TTLL3 proteins act as tubulin glycine ligases with chain-initiating activity. In Tetrahymena, deletion of TTLL3 shortened axonemes and increased their resistance to paclitaxel-mediated microtubule stabilization. In zebrafish, depletion of TTLL3 led to either shortening or loss of cilia in several organs, including the Kupffer's vesicle and olfactory placode. We also show that, in vivo, glutamic acid and glycine ligases oppose each other, likely by competing for shared modification sites on tubulin. We propose that tubulin glycylation regulates the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules and acts either directly or indirectly by inhibiting tubulin glutamylation.
|Tubulin polyglycylation: differential posttranslational modification of dynamic cytoplasmic and stable axonemal microtubules in paramecium. |
Bré, M H, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 9: 2655-65 (1998) 1998
Polyglycylation, a posttranslational modification of tubulin, was discovered in the highly stable axonemal microtubules of Paramecium cilia where it involves the lateral linkage of up to 34 glycine units per tubulin subunit. The observation of this type of posttranslational modification mainly in axonemes raises the question as to its relationship with axonemal organization and with microtubule stability. This led us to investigate the glycylation status of cytoplasmic microtubules that correspond to the dynamic microtubules in Paramecium. Two anti-glycylated tubulin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), TAP 952 and AXO 49, are shown here to exhibit different affinities toward mono- and polyglycylated synthetic tubulin peptides. Using immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, we show that cytoplasmic tubulin is glycylated. In contrast to the highly glycylated axonemal tubulin, which is recognized by the two mAbs, cytoplasmic tubulin reacts exclusively with TAP 952, and the alpha- and beta- tubulin subunits are modified by only 1-5 and 2-9 glycine units, respectively. Our analyses suggest that most of the cytoplasmic tubulin contains side chain lengths of 1 or 2 glycine units distributed on several glycylation sites. The subcellular partition of distinct polyglycylated tubulin isoforms between cytoplasmic and axonemal compartments implies the existence of regulatory mechanisms for glycylation. By following axonemal tubulin immunoreactivity with anti-glycylated tubulin mAbs upon incubation with a Paramecium cellular extract, the presence of a deglycylation enzyme is revealed in the cytoplasm of this organism. These observations establish that polyglycylation is reversible and indicate that, in vivo, an equilibrium between glycylating and deglycylating enzymes might be responsible for the length of the oligoglycine side chains of tubulin.
|Axonemal tubulin polyglycylation probed with two monoclonal antibodies: widespread evolutionary distribution, appearance during spermatozoan maturation and possible function in motility. |
Bré, M H, et al.
J. Cell. Sci., 109 ( Pt 4): 727-38 (1996) 1996
Two monoclonal antibodies, AXO 49 and TAP 952, probed with carboxy-terminal peptides from Paramecium axonemal tubulin and with polyglycylated synthetic peptides, are found to recognize differently tubulin polyglycylation, the most recently identified posttranslational modification discovered in Paramecium axonemal tubulin. With these antibodies, we show that tubulin polyglycylation is widely distributed in organisms ranging from ciliated protozoa to mammals; it arose early in the course of evolution, but seems to be absent in primitive protozoa such as the Euglenozoa. Tubulin polyglycylation is the last posttranslational modification which takes place in the course of Drosophila spermatogenesis and its occurrence corresponds to the end of spermatozoan maturation. An involvement of polyglycylated tubulin in axoneme motility is suggested since AXO 49 and TAP 952 specifically inhibit the reactivated motility of sea urchin spermatozoa.
|A massive new posttranslational modification occurs on axonemal tubulin at the final step of spermatogenesis in Drosophila. |
Bressac, C, et al.
Eur. J. Cell Biol., 67: 346-55 (1995) 1995
Using two antibodies raised against Paramecium axonemal tubulin, a monoclonal antibody, AXO 49 (Callen et al., Biol. Cell 81, 95-119 (1994)), and a polyclonal antibody, PAT (Cohen et al., Biol. Cell 44, 35-44 (1982)), which have been shown elsewhere to detect a new posttranslational modification of tubulin presumably corresponding to polyglycylation, we have analyzed the occurrence of this modification during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. Results obtained by immunofluorescence on cysts isolated by laceration of testes showed that the antibodies reacted on axonemal microtubules of several species within the genus. Observation of different stages of differentiation of D. obscura sperm cells indicated, first, that the epitopes reactive with both antibodies appeared at late stages, and secondly, that they were detected simultaneously along all axonemes within a cyst. Immunofluorescence on semithin sections and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry on ultrathin sections confirmed that the appearance of the epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody occurred at the time of the individualization process of spermatids in D. melanogaster. These results indicate that the posttranslational modification occurs as a very late event, after complete assembly of axonemal microtubules, and that the axonemal tubulin becomes modified when axonemal microtubules become coupled with the membrane, suggesting that the modification may in some way be induced by the microtubule-membrane interaction.
|Isolation and characterization of libraries of monoclonal antibodies directed against various forms of tubulin in Paramecium. |
Callen, A M, et al.
Biol. Cell, 81: 95-119 (1994) 1994
Ciliates are very good models for studying post-translationally generated tubulin heterogeneity because they exhibit highly differentiated microtubular networks in combination with reduced genetic diversity. We have approached the analysis of tubulin heterogeneity in Paramecium through extensive isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies using various antigens and several immunization protocols. Eight monoclonal antibodies and 10 hybridoma supernatants were characterized by: i) immunoblotting on ciliate and pig brain tubulins as well as on peptide maps of Paramecium axonemal tubulin; ii) immunoblotting on ciliate tubulin fusion peptides generated in E coli, a procedure which allows in principle to discriminate antibodies that are directed against tubulin sequence (reactive on fusion peptides) from those directed against a post-translational epitope (non-reactive); and iii) immunofluorescence on Paramecium, 3T3 and PtK2 cells. Twelve antibodies labeled all microtubules in Paramecium cells and were found to be directed against tubulin primary sequences (nine of them being located in the alpha N-terminal domain, one in the beta C-terminal one, and two in alpha and beta central stretches). The remaining ones decorated only a specific subset of microtubules within the cell and were presumably directed against post-translational modifications. Among these, three antibodies are directed against an N-terminal acetylated epitope of alpha-tubulin whereas the epitopes of three other ones (TAP 952 degrees, AXO 58 and AXO 49 degrees) apparently correspond to still unidentified post-translational modifications, located in the C-terminal domain of both alpha- and beta-tubulins. The AXO 49 degrees specificity is similar to that of a previously described polyclonal serum raised against Paramecium axonemal tubulin . The results are discussed in terms of identification and accessibility of the epitopes and immunogenicity of ciliate tubulin with reference to mammalian and ciliate tubulin sequences.
|Polyglycylation of tubulin: a posttranslational modification in axonemal microtubules. |
Redeker, V, et al.
Science, 266: 1688-91 (1994) 1994
A posttranslational modification was detected in the carboxyl-terminal region of axonemal tubulin from Paramecium. Tubulin carboxyl-terminal peptides were isolated and analyzed by Edman degradation sequencing, mass spectrometry, and amino acid analysis. All of the peptides, derived from both alpha and beta tubulin subunits, were modified by polyglycylation, containing up to 34 glycyl units covalently bound to the gamma carboxyl group of glutamyl residues. This modification, present in one of the most stable microtubular systems, may influence microtubule stability or axoneme function, or both.
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