|Msi1 promotes tumor growth and cell proliferation by targeting cell cycle checkpoint proteins p21, p27 and p53 in cervical carcinomas.|
Liu, X; Yang, WT; Zheng, PS
Musashi RNA-binding protein1 (Msi1), a member of the RNA-binding protein family, has been reported to be a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target in some cancers, its function in cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, we found Msi1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues, and over-expressing Msi1 in cervical cancer cells enhanced tumor formation and cell proliferation and accelerated cells into the S phase. Whereas, down-regulating Msi1 by shRNA in cervical cancer cells inhibited tumor formation and cell proliferation and slowed cell into the S phase, suggesting that Msi1 might act as cell cycle regulator. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the negative correlation between Msi1 and p21, p27 and p53, suggesting that Msi1 might regulate these cycle regulators in cervical cancer. Moreover, the expression of the p21, p27 and p53 proteins were down-regulated in Msi1 overexpressing cervical cancer cells and up-regulated in shMsi1 cervical cancer cells. Luciferase assays and RNA-protein binding assays confirmed that Msi1 could bind to the mRNA 3'UTRs of p21, p27 and p53 and suppress the translation of these proteins. Our findings provide new evidence that Msi1 might promote cell proliferation by accelerating the cell cycle by directly targeting p21, p27 and p53.
|Patches of mutant p53-immunoreactive epidermal cells induced by chronic UVB Irradiation harbor the same p53 mutations as squamous cell carcinomas in the skin of hairless SKH-1 mice.|
Kramata, Pavel, et al.
Cancer Res., 65: 3577-85 (2005)
Treatment of SKH-1 hairless mice with UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) twice a week for 20 weeks results in the formation of cellular patches, long before the appearance of tumors, that are visualized in epidermal sheets with an antibody (PAb240) recognizing mutated p53 protein. Direct sequencing analysis of the whole coding region of the p53 gene (exons 2-11) detected one or two mutations in 64.4% of 104 analyzed patches and no mutations in nonstained adjacent normal controls. Homozygous mutation was detected in 22.4% of the mutant patches. Except for two nonsense mutations, all others were missense (exons 4-9) and mostly (95.5%) at the DNA-binding domain. Primer extension analysis of cloned PCR fragments found three of four double-mutated patches harboring different mutations in separate alleles. All mutation hotspots reported earlier in UVB-induced mouse squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) at codons 270 (Arg --> Cys), 149 (Pro --> Ser), 275 (Pro --> Leu and Pro --> Ser), and 176 (His --> Tyr) with a frequency of 32.1%, 7.1%, 14.7%, and 3.2% were detected in epidermal patches at a frequency 47.7%, 9.1%, 4.5%, and 2.3%, respectively. Mutations at codons 210 and 191 found in patches at respective frequencies of 8.0% and 4.5% were not previously detected in UVB-induced mouse SCC. In summary, (a) the p53 mutation profile of UVB-induced skin patches and SCC was very similar suggesting that patches are precursor lesions for SCC, (b) a small number of patches harbored mutations that were not before observed in SCC from UVB-treated mice, and (c) about 36% of the patches did not harbor a p53 mutation.
|Ras-induced hyperplasia occurs with mutation of p53, but activated ras and myc together can induce carcinoma without p53 mutation.|
Lu, X, et al.
Cell, 70: 153-61 (1992)
Using a reconstituted mouse prostate organ, the effects on endogenous p53 expression of the ras oncogene or of the ras + myc oncogenes were investigated. In this system the ras gene alone causes mild hyperplasia, but the combination of ras and myc leads to the formation of carcinomas. Surprisingly, while p53 mutations were found in cells derived from the reconstituted organs containing ras alone, no such mutations were found in the ras + myc-transformed cells. Their growth, unlike that of the cells containing ras alone, was not inhibited by transfection with plasmids encoding wild-type human p53. We suggest that expression of both activated ras and myc genes bypasses the need for p53 mutation by neutralizing the tumor suppressor activity of normal p53.
|Expression of HLA-A,B,C antigens on primary and metastatic tumor cell populations of human carcinomas.|
Cordon-Cardo, C, et al.
Cancer Res., 51: 6372-80 (1991)
The expression of monomorphic determinants of the histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I antigens by human malignant tumor cells was studied in tissue specimens of 70 primary tumor lesions obtained from patients with carcinoma of the breast (41 patients), colon (8 patients), urinary bladder (8 patients), and kidney (13 patients), and in samples of either synchronous or metachronous lymph node, lung, or liver metastases available in 44 of the patients. The frequencies of HLA class I expressor and nonexpressor tumor cells were determined by immunohistochemical staining of histological sections of fresh frozen tissue samples with the W6/32 monoclonal antibody. The tumor cell populations in the majority of the primary lesions consisted predominantly of HLA-immunoreactive cells (observed in 38 of 70 patients; 54%), especially in those patients who did not have clinical evidence of metastatic disease (8 of 11 patients; 73%). Various degrees of loss of reactivity were observed in other primary lesions, although in only 8 (12%) tumors (7 of which were obtained from patients with metastatic disease), the neoplastic cells were nearly exclusively HLA-nonreactive. In contrast, the majority of metastatic lesions consisted of either predominantly HLA-negative cells (33 of 44 specimens; 75%) or mixed populations (10 of 44 specimens; 23%), whereas only one metastatic lesion manifested HLA class I antigen staining in more than 70% of its tumor cells (P = 0.0005). Intravascular clusters of tumor cells consisted predominantly of HLA class I nonexpressors. The observed patterns of distribution of HLA expressors and nonexpressor tumor cells are compatible with the notion that HLA-negative cells in human carcinomas manifest a selective advantage with regard to metastatic progression and growth. The suppressed expression of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens on metastatic cells may lead to failure of presentation of cell surface tumor specific epitopes to host cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Such a process would enable tumor cells to evade host immune responses and would promote and enhance cell dissemination and metastatic growth.